Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper

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JIRAM
JIRAM data on Jupiter's southern lights, September 2016
Jovian "Hotspot" in visible (top) and near infrared (bottom) from a previous mission.

Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) is an instrument on the Juno spacecraft in orbit of the planet Jupiter. It is an image spectrometer and was contributed by Italy.[1] Similar instruments are on ESA Rosetta, Venus Express, and Cassini-Huygens missions.[1] The primary goal of JIRAM is to probe the upper layers of Jupiter's atmosphere down to pressures of 5–7 bars (72–102 pound/square inch) at infrared wavelengths in the 2–5 μm interval using an imager and a spectrometer.[1] Jupiter's "hot spots" and auroral regions are targeted for study.[2] It is designed to study the dynamics and chemistry in the atmosphere, perhaps determining the how Jovian hot spots form.[3]

It is hoped H+
3
ions, ammonia, and phosphine can be mapped.[4] The ion of Hydrogen H+
3
is rare on Earth, but is one of the most common ions in the universe and known as protonated molecular hydrogen or the trihydrogen cation.[5]

Despite the intense magnetosphere of Jupiter, the JIRAM is expected to be operational for at least the first eight orbits.[6]

Previously Jupiter was observed by an Infrared imaging spectrometer called NIMS (Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer) on the Galileo Jupiter orbiter.[7] JIRAM was used to observe Earth during its flyby en route to Jupiter.[8] These observations were used to help calibrate the instrument, and the lunar observations were actually a critical planned step in preparing the instrument for observations at Jupiter.[9]

On August 27, 2016, JIRAM observed Jupiter at infrared wavelengths.[10] The first science observation was actually Earth's Moon in October 2013.[11]

JIRAM was started by Professor Angioletta Coradini, however she died in 2011.[12] The instrument was developed at the Institute of the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics and was funded by the Italian Space Agency.[13]

Specifications[edit]

  • Mass: 8 kg (17.6 pounds, 1.259 stones) [14]
  • Max power use:16.7 watts[14]
  • Observation range: 2-5 micron wavelength light[14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Juno - Spacecraft: Instruments - JIRAM". Juno.wisc.edu. 2008-10-23. Retrieved 2016-02-17. 
  2. ^ Adriani, A; Coradini, A; Filacchione, G; Lunine, JI; Bini, A; Pasqui, C; Calamai, L; Colosimo, F; Dinelli, BM; Grassi, D; Magni, G; Moriconi, ML; Orosei, R (2015-09-28). "JIRAM, the image spectrometer in the near infrared on board the Juno mission to Jupiter.". Astrobiology. 8 (3): 613–22. doi:10.1089/ast.2007.0167. PMID 18680411. 
  3. ^ Adriani, Alberto; Coradini, Angioletta; Filacchione, Gianrico; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Bini, Alessandro; Pasqui, Claudio; Calamai, Luciano; Colosimo, Fedele; Dinelli, Bianca M. (2008-06-01). "JIRAM, the image spectrometer in the near infrared on board the Juno mission to Jupiter". Astrobiology. 8 (3): 613–622. doi:10.1089/ast.2007.0167. ISSN 1557-8070. PMID 18680411. 
  4. ^ P. Irwin (2009). "Giant Planets of Our Solar System: Atmospheres, Composition, and Structure". Books.google.com. p. 352. 
  5. ^ Carrington, Alan; R. McNab, Iain (1989). "The infrared predissociation spectrum of triatomic hydrogen cation (H3+)". Accounts of Chemical Research. 22 (6): 218–222. doi:10.1021/ar00162a004. 
  6. ^ "Understanding Juno's Orbit: An Interview with NASA's Scott Bolton". Universe Today. Retrieved 6 February 2016. 
  7. ^ "About Jiram | INAF-IAPS". www.iaps.inaf.it. Retrieved 2017-02-07. 
  8. ^ "Juno's Earth flyby: the Jovian infrared Auroral Mapper preliminary results | ISAC - CNR". www.isac.cnr.it. Retrieved 2017-02-07. 
  9. ^ Adriani, A.; Moriconi, M. L.; Mura, A.; Tosi, F.; Sindoni, G.; Noschese, R.; Cicchetti, A.; Filacchione, G. (2016-08-01). "Juno's Earth flyby: the Jovian infrared Auroral Mapper preliminary results". Astrophysics and Space Science. 361: 272. Bibcode:2016Ap&SS.361..272A. doi:10.1007/s10509-016-2842-9. ISSN 0004-640X. 
  10. ^ "Juno Captures Jupiter's Glow in Infrared Light". www.jpl.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2017-02-07. 
  11. ^ Adriani, A.; Moriconi, M. L.; Mura, A.; Tosi, F.; Sindoni, G.; Noschese, R.; Cicchetti, A.; Filacchione, G. (2016-07-19). "Juno's Earth flyby: the Jovian infrared Auroral Mapper preliminary results". Astrophysics and Space Science. 361 (8): 272. Bibcode:2016Ap&SS.361..272A. doi:10.1007/s10509-016-2842-9. ISSN 0004-640X. 
  12. ^ Adriani, Alberto; Filacchione, Gianrico; Iorio, Tatiana Di; Turrini, Diego; Noschese, Raffaella; Cicchetti, Andrea; Grassi, Davide; Mura, Alessandro; Sindoni, Giuseppe (2014-10-01). "JIRAM, the Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper". Space Science Reviews: 1–54. doi:10.1007/s11214-014-0094-y. ISSN 0038-6308. 
  13. ^ "Jiram team | INAF-IAPS". www.iaps.inaf.it. Retrieved 2017-02-07. 
  14. ^ a b c "Instrument Overview – Juno". spaceflight101.com. Retrieved 2017-02-07. 

External links[edit]