Judge royal

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Judge Royal of the
Kingdom of Hungary
Blason louis II de Hongrie.svg
Appointer King of Hungary
Diet of Hungary
Precursor Some functions of Palatine
Formation c. 1127
First holder George
Final holder Aurél Dessewffy
Abolished 1918 (1884)
Succession President of the Curia Regia

The judge royal,[1][2] also justiciar,[3] chief justice[4] or Lord Chief Justice[5] (German: Oberster Landesrichter,[6] Hungarian: országbíró,[6][7] Slovak: krajinský sudca or dvorský sudca, Latin: curialis comes or iudex curiae regiae),[6][7] was the second-highest judge, preceded only by the palatine, in the Kingdom of Hungary between around 1127 and 1884. After 1884, the judge royal was only a symbolic function, but it was only in 1918 — with the end of Habsburgs in the Kingdom of Hungary (the kingdom continued formally until 1946) — that the function ceased officially.

There remain significant problems in the translation of the title of this officer. In Latin, the title translates as 'Judge of the Royal Court', which lacks specificity. In Hungarian, he is 'Judge of the Country', with 'country' in this sense meaning 'political community', being thus broadly analogous to the German 'Land'. English has no obvious translation for Landesrichter, which is the direct German translation of országbíró.

List of office-holders[edit]

Twelfth century[edit]

Term Incumbent Monarch Notes Source
1127–c. 1131 George Stephen II "curialis comes" [7]
b. 1135 Julius Béla II "comes curialis regis" [7][8]
1135 (?) Bucan Béla II "comes curialis"; only a non-authentic charter refers to him as judge royal, if so, he was also ispán of Bihar County in the same period [7]
1138 George, son of Cronik Béla II "curie regalis officia disponens" [7][8]
1145 (?) Rednald Géza II "curialis comes"; only a non-authentic charter refers to him as judge royal [7]
1146 Cadarius Géza II [7][9]
1148 Gereon Géza II "regie curie curam gerens" [7][10]
1150–1157 Héder Géza II ancestor of the Héder clan [7][11]
1158 (?) Appa Géza II "curialis comes maior"; only a non-authentic charter refers to him as judge royal [7]
1162–1164 Gabriel Stephen III [12][13]
1163 Brocca appointed by anti-king Stephen IV [12]
1164–1172 Lawrence Stephen III [12][14]
1171 (?) Peter Stephen III "curialis comes"; only a non-authentic charter refers to him as judge royal [12]
c. 1174–1181 Cumpurdinus Béla III [12][15]
1183 Peter Béla III [12][16]
1184 Charena Béla III [12]
1185–1186 Mog Béla III [12][17]
1188–1193 Dominic Miskolc Béla III also ispán of Bodrog County (1192–1193) [12][18]
1197–1198 Esau Emeric according to non-authentic charters already since 1193–1195; also ispán of Csanád County (1197–1198) [12][19]
1198 Peter, son of Töre Emeric also ispán of Szolnok County (1198) [12][16]
1199 Mika Ják Emeric also ispán of Bihar County (1198–1199) [12][20]
1199–1200 Vejte Csanád Emeric also ispán of Nyitra County (1199–1200), and ispán of Krassó County (1200) [12][21]

Thirteenth century[edit]

Term Incumbent Monarch Notes Source
1201 Achilles Emeric also ispán of Keve County (1201) [22][23]
1202–1204 Julius Kán Emeric first rule; also ispán of Csanád County (1202–1203), and ispán of Nyitra County (1204) [22][24]
1205–1206 Smaragd Andrew II also ispán of Szolnok County (1205–1206) [22][25]
1207 Marcellus Tétény Andrew II first rule; also ispán of Csanád County (1206–1207) [22][26]
1208–1210 Nicholas Andrew II also ispán of Pozsony County (1208), and ispán of Keve County (1208–1209, 1209–1210) [22]
1211–1212 Marcellus Tétény Andrew II second rule; also ispán of Keve County (1211–1212) [22][26]
1212–1213 Julius Kán Andrew II second rule; also ispán of Bács County (1212–1213) [22][24]
1214 Marcellus Tétény Andrew II third rule; also ispán of Csanád County (1214) [22][26]
1214 Martin Hont-Pázmány Andrew II also ispán of Csanád County (1214) [8][22]
1215–1217 Atyusz Atyusz Andrew II according to a non-authentic charter also in 1218; also ispán of Bács County (1215) [22][27]
1219–1221 Julius I Rátót Andrew II first rule; also ispán of Keve County (1219–1221) [16][22]
1221–1222 Bánk Bár-Kalán Andrew II also ispán of Fejér County (1221–1222), and ispán of Bodrog County (1222) [28][29]
1222 Pousa Bár-Kalán Andrew II [27][28]
1222 Lawrence Atyusz Andrew II also ispán of Nyitra County (1222) [28]
1222 Solomon Atyusz Andrew II also ispán of Moson County (1222) [27][28]
1222–1224 Batiz Negol Andrew II also ispán of Békés County (1222–1224) [28][30]
1224–1230 Ladislaus I Kán Andrew II first rule; also ispán of Békés County (1224), ispán of Nyitra County (1224–1225), and ispán of Bács County (1226–1230) [24][28]
1231–1232 Benedict, son of Samud Andrew II [9][28]
1232–1234 Demetrius Csák Andrew II first rule; also ispán of Bács County (1233–1234) [28][31]
1234–1235 Ladislaus I Kán Andrew II second rule; also ispán of Bács County (1234–1235) [24][28]
1235–1239 Julius I Rátót Béla IV second rule; also ispán of Csanád County (1235), and ispán of Keve County (1236–1238) [16][28]
1239–1241 Andrew, son of Serafin Béla IV also ispán of Pozsony County (1235–1241); killed in the Battle of Mohi [32][33]
1241 Paul Geregye Béla IV first rule; also ispán of Fejér County (1238–1241) [10][32]
1242 Ladislaus I Kán Béla IV third rule [24][32]
1242–1244 Demetrius Csák Béla IV second rule; also ispán of Moson County (1242–1244) [31][32]
1244 (?) Mojs Béla IV only a non-authentic charter refers to him as judge royal [32][34]
1245–1246 Stephen I Gutkeled Béla IV also ispán of Nyitra County (1245–1246) [32][35]
1246 (?) Demetrius Csák Béla IV only a non-authentic charter refers to him as judge royal, if so, he was also ispán of Bodrog County in the same period [31][32]
1247 Ladislaus I Kán Béla IV fourth rule [24][32]
1247 Roland Rátót Béla IV first rule [32][36]
1248–1254 Paul Geregye Béla IV second rule; also ispán of Zala County (1248–1255) [10][37]
1254–1260 Henry Kőszegi Béla IV also ispán of Somogy County (1247–1260) [37][38]
1262–1265 Lawrence, son Kemény Béla IV also ispán of Zala County (1262–1264), and ispán of Moson County (1263, 1264) [34][37]
1267–1269 Ernye Ákos Béla IV first rule; possibly held office until 1270 based on information relating to his deputy; also ispán of Vas County (1267–1269), and ispán of Moson County (1263, 1264) [23][37]
1270–1272 Nicholas Monoszló Stephen V also ispán of Somogy County (1270–1272) [39]
1272 Denis Péc Ladislaus IV first rule; also ispán of Varaždin County (1272) [39][40]
1272–1273 Alexander Karászi Ladislaus IV also ispán of Orbász County (1272–1273) [39]
1273 Ladislaus II Kán Ladislaus IV first rule; also ispán of Baranya, Szeben Counties and Bánya ispánate (1273) [8][39]
1273 Matthew II Csák Ladislaus IV also ispán of Bánya ispánate (1273) [39][41]
1273 Ladislaus II Kán Ladislaus IV second rule [8][39]
1273–1274 Nicholas Gutkeled Ladislaus IV also ispán of Bánya ispánate (1273–1275) [10][39]
1274 Ernye Ákos Ladislaus IV second rule; also ispán of Szatmár County (1274) [23][39]
1275 Denis Péc Ladislaus IV second rule; also ispán of Zala County (1275) [40][42]
1275 Thomas I Hont-Pázmány Ladislaus IV also ispán of Pozsony County and Sempte ispánate (1275) [8][42]
1275 Nicholas Geregye Ladislaus IV also ispán of Bánya ispánate (1275) [10][42]
1275–1276 Ugrin Csák Ladislaus IV [31][42]
1276 Mojs, son of Mojs Ladislaus IV also ispán of Somogy County (1275–1276) [34][42]
1276 Maurice Ladislaus IV also ispán of Vas County (1276) [18][42]
1276 James Bána Ladislaus IV [8][42]
1277 Denis Péc Ladislaus IV third rule [40][43]
1277 Roland Rátót Ladislaus IV second rule [36][43]
1278 Julius II Rátót Ladislaus IV [16][43]
1278–1279 Stephen II Gutkeled Ladislaus IV also ispán of Moson County (1278–1279) [10][43]
1280 Peter Aba Ladislaus IV [23][43]
1280–1281 Ivan Kőszegi Ladislaus IV also ispán of Bars County (1281) [8][43]
1283 Rubinus Hermán Ladislaus IV [43][44]
1283–1285 Amadeus Aba Ladislaus IV first rule [45]
1285 Demetrius Balassa Ladislaus IV also ispán of Zólyom County (1285–1287) [46]
1288 Gregory Péc Ladislaus IV [46][47]
b. 1289 Ivanka Hont-Pázmány Ladislaus IV mentioned as "quondam iudex curie domini regis" in 1300; made a will and testament in 1289 [46]
1289 Amadeus Aba Ladislaus IV second rule [46][45]
1290 (?) Andrew Ladislaus IV only non-authentic charters refer to him as judge royal, if so, he was also ispán of Nyitra County in the same period [46]
1291–1293 Thomas II Hont-Pázmány Andrew III [8][46]
1293–1297 Apor Péc Andrew III [40][46]
1298–1300 Stephen Ákos Andrew III [48][49]

Fourteenth century[edit]

Term Incumbent Monarch Notes Source
1301–1311 Presumably the position was vacant during the period of the Interregnum
1311–1314 John Csák Charles I betrayed the King and joined his distant relative, Matthew III Csák in 1314 [31][50]
1314–1324 Lampert Hermán Charles I also ispán of Csanád County (1314–1324), ispán of Nyitra County (1322–1324), ispán of Zala County (1323–1324), and castellan of Tapolcsány (1322–1324) [8][50]
1324–1328 Alexander Köcski Charles I also ispán of Vas County (1327–1328), and castellan of Varna, Beszterce and Sárvár (1327–1328) [14][50]
1328–1349 Paul Nagymartoni Charles I,
Louis I
also castellan of Beszterce (1328–1349) [18][50]
1349–1354 Thomas Szécsényi Louis I also ispán of Keve County (1349–1350), ispán of Turóc County (1350–1354), and castellan of Beszterce (1349–1354) [50][51]
1354–1355 Nicholas Drugeth Louis I also ispán of Turóc County (1354–1355), and castellan of Beszterce (1354–1355) [50][52]
1355–1358 Nicholas Szécsi Louis I first rule; also ispán of Turóc County (1355–1358), and castellan of Beszterce (1355–1358) [50][53]
1359 Nicholas Csák Louis I [31][50]
1360–1369 Stephen Bebek Louis I also castellan of Beszterce (1360–1369) [9][50]
1369–1372 Nicholas Szécsi Louis I second rule [50][53]
1372–1373 James Szepesi Louis I first rule [50][54]
1373 Peter Cudar Louis I also ispán of Trencsén, Sáros and Zólyom Counties (1372–1373) [15][50]
1373–1380 James Szepesi Louis I second rule; also ispán of Trencsén and Szepes Counties, castellan of Beszterce (1373–1376), and judge of the royal free cities (1376–1378) [50][54]
1381–1384 Nicholas Szécsi Louis I,
Mary
third rule; also ispán of Pozsony, Vas and Sopron Counties (1381–1382) [50][53]
1385 Thomas Szentgyörgyi Mary [50][55]
1385–1386 John Kaplai Mary first rule [50][56]
1386 Emeric Bebek Charles II first rule [9][50]
1386–1392 Emeric Bebek Mary & Sigismund second rule after a short period of vacancy; also ispán of Bars County (1386–1388), ispán of Bereg County (1388–1390), ispán of Liptó and Turóc Counties (1390–1392), and castellan of Boldogkő (1386–1392) [9][50]
1392–1395 John Kaplai Mary & Sigismund second rule [50][56]
1395 Simon Szécsényi Sigismund [50][51]
1395–1397 John Pásztói Sigismund also ispán of Nógrád County (1395–1397) [47][50]
1397–1408 Frank Szécsényi Sigismund participated in a rebellion against Sigismund in 1401 [50][51]

Fifteenth century[edit]

Term Incumbent Monarch Notes Source
1409–1414 Simon Rozgonyi Sigismund [44][50]
1415–1423 Peter Perényi Sigismund also ispán of Ung, Zemplén Counties (1415–1423), and ispán of Szatmár and Ugocsa Counties (1415–1419) [47][50]
1423–1425 Stephen Kompolti Sigismund [14][50]
1425–1435 Matthew Pálóci Sigismund also ispán of Szabolcs, Ung and Bereg Counties (1425–1435), and ispán of Borsod and Heves Counties (1425–1427), and ispán of Abaúj County (1425) [40][50]
1435–1440 Stephen III Báthory Sigismund,
Albert
[50][57]
1440 John Kórógyi Ladislaus V appointed by Queen Regnant Elizabeth, later the Estates considered his term as illegitimate [14][50]
1441–1446 George Rozgonyi Vladislaus I,
Ladislaus V
also ispán of Pozsony, Abaúj and Zemplén Counties (1440–1446), and ispán of Szepes County (1443–1445) [44][50]
1446–1470 Ladislaus Pálóci Ladislaus V,
Matthias I
elected by the Diet; also castellan of Buda (1455–1470) [47][50][58]
1470–1471 John Rozgonyi Matthias I dismissed after participation in John Vitéz's conspiracy against Matthias [44][58]
1471–1493 Stephen V Báthory Matthias I,
Vladislaus II
also Voivode of Transylvania (1479–1493) following the victorious Battle of Breadfield [57][58]
1494 Paul Kinizsi Vladislaus II also ispán of Temes County (1478–1494), and captain-general of the united southern frontier [56][59]
1494–1500 Peter Geréb Vladislaus II [35][59]

Sixteenth century[edit]

Term Incumbent Monarch Notes Source
1500–1517 Peter Szentgyörgyi Vladislaus II,
Louis II
also Voivode of Transylvania (1498–1510) [55][59]
1518–1524 Lawrence Újlaki Louis II [26][60]
1524–1525 Ambrose Sárkány Louis II also ispán of Zala County (1515–1526) [44][60]
1525–1526 John Drágfi Louis II also ispán of Kraszna County (1515–1526); killed in the Battle of Mohács [6][21][60]
1527–1542 Alexius Thurzó Ferdinand I also Royal Governor of Hungary (1532–1542), ispán of Trencsén County (1527–1543); ispán of Pest-Pilis County (1532–1542), and Perpetual count of Szepes County (1531–1543) [6][61]
1530–1540 Gregory Pestyéni ruled for John I in the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom [6][16]
1542–1554 Thomas Nádasdy Ferdinand I also ispán of Vas County (1537–1562), Captain of Transdanubia (1542–1546, 1548–1552), Supreme Commander (1552–1562) [6][62]
1554–1566 Andrew Báthory Ferdinand I,
Maximilian
also ispán of Somogy County (1532–1566), ispán of Liptó County (1534–1566), ispán of Szatmár County (1548–1563), and ispán of Szabolcs County (1551–1556); killed in the Siege of Kanizsa [6][27]
1566–1567 Gabriel Perényi Maximilian also ispán of Abaúj County (1550–1567) [6][47]
1567 Christopher Országh Maximilian also ispán of Nógrád County (1552–1567) [6][63]
1567–1568 Stephen Bánffy Maximilian also ispán of Zala County (1541–1568) [6][27]
1568–1584 Nicholas Báthory Maximilian,
Rudolph
also ispán of Szabolcs and Szatmár Counties (1563–1584), and ispán of Somogy County (1567–1584) [6][64]
1586–1605 Stephen Báthory Rudolph also ispán of Somogy County (1573–1605), ispán of Szabolcs County (1586–1605), and ispán of Szatmár County (1589–1605); joined Stephen Bocskay's rebellion [6][64]

Seventeenth century[edit]

Term Incumbent Monarch Notes Source
1606–1608 Sigismund Forgách Rudolph first rule; also ispán of Nógrád County (1600–1621) [6][65]
1608–1609 Valentine Drugeth Matthias II also ispán of Zemplén County (1599–1609), and ispán of Máramaros County (1609); allegedly poisoned [6][52]
1610–1618 Sigismund Forgách Matthias II second rule; also ispán of Nógrád County (1600–1621), ispán of Szabolcs County (1612–1621), and ispán of Sáros County (1614–1621); Captain of Upper Hungary (1609–1618) [6][65]
1618–1620 George Drugeth Matthias II,
Ferdinand II
also ispán of Ung County (1603–1620), and ispán of Zemplén County (1610–1620); died in exile in Poland [6][66]
1622–1625 Nicholas Esterházy Ferdinand II also ispán of Bereg County (1617–1635), and ispán of Zólyom County (1618–1645), also Captain of Lower Hungary (1622–1625) [6][67]
1625–1631 Melchior Alaghy Ferdinand II also ispán of Zemplén County (1622–1631), and Captain of Upper Hungary (1630–1631) [6][23]
1631–1636 Paul Rákóczi Ferdinand II also ispán of Sáros and Torna Counties (1622–1636) [6][16]
1636–1645 John Drugeth Ferdinand II,
Ferdinand III
also ispán of Ung County (1626–1645), ispán of Zemplén County (1631–1645), and Captain of Upper Hungary (1636–1640) [6][66]
1646–1649 Paul Pálffy Ferdinand III also ispán of Pozsony County (1641–1653), and member of the Royal Privy Council (1646–1653) [6][68]
1649–1654 Ladislaus Csáky Ferdinand III also ispán of Zólyom County (1645–1655), and ispán of Komárom County (1646–1655) [6][21]
1655–1670 Francis Nádasdy Ferdinand III,
Leopold I
also Royal Governor of Hungary (1667–1670), ispán of Vas County (1633–1670), ispán of Zala County (1665–1670), and ispán of Somogy County (1666–1670); executed for treason after the failed Magnate conspiracy [6][17]
1670–1681 Adam Forgách Leopold I also ispán of Nógrád County (1621–1681), and ispán of Borsod and Csongrád Counties (1649–1681), Master of the treasury (1663–1679), member of the Gubernium (1673–1679) [6][17]
1681–1687 Nicholas Draskovich Leopold I died during the Diet of 1687 [6][52]
1687–1699 Stephen Csáky Leopold I also perpetual count of Szepes County (1670–1699), Captain of Upper Hungary (1681–1699) [6][21]
1700–1703 Adam Batthyány Leopold I also Ban of Croatia (1693–1703), Captain of Transdanubia (1685–1703), and Captain of Kanizsa (1690–1703) [6][64]

Eighteenth century[edit]

Term Incumbent Monarch Notes Source
1704–1712 George Erdődy Leopold I,
Joseph I,
Charles III
also ispán of Varaždin County (1690–1712) [6][69]
1713–1714 Nicholas I Pálffy Charles III also perpetual count of Pozsony County (1694–1714), and Crown Guard (1701–1714) [6][68]
1714–1731 Stephen Koháry Charles III famous poet; also perpetual count of Hont County (1711–1731); founded a Piarist elementary school in Kecskemét [6][70]
1731–1741 John Pálffy Charles III,
Maria Theresa
also perpetual count of Pozsony County (1732–1751) [6][71]
1741–1748 Joseph Esterházy Maria Theresa also ispán of Komárom County (1709–1748) [69][72]
1748–1759 George Leopold Erdődy Maria Theresa also ispán of Árva County (1709–1759), ispán of Bars County (1713–1759), and ispán of Varaždin County (1728–1759); Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece (1751) [69][72]
1759–1765 Joseph Illésházy Maria Theresa also perpetual count of Liptó and Trencsén Counties (1724–1766) [8][72]
1765–1773 Nicholas II Pálffy Maria Theresa also perpetual count of Pozsony County (1751–1773) [8][72]
1773–1783 George Fekete Maria Theresa,
Joseph II
also ispán of Arad and Zaránd Counties (1751–1788) [13][72]
1783–1786 John Csáky Joseph II also ispán of Szepes County (1757–1795) [21][72]
1786–1787 Christopher Niczky Joseph II also ispán of Temes County (1779–1787) [30][72]
1788–1795 Charles Zichy Joseph II,
Leopold II,
Francis
also President of the Vice-regency Council (1788–1795); Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece (1808) [72][73]
1795–1802 Peter Végh Francis also ispán of Baranya County (1782–1802) [72][73]

Nineteenth century[edit]

Term Incumbent Monarch Notes Source
1802–1806 Francis Szentivány Francis also ispán of Sáros County (1790–1823) [54][72]
1806–1825 Joseph Ürményi Francis also ispán of Fejér County (1802–1825); Chancellor of the University of Pest (1806–1825) [26][72]
1825–1827 Joseph Brunszvik Francis also ispán of Nógrád County (1806–1827) [9][72]
1828–1839 Anton Moses Cziráky Francis,
Ferdinand V
also ispán of Fejér County (1825–1845); President of the Curia Regia and Chancellor of the University of Pest (1828–1839) [31][72]
1839–1848 George Majláth, Sr. Ferdinand V also ispán of Hont County (1828–1843), Speaker of the House of Magnates (1848); King Ferdinand V appointed Royal Governor for a short time in 1848 [14][72]
1848–1860 Vacancy during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 and after its suppression
1860–1863 George Apponyi Francis Joseph I also Speaker of the House of Magnates (1861); one of the initiators of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 [33]
1863–1865 George Andrássy Francis Joseph I [33]
1867–1883 George Majláth, Jr. Francis Joseph I the last office-holder who had judicial powers; also Speaker of the House of Magnates (1867–1883); killed during a robbery [18]
1884–1888 Paul Sennyey Francis Joseph I ceremonial position since 1884; also Speaker of the House of Magnates (1884–1888) [25]
1888–1893 Ladislaus Szőgyény-Marich Francis Joseph I [54]
1895–1917 Béla Orczy Francis Joseph I,
Charles IV
[63]

Twentieth century[edit]

Term Incumbent Monarch Notes Source
1917–1918 Aurel Dessewffy Charles IV last judge royal of the Kingdom of Hungary [74]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Engel 2001, p. 92.
  2. ^ Stephen Werbőczy: The Customary Law of the Renowned Kingdom of Hungary in Three Parts (1517), p. 450.
  3. ^ Rady 2000, p. 49.
  4. ^ Segeš 2002, p. 202.
  5. ^ Fallenbüchl 1988, p. 145.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af Fallenbüchl 1988, p. 72.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Zsoldos 2011, p. 26.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Markó 2006, p. 282.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Markó 2006, p. 273.
  10. ^ a b c d e f Markó 2006, p. 281.
  11. ^ Markó 2006, p. 229.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Zsoldos 2011, p. 27.
  13. ^ a b Markó 2006, p. 280.
  14. ^ a b c d e Markó 2006, p. 285.
  15. ^ a b Markó 2006, p. 274.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Markó 2006, p. 290.
  17. ^ a b c Markó 2006, p. 240.
  18. ^ a b c d Markó 2006, p. 286.
  19. ^ Markó 2006, p. 225.
  20. ^ Markó 2006, p. 233.
  21. ^ a b c d e Markó 2006, p. 276.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Zsoldos 2011, p. 28.
  23. ^ a b c d e Markó 2006, p. 268.
  24. ^ a b c d e f Markó 2006, p. 235.
  25. ^ a b Markó 2006, p. 292.
  26. ^ a b c d e Markó 2006, p. 296.
  27. ^ a b c d e Markó 2006, p. 270.
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Zsoldos 2011, p. 29.
  29. ^ Markó 2006, p. 216.
  30. ^ a b Markó 2006, p. 287.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g Markó 2006, p. 275.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i Zsoldos 2011, p. 30.
  33. ^ a b c Markó 2006, p. 269.
  34. ^ a b c Markó 2006, p. 239.
  35. ^ a b Markó 2006, p. 228.
  36. ^ a b Markó 2006, p. 250.
  37. ^ a b c d Zsoldos 2011, p. 31.
  38. ^ Markó 2006, p. 230.
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h Zsoldos 2011, p. 32.
  40. ^ a b c d e Markó 2006, p. 247.
  41. ^ Markó 2006, p. 219.
  42. ^ a b c d e f g Zsoldos 2011, p. 33.
  43. ^ a b c d e f g Zsoldos 2011, p. 34.
  44. ^ a b c d e Markó 2006, p. 291.
  45. ^ a b Markó 2006, p. 214.
  46. ^ a b c d e f g Zsoldos 2011, p. 35.
  47. ^ a b c d e Markó 2006, p. 289.
  48. ^ Zsoldos 2011, p. 36.
  49. ^ Markó 2006, p. 215.
  50. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Engel 1996, p.
  51. ^ a b c Markó 2006, p. 293.
  52. ^ a b c Markó 2006, p. 277.
  53. ^ a b c Markó 2006, p. 253.
  54. ^ a b c d Markó 2006, p. 295.
  55. ^ a b Markó 2006, p. 294.
  56. ^ a b c Markó 2006, p. 283.
  57. ^ a b Markó 2006, p. 271.
  58. ^ a b c C. Tóth et al. 2016, p. 89.
  59. ^ a b c C. Tóth et al. 2016, p. 90.
  60. ^ a b c C. Tóth et al. 2016, p. 91.
  61. ^ Markó 2006, p. 254.
  62. ^ Markó 2006, p. 242.
  63. ^ a b Markó 2006, p. 288.
  64. ^ a b c Markó 2006, p. 272.
  65. ^ a b Markó 2006, p. 226.
  66. ^ a b Markó 2006, p. 278.
  67. ^ Markó 2006, p. 223.
  68. ^ a b Markó 2006, p. 246.
  69. ^ a b c Markó 2006, p. 279.
  70. ^ Markó 2006, p. 284.
  71. ^ Markó 2006, p. 245.
  72. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Fallenbüchl 1988, p. 73.
  73. ^ a b Markó 2006, p. 297.
  74. ^ Markó 2006, p. 378.

References[edit]

  • (in Hungarian) C. Tóth, Norbert; Horváth, Richárd; Neumann, Tibor; Pálosfalvi, Tamás (2016). Magyarország világi archontológiája, 1458–1526, I. Főpapok és bárók [Secular Archontology of Hungary, 1458–1526, Volume I: Prelates and Barons] (in Hungarian). MTA Bölcsészettudományi Kutatóközpont Történettudományi Intézete. ISBN 978-963-4160-35-9.
  • (in Hungarian) Engel, Pál (1996). Magyarország világi archontológiája, 1301–1457, I. ("Secular Archontology of Hungary, 1301–1457, Volume I"). História, MTA Történettudományi Intézete. Budapest. ISBN 963-8312-44-0.
  • Engel, Pál (2001). The Realm of St Stephen: A History of Medieval Hungary, 895-1526. I.B. Tauris Publishers. ISBN 1-86064-061-3.
  • (in Hungarian) Fallenbüchl, Zoltán (1988). Magyarország főméltóságai ("High Dignitaries in Hungary"). Maecenas Könyvkiadó. ISBN 963-02-5536-7.
  • (in Hungarian) Markó, László (2006). A magyar állam főméltóságai Szent Istvántól napjainkig: Életrajzi Lexikon ("Great Officers of State in Hungary from King Saint Stephen to Our Days: A Biographical Encyclopedia"). 2nd edition, Helikon Kiadó. ISBN 963-547-085-1
  • Rady, Martyn (2000). Nobility, Land and Service in Medieval Hungary. Palgrave (in association with School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University College London). ISBN 0-333-80085-0.
  • Segeš, Vladimír (2002). Entry Chief justice in: Škvarna, Dušan; Bartl, Július; Čičaj, Viliam; Kohútová, Mária; Letz, Róbert; Segeš, Vladimír; Slovak History: Chronology & Lexicon; Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers. Wauconda (Illinois); ISBN 0-86516-444-4.
  • Stephen Werbőczy: The Customary Law of the Renowned Kingdom of Hungary in Three Parts (1517) (Edited and translated by János M. Bak, Péter Banyó and Martyn Rady with an introductory study by László Péter) (2005). Charles Schlacks, Jr. Publishers. ISBN 1-884445-40-3.
  • (in Hungarian) Zsoldos, Attila (2011). Magyarország világi archontológiája, 1000–1301 ("Secular Archontology of Hungary, 1000–1301"). História, MTA Történettudományi Intézete. Budapest. ISBN 978-963-9627-38-3.