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Juan Santamaría (August 29, 1831 – April 12, 1856) was a drummer in the Costa Rican army, officially recognized as the national hero of his country. A national holiday in Costa Rica, Juan Santamaría Day, is held every April 11 to commemorate his death.
Santamaría was born in the city of Alajuela. When U.S. filibuster William Walker overthrew the government of Nicaragua in 1856 and attempted to conquer the other nations in Central America, including Costa Rica, in order to form a private slave-holding empire, Costa Rican president Juan Rafael Mora Porras called upon the general population to take up arms and march north to Nicaragua to fight against the foreign invader. This started the Filibuster War. Santamaría, a poor laborer and the illegitimate son of a single mother joined the army as a drummer boy. The troops nicknamed him "el erizo" ("the sea urchin") on account of his spiked hair.
After routing a small contingent of Walker's soldiers at Santa Rosa, Guanacaste, the Costa Rican troops continued marching north and reached the city of Rivas, Nicaragua, on April 8, 1856. The battle that ensued is known as the Second Battle of Rivas. Combat was fierce and the Costa Ricans were not able to drive Walker's men out of a hostel near the town center from which they commanded an advantageous firing position.
According to the traditional account, on April 11, Salvadoran General José María Cañas suggested that one of the soldiers advance towards the hostel with a torch and set it on fire. Some soldiers tried and failed, but finally Santamaría volunteered on the condition that, in the event of his death, someone would look after his mother. He then advanced and was mortally wounded by enemy fire. Before expiring he succeeded, however, in setting fire to the hostel, thus contributing decisively to the Costa Rican victory at Rivas.
This account is apparently supported by a petition for a state pension filed in November 1857 by Santamaría's mother, as well as by government documents showing that the pension was granted. Various historians, however, have questioned whether the account is accurate, and if Santamaria died or not during that battle or another one. At any rate, towards the end of the 19th century, Costa Rican intellectuals and politicians seized on the war against Walker and on the figure of Juan Santamaría for nationalist purposes.
Juan Santamaría is honored by a statue in a park bearing his name in the central canton of Alajuela one block south of the Central Park, and by a museum that was a former garrison in the same city. Two larger than life statues of Juan Santamaria are in Costa Rica: one in Alajuela and other in the front of the Congress in San Jose. The Statue was commissioned by the Costa Rican Government in 1891, under sworn statement or affidavit of several witness of his deed in Rivas, a perpetual memorial archive has been preserved. As a drummer of the armed forces he wore a uniform, that evidently was of French design, since in the 19th century most of the high-ranking officers were trained in France.
The main international airport in Costa Rica is named after him.
In 1891, Pedro Calderón Navarro and Emilio Pacheco Cooper composed an anthem, Himno Patriótico A Juan Santamaría, 11 De Abril, to Juan Santamaría. It was sung for the first time during the Juan Santamaria Statue inauguration on the 15 of September of 1891. The lyrics are as follows:
Cantemos ufanos la egregia memoria
de aquel de la patria soldado inmortal,
a quien hoy unidas la fama y la
historia entonan gozosas un himno triunfal.
Cantemos al héroe que en Rivas, pujante,
de Marte desprecia el fiero crujir
e, intrépido, alzando su tea fulgurante
vuela por la patria, sonriendo, a morir.
Miradle, en su diestra la tea vengadora
agita, y avanza de su hazaña en pos;
la muerte, ¿qué importa truene asoladora,
si siente en el pecho las iras de un dios?
Y avanza y avanza; el plomo homicida
lo hiere sin tregua e infúndele ardor,
y en tanto que heroico exhala la vida
se escucha el incendio rugir vengador.
¡Salud, noble atleta! (3) tu nombre glorioso
un pueblo que es libre lo aclama hoy doquier
un pueblo que siempre luchó valeroso,
pues sabe que es grande, “cual tú”, perecer.
- Fernández Guardia, Ricardo. "JUAN SANTAMARÍA Y EL INCENDIO DEL MESÓN DE GUERRA" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 10 June 2007. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
- Martínez Gutiérrez, Bernal (2016). "Himnos de patria, cantos de mi país" (PDF). Imprenta Nacional Costa Rica (Costa Rica National Printing Office) (in Spanish). p. 14. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
HIMNO PATRIÓTICO A JUAN SANTAMARÍA, 11 DE ABRIL
- Museo Histórico Juan Santamaría (Selection of languages, including English)