Judenfrei

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Synagogue in German-occupied Bydgoszcz. The inscription reads: "This city is free of Jews"
German map showing the number of Jewish executions carried out by Einsatzgruppe A in: Estonia (declared "Judenfrei"), Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus and Russia

The German words judenfrei (lit: "free of Jews") and judenrein (lit: "clean of Jews") are Nazi terms to designate an area that was "cleansed" of Jews during The Holocaust.[1]

While judenfrei referred merely to "freeing" an area of all of its Jewish inhabitants, the term judenrein (literally "clean of Jews") was also used. This had the stronger connotation that any trace of Jewish blood had been removed as an impurity.[2]

Locations declared judenfrei[edit]

Establishments, villages, cities, and regions were declared judenfrei or judenrein after they were cleansed of Jews.

Usage in Israeli–Palestinian conflict[edit]

In the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, a fear among many Israelis which has been reflected by Israeli government officials such as Benjamin Netanyahu[15] is that the proposed removal of Israeli Jewish settlements in the West Bank according to the wishes of Palestinian officials is tantamount to rendering these areas Judenrein, or clean of Jews.

On July 9, 2009, Benjamin Netanyahu, in a discussion with the German foreign minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier is reported to have said, using the Israeli terms of the area, "Judea and Samaria cannot be judenrein."[16]

In 1952 Pesach Lev, first mayor of Lod after it was resettled by Israelis, said that Lod was transformed from 'a neglected Arab town that was judenrein to a "Hebraic city."'[17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Scheffler, Wolfgang (2007). "Judenrein". Encyclopaedia Judaica (2 ed.). Thomson Gale. 
  2. ^ "Aryanization: Judenrein & Judenfrei". shoaheducation.com. 
  3. ^ "'Gelnhausen endlich judenfrei': Zur Geschichte der Juden während der Nationalsozialistischen Verfolgung" ['Gelnhausen finally free of Jews': On the History of the Jews during the Nazi persecution] (PDF) (in German). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 28, 2007. 
  4. ^ Blumenkranz, Bernhard; Catane, Moshe (2007). "Alsace". Encyclopaedia Judaica (2 ed.). Thomson Gale. 
  5. ^ Drndić, Daša (2009). April u Berlinu. Fraktura. p. 24. ISBN 978-953-266-095-1. Njemački list Völkische Beobachter objavio je 19. kolovoza 1941. da je Banat konačno Juden frei. 
  6. ^ Muth, Thorsten (2009). Das Judentum: Geschichte und Kultur. Pressel. p. 452. ISBN 978-3-937950-28-0. Am 20. August konnte die deutsche Führung das Banat für Judenfrei" erklären. 
  7. ^ "Commémoration de la Shoah au Luxembourg" [Commemoration of the Shoah in Luxembourg] (in French). Government of Luxembourg. July 3, 2005. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. 
  8. ^ "Extract from Report by Einsatzgruppe A". Archived from the original on November 12, 2007.  Partial Translation of Document 2273-PS Source: Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, Vol. IV. USGPO, Washington, 1946, pp. 944–949
  9. ^ "Estonian Jews". Simon Wiesenthal Center. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007.  sourced to Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 1990. 
  10. ^ Lituchy, Barry M. Jasenovac and the Holocaust in Yugoslavia: analyses and survivor testimonies. Jasenovac Research Institute. pp. xxxiii. ISBN 978-0-97534-320-3. 
  11. ^ Manoschek, Walter (1995). "Serbien ist judenfrei": militärische Besatzungspolitik und Judenvernichtung in Serbien 1941/42. Walter de Gruyter. p. 184. ISBN 9783486561371. 
  12. ^ Lebel, G'eni (2007). Until "the Final Solution": The Jews in Belgrade 1521 - 1942. Avotaynu. p. 329. ISBN 9781886223332. 
  13. ^ Herbert, Ulrich; Schildt, Axel (1998). Kriegsende in Europa. Klartext. p. 149. ISBN 9783884745113. 
  14. ^ "Was war am 19. Mai 1943" [What was on May 19, 1943] (in German). chroniknet. 
  15. ^ Dan Williams (July 9, 2009). "Judenrein! Israel adopts Nazi term to back settlers". Reuters. 
  16. ^ "German FM: Settlements Remain Obstacle to Peace; Frank-Walter Steinmeier says is encouraged by Israel's acceptance of a two-state solution". Haaretz. Reuters and DPA. July 9, 2009. 
  17. ^ Reference 102 in http://dictionnaire.sensagent.leparisien.fr/1948%20Palestinian%20exodus%20from%20Lydda%20and%20Ramla/en-en/