A Joyous Entry (Blijde Intrede, Blijde Inkomst, or Blijde Intocht in Dutch, Joyeuse Entrée in French) is the official name used for the ceremonial royal entry — the first official peaceable visit of a reigning monarch, prince, duke or governor into a city — mainly in the Duchy of Brabant or the County of Flanders and occasionally in France, Luxembourg or Hungary, usually coinciding with recognition by the monarch of the rights or privileges to the city, and sometimes accompanied by an extension of them.
The most recent Joyous Entries took place in 2013 in honour of the Belgian king.
A Joyous Entry is a particular form of, and title for, the general phenomenon of ceremonial entries into cities by rulers or their representatives, which were celebrated with enormous pageantry and festivities throughout Europe from at least the late Middle Ages on. The leading artists available designed temporary decorated constructions such as triumphal arches, groups of musicians and actors performed on stands at which the procession halted, the houses on the processional route decorated themselves with hangings, flowers were thrown, and fountains flowed with wine. The custom began in the Middle Ages and continued until the French Revolution, although less often in Protestant counties after the Reformation. A formal first visit to a city by an inheritor of the throne of Belgium upon his accession and since 1900 for a crown prince upon his marriage, is still referred to as a "Joyous Entry", a reminder of this tradition of the rule of law.
Charter of liberties
In the Duchy of Brabant the term Joyous Entry was also applied to the charter of liberties that a new ruler was obliged to swear to uphold upon their formal first reception, dating back to the Joyous Entry of 1356. One of the functions of the Council of Brabant was to ensure that new legislation did not contravene or abrogate the liberties established in the Joyous Entry.
Kingdom of Belgium
In Belgium this ceremonial reception of the new sovereign has continued since 1830. Ceremonial entries are performed by the new royal couple in the capitals of the provinces after the installation of the King. The same goes for the Duke of Brabant, who after his marriage presents the new duchess of Brabant to the public. The most recent Joyous Entries were organised in honour of King Philippe and Queen Mathilde in 2013.
Some notable Joyous Entries
- In 1356, the Joyous Entry into Brussels, by Joanna and her husband Wenceslaus I, Duke of Luxembourg, upon her becoming Duchess of Brabant on the death of her father John the Triumphant.
- In 1407?, a Joyous Entry, by John the Fearless.
- In 142?, a Joyous Entry, by Philip the Good.
- In 1464, the Joyous Entry into Sopron, by King Matthias of Hungary — atypically mainly celebrating the return of the object of the Crown.
- In 1467, the (not so very) 'Joyous' Entry into Ghent, by Charles the Bold.
- In 1468, the Joyous Entry into Bruges, by Charles the Bold and Margaret of York.
- In 1478, the Joyous Entry into Antwerp, by Maximilian of Austria.
- In 1493?, the Joyous Entry into Mechelen, by Maximilian of Austria (and his young daughter Margarete)
- In 1496, the Joyous Entry into Brussels, by Joanna the Mad.
- In 1501, a tour of Joyous Entries throughout Hainaut, Picardy, Île-de-France, Champagne, Burgundy and Franche-Comté, by Philibert II, Duke of Savoy and Margarete of Austria upon their marriage, and the following year into Bourg-en-Bresse.
- In 1507, the Joyous Entry into Mechelen, by Philibert's widow Margarete, returning as Regent of the Low Countries.
- In 1515, the Joyous Entries into Bruges, Ghent, Antwerp, and Leiden, by young Prince Charles.
- In 1520, the Joyous Entry into Bruges, by young King Charles
- In 1548, the Joyous Entry into Lyon, by Henri II of Valois.
- In 1549, a series of Joyous Entries into the Low Countries by Charles V and his son Philip II of Spain in (among other cities) Antwerp, Brussels and Bruges.
- In 1550, the Joyous Entry into Rouen, by Henri II of Valois.
- In 1561?, the (not so very) Joyous Entry into Mechelen, by Granvelle, as Archbishop.
- In 1577, the (not so very) 'Joyous' Entry into Brussels, by Don John, as Governor of the Spanish Netherlands.
- In 1578, the Joyous Entry into Brussels, by Prince Matthias, later the Magnificent.
- In 1582, the Joyous Entry into Antwerp, Bruges, and Ghent, by François, Duke of Anjou.
- In 1594, the Joyous Entry into Brussels and Antwerp, by Archduke Ernest of Austria
- In 1599–1600, a tour of Joyous Entries into Leuven, Brussels, Mechlin, Antwerp, Ghent, Bruges, Tournai, etc., by Archduke Albert and the Infanta Isabella.
- In 1635, the Joyous Entry by the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand into Antwerp (decorations designed by Gaspar Gevartius, Theodoor van Thulden and Rubens) and Ghent.
- In 1891, the Joyous Entry into Luxembourg, by Grand Duke Adolphe and his wife Adelheid.
- Encyclopædia Britannica — Joyeuse Entrée
- Bell & Hawell Information and Leaming: Margaret of Austria and Brou: Habsburg Political Patronage in Savoy thesis submitted by Deanna MacDonald, Department of Art History and Archaeology, McGilf University, Montreal (pdf file)
- University of Leiden: Self-Representation of Court and City in Flanders and Brabant in the Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Centuries, by Wim Blockmans & Esther Donckers Archived 2007-07-26 at the Wayback Machine. (pdf file)
- The Project Gutenberg EBook Holland, The History of the Netherlands by Thomas Colley Grattan
- Museum of the World Ocean — The thirtieth anniversary of the international conferences (schools) for marine geology Archived 2006-09-25 at the Wayback Machine.
- (in Dutch) Nieuwsbank interactief Nederlands persbureau
- D. De Stobbeleir, "Verzet tegen de hervormingen van Jozef II en de staatsgreep van 18 juni 1789", tr. M. Erkens, in Doorheen de nationale geschiedenis (State Archives in Belgium, Brussels, 1980), pp. 262–267.
- De Blijde Intredes van Filip en Mathilde, De Standaard, 23 July 2013.
- CRW Flags — Brabant (Former province, Belgium)
- (in Dutch) VRTtaal.net Blijde Inkomst (Language site by the official public TV broadcaster)
- (in Dutch) University of Leiden: Vlaanderen 1384–1482, by W.P. Blockmans Archived 2007-07-26 at the Wayback Machine. (pdf file)
- (in Dutch) Dissertations University of Groningen: De Hongaarse heilige kroon (The Hungarian Sacred Crown) (pdf file)
- presentation of a university conference, see: LA Williams Andrews Clark Library Conference The political culture of the revolt of the Netherlands, 1566–1648, October 7–8 2005 (draft) by Marc Boone (University of Ghent)
- The Project Gutenberg EBook Charles the Bold, Last Duke of Burgundy, by Ruth Putnam Archived 2006-05-05 at the Wayback Machine.
- "whips and angels, Painting on Cloth in the Mediaeval Period" by Barbara Gordon Archived 2007-01-24 at the Wayback Machine.
- (in Dutch)[series Joos De Rijcke: Margaretha van Oostenrijk of van Savoye, mentioning sources DEBAE 1987, Kocken 1981, DE IONGH 1981]
- (in Dutch) Tertio, Christian weekly journal, 297 p. 11 – 2005-10-19: Stad in vorstelijke vrouwenhanden – Mechelse Margareta’s by Sabine Alexander
- University of Utrecht – C.M.M.E. — A Choirbook for Henry VIII and his Sisters ed. Theodor Dumitrescu
- De Divisiekroniek van 1517, republished Amsterdam 2003, Editor: Karin Tilmans Archived 2007-02-04 at the Wayback Machine. (pdf file)
- British Library — Festivals in Valois France
- "Kuyper,W. The Triumphant Entry of Renaissance architecture into the Netherlands. The Joyeuse Entrée of Philip of Spain into Antwerp in 1549. Renaissance and Mannerist architecture in the Low Countries from 1530 to 1630, Alphen aan de Rijn, 1994."
- Bussels, S. "The Antwerp Entry of Prince Philip in 1549. Rhetoric, Performance and Power", Amsterdam - New York, 2012.
- American Presbyterian Church: Duchess Margaret I, part 2, chapter 2 Opposition to Philip and Cardinal Granvelle in the Netherlands Archived 2007-07-08 at the Wayback Machine.
- University of Mannheim site: The Cambridge Modern History, planned by Lord Acton, ed. by Adolphus W. Ward. Cambridge: Univ. Press volume III, chapter XV Spain under Philip II by Martin Hume, of the Royal Spanish Academy
- (in Dutch) municipality of Willebroek, Flanders, Belgium: history Belgium and the Netherlands, year 1578 Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine.
- Catholic University of Leuven, Justus Lipsius: Philologist, Philosopher and Political Theorist Archived 2007-04-09 at the Wayback Machine.
- site of the Cathedral of St. Michael and St. Gudula (Brussels) — National events
- (in Dutch) dbnl (digital library for Dutch literature), Leiden: De weerliicke liefden tot Roose-mond, Justus de Harduwijn, edition O. Dambre, p. 11, 12
- Albert & Isabella's Virtual Tour – Joyous Entry Archived 2007-07-08 at the Wayback Machine.
- JSTOR A lost oil scetch by Rubens rediscovered: "Entry of the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand into the city of Antwerp in I635"
- Ferdinand Receives the Keys of the City from the Virgin of Ghent at the Rijksmuseum (in Dutch)
- Luxembourg Medals – 1891. Grand Duke Adolphe and Grand Duchess Adelheid