Judeo-nazarenism

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Judeo-nazarenism is a new term in the study of early Christianity.[1][2][3] The term is distinguished from the term "Nazarenes", used in Jewish writings to avoid the recognition of Jesus as Messiah, which is inherent in the term "Christians". It's also necessary to distinguish the various Christian sects who were using the name "Nazarenes" over the centuries.

The Judeo-Christian context[edit]

The name of Nazarenes (Hebrew: NAZIR/NAZUR‎, "he who has vowed"; nothing to do with the radical N.Ts.H (hard, where does "Nazareth" (Netsarhi, which means "The Guard"))) was the very first Christians pray[clarification needed] based on the title of the Nazarene or Nazareth gave Jesus (Matthew 2:23; Acts of the Apostles 2.22; 3.6; 4.10; 22.8; 26.9); but this meaning is probably multiple and fades away from us today. Gradually, from an unknown date between 40 and 110, it was left by the "Christian" Hellenized and the converted pagans, in favor of the disciples of the Messiah. (Greek: christianoï, Christians in French - mšiyayé in Aramaic). The name "Christian" had been given to these groups by the Romans and the latter from having a distinctly pejorative connotation and it seems like a "criminal qualification". Christian tradition says it was in Antioch that the name was given for the first time to "followers of the Way of the Lord". However, a group or groups preserved the name of Nazarenes. They are the subject of this article, and it should be appointed as the more accurate term, suggested by Ray A. Pritz,[4] of "Judeo-Nazarenes" to avoid misunderstandings because of patristic writers: “They, evoking without interest, sometimes confused, rightly, with Gnostic groups, since part of the Judaizing who loved to return the name of the first Christians who were Gnostics.”

The Jewish world of the first and the second centuries was marked by a large plurality; it sometimes simply explained by geographical reasons: most of the "Jews" lived outside of Palestine, until Chine[5] (which also explains the rapid expansion of the Church of the East over there ). What is commonly called "Judaism" today is simply the form taken by the communities of Pharisees obedience from the Synod of Yavneh in Galilee, to 95, which form only became majority until much later.

The Judeo-nazaréisme will prove as a warrior ideology. To understand this, we must go back to its beginnings prior to the first century, in a Jewish world diverse and marked by deep antagonisms since the Hasmoneans, the Kings of Judea were not the descendants of David, and the High Priests are all llegitimated. This could only raise an opposition movement. The facts were traced at length by Jacqueline Genot-Bismuth especially in the scenario Damas[6] and summarized in Volume I of the Messiah and his prophète[7] (p 114-137.) The character of the "Teacher of Righteousness", many believe is most likely mythical Kohen Yossé ben Yo'ezer who opposed the worship of the Temple in Jerusalem in the second century BCE and died a victim of persecution during the expedition of General Bacchides, governor of Syria, came restore Alcimus in the function of High Priest -161. His death is described in the Midrash Genesis Rabbah (65:22). Far from silencing his supporters forced to disperse, his death strengthened their political culture of opposition exacerbated by a dream cultic purity, focused on the expectation of the Messiah who will purify worship and abroad will drive the Holy Land. This movement of the Zealots are a branch, is the origin of so-called literature "Dead Sea". These discoveries eliminate implausible assumptions that were devised following the 1950 excavations by archaeologists some caves of the Dead Sea: bringing the archaeological site of Qumran caves of literary content, that is to say, imagine the inhabitants of site "Essene monks' unique authors of manuscripts caves, and therefore very busy copy them in a scriptorium in the medieval style (which is an anachronism ten centuries!). These reconciliations are baseless, born in the 1950s in the Vaux's father's entourage who directed the excavations, were quickly challenged by archaeologists (including Robert and Pauline Donceel[8][9]): the site of Qumran nothing of "monastic", he reflects on the contrary a very rich habitat; and implausible "scriptorium" is nothing but a living rooms as we found in other wealthy homes in the region at that time. As for the texts of the caves, it should release the fiction "Essene" which was built around them, denounced as an expert exegete of these manuscripts, André Paul in 2008.[10]

Even on the basis of too partial documentation (what Frédéric Manns, Le judéo-christianisme, mémoire ou prophétie?[11] Highlighted), former director of Jewish Studies, Simon Claude Mimouni, received the seed of Judaeonazaréisme into the birth of Islam, where "he played such a role that you wonder if it is not a large extent of the cause."

Islam and the Third Temple[edit]

Historical topography of ancient and medieval Syria (Paris, Geuthner, 1927).

Among Francophone researchers, Alfred-Louis de Prémare,[12] who died in 2006 said it must reread the sources of Islamic origin on which it was based until now to integrate them into a more open perspective

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • R.A. Pritz, Nazarene Jewish Christianity [Le judéochristianisme nazaréen], Jérusalem-Leyde, Brill, 1988, ISBN 9789004081086
  • André Paul, Qumran et les Esséniens. L’éclatement d’un dogme, Cerf, 2008, ISBN 978-2204086912
  • Kamal Salibi, Gérard Mannoni La Bible est née en Arabie, Grasset & Fasquelle, 1986, ISBN 9782246352815
  • Robert Eisenman, The Dead sea scrolls and the first Christians: Essays and Translations, 1996, ISBN 9781852307851
  • François Blanchetière, Enquête sur les racines du mouvement chrétien, éd. Cerf, Paris, 2001, ISBN 2-204-06215-4
  • Simon Claude Mimouni, Les Chrétiens d'origine juive dans l'Antiquité, Éd. Albin Michel, 2004, Paris, ISBN 2-226-15441-8
  • Simon-Claude Mimouni (dir.), Le judéo-christianisme dans tous ses états, Cerf, coll. « Lectio Divina », 2001
  • Simon-Claude Mimouni (préf. André Caquot), Le Judéo-christianisme ancien, Cerf, coll. « Essais historiques », 1998
  • Marcel Simon and André Benoît, Le Judaïsme et le christianisme antique, d'Antiochus Épiphane à Constantin, PUF, 1998
  • Jonathan Bourgel, D'une identité à l'autre ? : la communauté judéo-chrétienne de Jérusalem : 66 - 135, préface de Dan Jaffé, Le Cerf, coll. « Judaïsme ancien et Christianisme primitif», 2015

Relations with Islam[edit]

  • Claude Gilliot, Origines et fixation du texte coranique, in Études, décembre 2008, p. 643-652
  • Alfred-Louis de Prémare, Joseph et Muhammad. Le Chapitre 12 du Coran, Aix-en-Provence, Publications de l’Université de Provence, 1989
  • Die syro-aramäische Lesart des Koran, Christoph Luxenberg, Das Arabische Buch, 2000
  • Crone Patricia & Cook Michael, Hagarism. The Making of the Islamic World, Cambridge University Press, 1977
  • Patricia Crone & Martin Hinds, God’s Caliph. Religious authority in the first centuries of Islam, Cambridge University Press, 1986
  • Crone Patricia, Meccan trade and the rise of Islam, Oxford, Blackwell, 1987
  • Joachim Gnilka, Qui sont les chrétiens du Coran ?, Éditions du Cerf, 2008.
  • Azzi Joseph, Le Prêtre et le prophète, aux sources du Coran, Maisonneuse et Larose, 2001
  • Gallez E-M, Le Messie et son prophète, 2 tomes, éditions de Paris, 2005 ; his website : rootsofislamtruehistory.com
  • Alfred-Louis de Prémare, Aux origines du Coran, questions d’hier, approches d’aujourd’hui, Paris, Téraèdre, 2004
  • Alfred-Louis de Prémare, La Construction de savoirs religieux dans les premières générations de musulmans in Alpha. Biographies et récits de vie, IRMC (Institut de recherche sur le Maghreb contemporain), Tunis / Afemam, Aix-en-Provence, 2005, p. 121-132
  • Enquêtes sur l'islam, A-M Delcambre (et alii), Desclée de BRouwer, 2004
  • Odon Lafontaine (dit Olaf), Le grand secret de l'islam. L'histoire cachée de l’islam révélée par la recherche historique, 2015, ISBN 978-1326074012

References[edit]

  1. ^ Moens, Jean-Luc (2007). Si dieu donne son salut à tout homme, pourquoi évangéliser? (in French). Paray-le-Monial: Emmanuel. ISBN 9782353890132.
  2. ^ Archives de sciences sociales des religions, 52 (in French). Centre national de la recherche scientifique. 2007. pp. 139–140.
  3. ^ Jaeghere, Michel de; Université d'été, de Renaissance catholique (2004). Le XXIe siècle sera-t-il musulman (in French). Issy-les-Moulineaux: Renaissance catholique. ISBN 9782950828774.
  4. ^ Pritz, Ray A. (1988). Nazarene Jewish Christianity : from the end of the New Testament period until its disappearance in the fourth century. Jerusalem: Magnes Press, Hebrew University. ISBN 9789004081086.
  5. ^ Perrier, Pierre; Walter, Xavier (2008). Thomas fonde l'église en Chine (65-68 ap J.-C.) (in French). Paris: Jubilé. ISBN 978-2866794828.
  6. ^ Genot-Bismuth, Jacqueline (1992). Le scénario de Damas : Jérusalem hellénisée et les origines de l'essénisme (in French). Paris: O.E.I.L. ISBN 978-2868392398.
  7. ^ Gallez, Édouard-Marie (2005). Le messie et son prophète : aux origines de l'islam (in French) (2 ed.). Versailles: Éd. de Paris. ISBN 978-2851620644.
  8. ^ Golb, Norman; Michael, Owen Wise (1994). Methods of investigation of the Dead Sea scrolls and the Khirbet Qumran site : present realities and future prospects. New York: New York Academy of Sciences. pp. 26, 27, 36. ISBN 978-0897667937.
  9. ^ Donceel, Voute; Donceel, Robert (1999). "Jéricho". Dossiers d'Archeologie (240): 90–123. ISSN 1141-7137. OCLC 474501627.
  10. ^ André, Paul; Doré, Joseph (foreword) (2008). Qumrân et les Esséniens : l'éclatement d'un dogme (in French). Paris: Cerf. ISBN 978-2204086912.
  11. ^ Manns, Frédéric (2000). Le judéo-christianisme, mémoire ou prophétie?. Paris: Éditions Beauchesne. pp. 57–60. ISBN 9782701014029.
  12. ^ Prémare, Alfred-Louis de (2002). Les fondations de l'islam : entre écriture et histoire (in French). Paris: Seuil. ISBN 978-2020374941.

External links[edit]