Juan Hernández Saravia
|Juan Hernández Saravia|
Ledesma, Salamanca, Kingdom of Spain
|Died||3 May 1962 (aged 81–82)
|Allegiance|| Kingdom of Spain (1897–1931)
Spanish Republic (1931–1933, 1936–1939)
Spanish Republican Army
|Years of service||1897–1933
|Commands held||Southern Army (1936)
Levantine Army (1937)
Eastern Region Army Group (1938-1939)
Hernández Saravia was born into a bourgeois family, and continued a family tradition by enrolling at the artillery school in 1897. He opposed the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera. He was the chief of Azaña's military staff and worked as general co-ordinator to the minister of war. In August 1936 he was appointed minister of war, but was dismised following the fall of Talavera in September.
After Catalonia became an isolated enclave following the rebel Aragon Offensive in the spring of 1938, Hernández Saravia commanded the Eastern Region Army Group (Grupo de Ejércitos de la Región Oriental) and led the Republican Army during the overwhelming Francoist Catalonia campaign. Following the Fall of Barcelona on 27 January, Juan Hernández Saravia was relieved of his duties as leader of the Eastern Region Army Group, allegedly for his "defeatism" (derrotismo), but the real motives went far deeper. General Hernández Saravia had fallen from grace because his views had often conflicted with those of the Chief of the General Staff of the Central Region, Vicente Rojo, and the President of the Council of Ministers, Juan Negrín. Hernández Saravia had tried to replace Juan Modesto, the head of the Ebro Army, whom he saw as self-important and not up to the mark and hand over the command to Juan Perea, the more competent commander of the Eastern Army, but Modesto was protected by the highest leaders of the doomed Spanish Republic.
- Eastern Region Army Group (GERO)
- Thomas, Hugh. (2001). The Spanish Civil War. Penguin Books. London. p. 307.
- Thomas, Hugh. (2001). The Spanish Civil War. Penguin Books. London. p. 363
- Thomas, Hugh. (2001). The Spanish Civil War. Penguin Books. London. p. 750.
- Beevor, Antony. (2006). The Battle for Spain. The Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939. Penguin Books. London. p. 319
- Thomas, Hugh. (2001). The Spanish Civil War. Penguin Books. London. p.845
- Hugh Thomas (1976) p. 947
- Manuela Aroca Mohedano, General Juan Hernández Saravia: el ayudante militar de Azaña.