Jovan Monasterlija

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Jovan Monasterlija
Jovan Monasterlija.jpg
Born 1660s
Komorn, Habsburg Monarchy (modern Slovakia)
Died 1706
Großwardein, Habsburg Monarchy (modern Romania)
Allegiance Holy Roman Empire (Leopold I)
Years of service fl. 1683–1706
Rank Vice-voivode (podvojvoda)
General
Unit Serbian Militia
Battles/wars

Jovan Monasterlija (Serbian Cyrillic: Јован Монастерлија;[a] fl. 1683–1706) was a Serbian vice-voivode[1] (podvojvoda) and Austrian (Holy Roman Empire) imperial officer that led a Serb army against the Ottoman Empire and other enemies of the Austrian Emperor. He was titled leader of the Serbian nation by Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I.

Early life[edit]

The Monasterlija (or Manastirlija) family gained nobility status from Emperor Ferdinand III in 1665, when Petar Monasterlija was ennobled.[2] The family had settled Komorn County in 1606 from Srpski Kovin (Ráckeve), possibly originally from Monastir (Bitola), hence his epithet "Monasterlija" (Turkish: Monastirli, of Monastir). Jovan was born in Komorn, the son of Petar.

Career[edit]

1688–92[edit]

Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria, led the capture of Belgrade in 1688 from the Ottomans, with the full support of Serbian insurgents under the command of Monasterlija. Between 1689 and 1692, central parts of present-day Serbia were controlled by the Habsburg crown. In 1689 Monasterlija was sent to defend Golubac.

In 1689 Louis William was appointed as chief commander of the Imperial army in its invasion of the territory of present-day Serbia.[3] Before the invasion Louis William recruited Serb rebels all over territory of present-day Serbia, whose infantry units were called hayduks while cavalry units of Serb rebels were called Serb husars.[4] On August 29, 1689 Serbian Militia under the command of Pavle Nestorović Deak as a vanguard unit of the Habsburg army were victorious against a vanguard unit of the Ottoman army during the Battle of Batočina.[5]

Jovan Monasterlija, who was appointed as captain of Serbian Militia in 1690, recruited Serbs into his units in the summer of 1690 on the southern border of the Austrian Empire.[6] The Austrian retreat from Kosovo prompted the Great Migration of the Serbs, under the leadership of Serbian Patriarch Arsenije III. On 11 April 1691, he was appointed the commander of the Serbian Militia (which came to be known as "Monasterlija's Serbs"[7]), after Serbs demanded their own leaders while going to battle. His command was of more than 10,000 volunteer Serb soldiers, and was to be under the direct supervision of the Aulic War Council.[8] The Serbian soldiers were highly regarded by Leopold. During the Battle of Slankamen on August 19, 1691, Serbian Militia with 10,000 Serbs under the command of Jovan Monasterlija participated in the important victory over Ottoman forces.[6] When Austrian forces supported by Serbian Militia captured Oradea from Ottomans in the spring of 1692, the seat of the Serbian Militia's headquarter became Baja.[6]

1692–99[edit]

The Austrian Empire had intentions to reduce the power and importance of Serbian Militia and its military and religious leaders by dividing it to smaller units and sending them to different distant parts of the Empire. Monasterlija's rank was changed from Serbian vice-voivode and Chief of the Serbian Nation to Rascian obercaptain.[when?][6] Because of the constant Ottoman threat such plans were never fully implemented.

He commanded forces during the battle of Senta (11 September 1697). After the wars he gained overlordship of the Petrovaradin fortress, and was appointed to overlook the building of a pontoon bridge over the Danube. He retired after the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699 and was given land by Leopold.

1703–06[edit]

He was nevertheless sent to fight off the uprising of Francis II Rákóczi against the Habsburgs in 1703. He succeeded and was given the title of general. Leopold, just before his death, gave Jovan the task of integrating the Serb units into the regular Austrian army. He died from wounds sustained during the siege of Oradea. He died in 1706 and was buried in Šišatovac, where his tomb lays, with the coat of arms of the family.[9]

Aftermath[edit]

Monasterlija was the only Vice-Voivode; his successor, captain Mojsije Rašković was appointed "Oberst der serbischen National-Miliz" on July 8, 1707.[10]

Titles[edit]

  • "Anführer und Commandant der serbischen National-Miliz"[10]
  • Vice-General or Vice-Voivode (de. Vice-Wojwode,[10] sr. podvojvoda or nadvojvoda), in 1691
  • Captain, in 1690

Family[edit]

He was married to Ana Rašković, a member of the Rašković family.

Legacy[edit]

Jovan contributed to the Fruška Gora monasteries.[11]

See also[edit]

  • Antonije Znorić (—1695), a military commander of Serbian Militia
  • Vuk Isakovič (fl. 1696–1759), Serbian military commander in Austrian service
Military offices
Preceded by
?
Vice-Voivode, commander of the Serbian Militia
11 April 1691—1706
Succeeded by
Mojsije Rašković

Annotations[edit]

  1. ^ His Serbian name is Jovan Monasterlija, other variations are Manastirlija, while in German; Johann Monasterli. His father was Petar, hence, according to the contemporary naming culture, his name was Jovan Petrović.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ćirković 2004, p. 144
  2. ^ Dušan J. Popović (1990). Srbi u Vojvodini 2. Matica srpska. p. 171. Породица Монастерлија (Манастирлија) до- била је племство од цара Фердинанда III. Племство је добио 1665. Петар Монастерлија, за себе, и своје наследнике и за своју браћу Урбана и Ди- митрија. 
  3. ^ Tanić, Dejan (2005), Војно-стратешки значај средњег поморавља у Бечком Рату (1683-1699) (PDF) (in Serbian), Istorijski Arhiv Jagodine, p. 74, retrieved 14 December 2011, Одлучан поход хабсбуршке војске кроз Србију уследио је после постављења фелдмаршала Лудвига Баденског за главнокомандујућег царске војске на балканском ратишту. 
  4. ^ Tanić, Dejan (2005), Војно-стратешки значај средњег поморавља у Бечком Рату (1683-1699) (PDF) (in Serbian), Istorijski Arhiv Jagodine, p. 74, retrieved 14 December 2011, Пре поласка у поход, Лудвиг Баденски је по целој Србији разаслао прогласе, којима је позивао народ да се диже на оружје. Српски устаници били су организовани у чете и додељивани редовној војсци. Аустријанци су ове српске ратнике (пешадинце) називали хајдуцима, док су коњанике називали српским хусарима. 
  5. ^ Tanić, Dejan (2005), Војно-стратешки значај средњег поморавља у Бечком Рату (1683-1699) (PDF) (in Serbian), Istorijski Arhiv Jagodine, p. 73, retrieved 14 December 2011, Претходницу је чинила Српска милиција (хусари), под командом капетана Павла Несторивића Деака. У судару две претходнице, 29. августа 1689. године, код Баточине, Турци су били поражени и потиснути ка својој главнини. 
  6. ^ a b c d Cerović, Ljubivoje (1997), Srbi u Slovačkoj, OCLC 163390979, retrieved 22 December 2011, Jovan Monasterlija se nalazio na južnoj granici, gde je od proleća 1690. godine prikupljao srpsku vojsku. Odatle je..., najavio svoj skori dolazak u Budim na čelu srpske vojske, pošto je neposredno pre toga imenovan za rackog, odnosno srpskog kapetana. [...] Hrišćanska vojska se u blizini Slankamena našla nasuprot turskoj 19. avgusta 1691. godine. ... U odlučujući juriš na Turke prvi je krenuo Jovan Monasterlija na čelu srpske vojske. [...] Već na proleće 1692. godine, srpska vojska je pod vođstvom Jovana Monasterlije upućena prema Velikom Varadinu, kako bi pomogla da ovo utvrđenje konačno padne u ruke carske vojske. Posle ove bitke, komandno mesto Srpske milicije postala je Baja. [...] Dvor je najpre oduzeo ingerencije Monasterliji. Od "vicegubernatora srpskog plemena" Monasterlija je sve više postajao "racki oberkapetan". 
  7. ^ Летопис Матице српске. 247–252. У Српској народној задружној штампарији. 1908. p. 45. Али те трупе звале се још дуго Монастерлијини Раци 
  8. ^ Rice University (1978). Austrian history yearbook, Volume 12–13. p. 118. 
  9. ^ Dragomir Acović (2008), "Grb Monasterlija sa razbijene nadgrobne ploče vojvode Jovana Monasterlije u manastiru Šišatovac", Srbi i heraldika, Beograd, pp. 382–383 
  10. ^ a b c J. H. Schwicker (2011). Politische Geschichte Der Serben in Ungarn. BoD – Books on Demand. pp. 30–. ISBN 978-3-86382-228-6. 
  11. ^ Kulić, Branka; Srećkov, Nedeljka (1994). The monasteries of the Fruška Gora. 

Sources[edit]