Judgment of Line Orientation

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Judgment of Line Orientation
Medical diagnostics

Judgment of Line Orientation (JLO) is a standardized test of visuospatial skills commonly associated with functioning of the parietal lobe in the right hemisphere.[1] The test measures a person's ability to match the angle and orientation of lines in space.[2] Subjects are asked to match two angled lines to a set of 11 lines that are arranged in a semicircle and separated 18 degrees from each other.[3] The complete test has 30 items, but short forms have also been created. There is normative data available for ages 7-96.[4]

In 1994, Arthur L. Benton developed the test from his study of the effects of a right hemisphere lesion on spatial skills.[5]

Clinical performances[edit]

In a study measuring JLO scores and on-road performance, JLO was correlated with better backing-up scores.[6]

Neurological disorders[edit]

Patients with the following disorders often fail the JLO test:

Patients with dementia often perform poorly on this test. However, patients with Parkinson's disease perform poorly because of the complexity of task demands, not due to visuospatial deficits.[9]

Psychiatric disorders[edit]

Studies performed on people with schizophrenia found no deficit in performance.[2]


The test consists of five practice trials followed by 30 test items.[10] It is suitable for adult and pediatric populations. The test has two forms, H and J, which present the same 30 trials but in different order.[11] Responses to prompts can be pointed to or spoken.


A score of 17 or less is considered a sign of severe deficit.[11]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Igor Grant MD; Kenneth Adams PhD (8 February 2009). Neuropsychological Assessment of Neuropsychiatric and Neuromedical Disorders. Oxford University Press. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-19-970280-0. 
  2. ^ a b Maura Mitrushina (10 February 2005). Handbook of Normative Data for Neuropsychological Assessment. Oxford University Press. p. 284. ISBN 978-0-19-516930-0. 
  3. ^ Andrew Steptoe; Kenneth Freedland; J. Richard Jennings; Maria M. Llabre; Stephen B Manuck; Elizabeth J. Susman (27 September 2010). Handbook of Behavioral Medicine: Methods and Applications. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-387-09488-5. 
  4. ^ Martin L. Albert; Janice E. Knoefel (3 March 2011). Clinical Neurology of Aging. Oxford University Press. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-19-536929-8. 
  5. ^ Michael D. Franzen (31 October 2000). Reliability and Validity in Neuropsychological Assessment. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 156. ISBN 978-0-306-46344-0. 
  6. ^ David W. Eby; Lisa J. Molnar; Paula S. Kartje (22 December 2008). Maintaining Safe Mobility in an Aging Society. CRC Press. p. 160. ISBN 978-1-4200-6454-4. 
  7. ^ Barbara Landau; James E. Hoffman (18 October 2012). Spatial Representation: From Gene to Mind. Oxford University Press. p. 80. ISBN 978-0-19-538537-3. 
  8. ^ Sam Goldstein; Cecil R. Reynolds (24 June 2011). Handbook of Neurodevelopmental and Genetic Disorders in Children, 2/e. Guilford Press. p. 328. ISBN 978-1-60918-000-3. 
  9. ^ David Gozal; Dennis L. Molfese (28 October 2007). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: From Genes to Patients. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 169. ISBN 978-1-59259-891-5. 
  10. ^ Margaret Semrud-Clikeman; Phyllis Anne Teeter Ellison (15 June 2009). Child Neuropsychology: Assessment and Interventions for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 2nd Edition. Springer. pp. 172–. ISBN 978-0-387-88963-4. 
  11. ^ a b Muriel Deutsch Lezak (2004). Neuropsychological Assessment. Oxford University Press. p. 390. ISBN 978-0-19-511121-7.