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Rank in judo

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In judo, improvement and understanding of the art is denoted by a system of rankings split into kyū and dan grades. These are indicated with various systems of coloured belts, with the black belt indicating a practitioner who has attained a certain level of competence.

The Kōdōkan Kyū-Dan ranking system

[edit]
Kanō's original kyū-dan grading system
Rank Senior Junior Japanese name
Sixth kyū
(beginner)

Light
Blue

Light
Blue
rokkyū (六級)
Fifth kyū
Fourth kyū

White

White
gokyū (五級)
yonkyū (四級)
Third kyū
Second kyū
First kyū

Brown

Purple
sankyū (三級)
nikyū (二級)
ikkyū (一級)
First dan
Second dan
Third dan
Fourth dan
Fifth dan





Black
shodan (初段)
nidan (二段)
sandan (三段)
yondan (四段)
godan (五段)
Sixth dan
Seventh dan
Eighth dan
Ninth dan

Red and White
or

Black
rokudan (六段)
nanadan (七段)
hachidan (八段)
kudan (九段)
Tenth dan
Red
or

Black
jūdan (十段)
Eleventh dan
Twelfth dan
and higher*

White
or

Red
or

Black
juichidan (十一段)
junidan (十二段)

Practitioners of Judo (柔道家, Jūdōka) are ranked according to their skill and knowledge, and, for later dan grades, their contribution to the art. Their rank is indicated by the colour of belt that they wear. There are two broad categories of rank: those who have attained a level of competency at which they are considered worthy of a black belt (黒帯, kuro obi) and who hold dan () grades and those who are yet to attain that level and who hold kyū () grades. Those who hold dan grades are collectively termed Yūdansha (有段者) (literally "person who has dan") and those with kyū grades are Mudansha (無段者), literally "person without dan".

This ranking system was introduced by Kanō Jigorō, the founder of judo, in 1883. However, the current system is not the original one, but based on Kanō's last system introduced between 1926 and 1931, with some modification shortly after Kanō's death in 1938. The first dan grades were awarded to his students Saigō Shirō and Tomita Tsunejirō. Since then it has been widely adopted by other modern martial arts.[1]

In the current system as in use in Japan, there are six student grades ranked in descending numerical order. Beginners were given the rank of sixth kyū (六級, rokkyū) and wore a light blue belt. Once they had passed an elementary level of instruction, they were promoted to fifth kyū (五級, gokyū), when they would adopt the white belt. This they wore through fourth kyū (四級, yonkyū). The remaining three grades (third kyū (三級, sankyū), second kyū (二級, nikyū) and first kyū (一級, ikkyū) were all indicated with brown belts (for seniors) or with purple belts (for juniors).

1st kyū is the last kyū rank before promotion to first degree black belt (shodan). There are (in practice) 10 dan ranks, which are ranked in ascending numerical order.[2]

Highest ranking jūdōka

[edit]

Kōdōkan-graded jūdan holders

[edit]

The ninth (kudan) and tenth degree black belt (jūdan) and, theoretically, those higher, have no formal requirements. Only 15 individuals have been promoted to the rank of Kōdōkan 10th dan. On January 6, 2006, three individuals were promoted to this rank simultaneously: Daigo Toshirō, Ichirō Abe, and Ōsawa Yoshimi. This is the most ever at the same time, and the first in 22 years. No one has ever been promoted to a rank higher than 10th dan, but in theory the judo rank system is not limited to 10 degrees of black belt. As an educator by profession, Kanō believed that there should be no end to an individual's learning, and therefore no limit to the number of dan ranks. The English language edition (1955) of Illustrated Kodokan Judo, edited by the Kōdōkan, says:

There is no limit ... on the grade one can receive. Therefore if one does reach a stage above 10th dan ... there is no reason why he should not be promoted to 11th dan.

This statement was later clarified, however. Essentially, the dan-rank system was capped at 10 after the death of Kanō. In that respect, in the November 1963 issue of Jūdō, the Kōdōkan's official magazine, the Kōdōkan responding to the question "Do the 11th and 12th Dan really exist?" *clarifies that the hierarchy now stops at 10 and that the Kōdōkan does not envisage any nominations to these grades.[2]

There have only been fifteen 10th dan promotions awarded by the Kōdōkan itself in the history of Judo.[1]

Kōdōkan graded tenth dans (十段, jū-dan)
Name Lived Date of promotion
Yamashita Yoshitsugu 1865–1935 1935 posth., antedated
Isogai Hajime 1871–1947 1937
Nagaoka Hideichi 1876–1952 1937
Mifune Kyūzō 1883–1965 1945
Iizuka Kunisaburō 1875–1958 1946
Samura Kaichirō 1880–1964 1948
Tabata Shotarō 1884–1950 1948
Okano Yoshitarō 1885–1967 1967 posth.
Shōriki Matsutarō 1885–1969 1969 posth., antedated
Nakano Shōzō 1888–1977 1977 posth., antedated
Kurihara Tamio 1896–1979 1979 posth., antedated
Kotani Sumiyuki 1903–1991 1984
Abe Ichirō 1922–2022 2006
Daigo Toshirō 1926–2021 2006
Ōsawa Yoshimi 1927–2022 2006

Variations in rank structure

[edit]

Although dan ranks tend to be consistent between national organizations there is more variation in the kyū grades, with some countries having more kyū grades. Although initially kyū grade belt colours were uniformly white, today a variety of colours are used. The first black belts to denote a dan rank in the 1880s[clarification needed]. Initially the wide obi was used; as practitioners trained in kimono, only white and black obi were used. It was not until the early 1900s, after the introduction of the judogi, that an expanded colored belt system of awarding rank was created.[1]

Belt colors

[edit]
In jūdō, rank is denoted by colored belts.

Examination requirements vary depending on country, age group and of course the grade being attempted. The examination itself may include competition and kata. The kyū ranks are normally awarded by local instructors (sensei), but dan ranks are usually awarded only after an exam supervised by independent judges from a national judo association. For a rank to be recognized, it must be registered with the national judo organization or the Kōdōkan.

The appearance of the belts makes the judoka's level visible. Upon successful graduation, you are entitled to a new degree. The kyu degrees are counted down from 6 to 1. The dan degrees are counted up from 1.

Dan

[edit]

For dan ranks, the first five are colored black, 6th, 7th, and 8th dan have alternating red and white panels (段だら,dandara), and for 9th, 10th dan and above, the belts are solid red.[3] In judo's promotion system as originally finalized by Kanō around 1926 there was no maximal dan rank, and judoka holding 10th dan (and above) would normally wear a red belt, but also could wear a white belt (the same color as the lowest kyū rank), or a black belt. However, since the highest dan rank reached in judo for a living person or conferred posthumously remains 10th dan, any judo dan rank higher than 10th dan is now considered as a merely historical theoretical option. Some time after the death of Kanō the promotion system essentially became capped at 10th dan.[4] Furthermore, holders of a dan rank above godan (5th dan) will often wear a plain black belt during regular training practice and outside any ceremonial duties.

Judo dan belt colors
Degree Color Belt
1st–5th dan Black
6th–8th dan Black or Red-White
9th and above dan Black or Red

Kyu

[edit]
The style of belt commonly worn in modern judo

The Kyu belt system can contain the colors white, red, yellow, orange, green, blue, purple, and brown for both senior and junior practitioners. In some countries junior practitioners have an extra system in place to show the progress in between two kyū grades. The sub rank can be symbolized by a small piece of fabric on the end of the belt. The piece added to the belt can never be of a lower or the same color as the belt worn by the judoka, so an orange belt cannot have a yellow piece, but it can have green, blue or brown.

Australia

[edit]

In Australia belt rankings for Seniors are, in ascending order: white, yellow, orange, green, blue, brown and finally black. Belt rankings for Juniors follow the same ranks and colours (up to and including brown), but have either 1, 2 or 3 white bars (depending upon age) at each end of the belt, as follows:

  • If the judoka is aged up to 10 (Mon), there are to be 3 white bars.
  • Between 10 and 13 (Yonen), there are 2 bars.
  • Finally, for 13 to 16 years of age (Shonen), there is a single bar.[5]
Judo kyu belt colors of Judo Australia
Degree Kyu 6 Kyu 5 Kyu 4 Kyu 3 Kyu 2 Kyu 1
Color White Yellow Orange Green Blue Brown
Belt

Austria

[edit]

Judoka older than 15 can take the test for the even and odd Kyu degrees (two-color and one-color) as one test.

In Austria the following belt colors exist:[6]

Judo kyu belt colors of Judo Austria
Degree Kyu 11 Kyu 10 Kyu 9 Kyu 8 Kyu 7 Kyu 6 Kyu 5 Kyu 4 Kyu 3 Kyu 2 Kyu 1
Color White White-Yellow Yellow Yellow-Orange Orange Orange-Green Green Green-Blue Blue Blue-Brown Brown
Belt
Minimum age - 7 years 7 years 8 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years

Brazil

[edit]

Brazilian belt rankings are normally white, grey, blue, yellow, orange, green, purple, brown.[7] As in some European countries, young judoka in Brazil have an extra system in place to show the progress in between two kyū grades. The sub rank exists between white and orange belts and is symbolized by the ends of the current belt being the color of the next rank.

Adult judoka usually progress directly from white (12th kyu) to blue belt (8th kyu), not ever taking the grey belt. Also, seniors always skip the sub ranks, meaning that they will progress from blue to yellow belt (6th kyu) and then to orange belt (4th kyu).[citation needed]

Judo kyu belt colors of the Brazilian Judo Confederation[8]
Degree Kyu 12 Kyu 11 Kyu 10 Kyu 9 Kyu 8 Kyu 7 Kyu 6 Kyu 5 Kyu 4 Kyu 3 Kyu 2 Kyu 1
Color White White with grey tip Grey Grey with blue tip Blue Blue with yellow tip Yellow Yellow with orange tip Orange Green Purple Brown
Belt

Canada

[edit]

In Canada belt rankings for Seniors are, in ascending order: white, yellow, orange, green, blue and brown. Belt rankings for Juniors use, white, white-yellow, yellow, yellow-orange, orange, orange-green, green, green-blue, blue, blue-brown, and brown.[9]

Judo kyu belt colors of Judo Canada
Degree Kyu 6 Kyu 6+ Kyu 5 Kyu 5+ Kyu 4 Kyu 4+ Kyu 3 Kyu 3+ Kyu 2 Kyu 2+ Kyu 1
Color White White-Yellow Yellow Yellow-Orange Orange Orange-Green Green Green-Blue Blue Blue-Brown Brown
Belt

Czech republic

[edit]
Judo kyu belt colors of the Czech Judo Federation[10]
Degree Kyu 6/5 Kyu 5 Kyu 5/4 Kyu 4 Kyu 4/3 Kyu 3 Kyu 2 Kyu 1
Color White White-Yellow Yellow Yellow-Orange Orange Orange-Green Green Blue Brown
Belt

Denmark

[edit]

There are 6 kyu degrees. Seniors wear full-colored belts while children and youth (ages 6–14) also wear half-colored belts.

Judo kyu belt colors of Judo Danmark[11]
Degree Kyu 6 Kyu 5 Kyu 4 Kyu 3 Kyu 2 Kyu 1
Color White White-Yellow Yellow White-Orange Orange White-Green Green White-Blue Blue White-Brown Brown
Belt

Finland

[edit]

In Finland, junior sub ranks below a certain age are denoted by one to three red stripes on both ends of the belt. They are also used to signify that joint locks, chokes or strangles may not be performed upon the wearer as those are not taught nor applied to juniors below the age of 15 due to safety reasons.

France

[edit]
Judo kyu belt colors of the French Judo Federation
Degree Kyu 11 Kyu 10 Kyu 9 Kyu 8 Kyu 7 Kyu 6 Kyu 5 Kyu 4 Kyu 3 Kyu 2 Kyu 1
Color White White-Yellow Yellow Yellow-Orange Orange Orange-Green Green Blue Brown
Belt
Minimum age 3 ans 4 ans 5 ans 6 ans 7 ans 8 ans 9 ans 10 ans 11 ans 12 ans 14 ans

Germany

[edit]

Minimum age requirement for first Dan ist 16 years (exception 15 years with special preconditions).

In Germany the following belt colors exist:

Judo kyu belt colors of the German Judo Federation (last update 2024-01-16[12])
Degree Kyu 8 Kyu 7 Kyu 6 Kyu 5 Kyu 4 Kyu 3 Kyu 2 Kyu 1
Color White White-Yellow Yellow Yellow-Orange Orange Orange-Green Green Blue Brown
Belt
Minimum age - 8 years 8 years 11 years 13 years[a] / 14 years[b]

Ireland

[edit]

In Ireland the senior belt system is white, yellow, orange, green, blue, brown and black. A practitioner must be at least sixteen before being eligible to grade for blackbelt. For white, yellow, orange and green belt gradings are held in the practitioners club and are based on demonstration of a syllabus and kata. For promotion to blue and brown the judoka must compete at a national grading against players of their own rank and win at least two fights by ippon or wazari. To achieve black belt a judoka must earn 100 points i.e. 10 points for every ippon or waza-ari victory against a brown belt.[13]

Judo kyu belt colors of the Irish Judo Association
Senior Degree Kyu 5 Kyu 4 Kyu 3 Kyu 2 Kyu 1
Color White Yellow Orange Green Blue Brown
Belt
Minimum age 14 years
Minor
(U14)
Shamrock
(U8)
Degree 1st Shamrock 2nd Shamrock Mon 2 Mon 3 Mon 4 Mon 5 Mon 6 Mon 7 Mon 8 Mon 9 Mon 10 Mon 11 Mon 12
Color Red Red Red White-Yellow Yellow Yellow-Orange Orange Orange-Green Green Green-Blue Blue Blue-Brown Brown
Belt
Minimum age 4 years 5 years 6 years 7 years 8 years 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years

Israel

[edit]

In Israel the following belt colors exist:

Judo kyu belt colors of the Israel Judo Association[14]
Degree Kyu 6 Kyu 5 Kyu 4 Kyu 3 Kyu 2 Kyu 1
Color White White-Purple Purple White-Yellow Purple-Yellow Yellow Yellow-Orange Orange Orange-Green Green Green-Blue Blue Brown
Belt

Japan

[edit]

In Japan, the use of belt colors is related to the age of the student. Some clubs will only have black and white, others will include a brown belt for advanced kyū grades and at the elementary school level it is common to see a green belt for intermediate levels.

Netherlands

[edit]
Judo kyu belt colors in Netherlands[15]
Degree Kyu 6 Kyu 5 Kyu 4 Kyu 3 Kyu 2 Kyu 1
Color
Belt

Portugal

[edit]
Judo kyu belt colors of the Portuguese Judo Federation[16]
Degree Kyu 6 Kyu 5 Kyu 4 Kyu 3 Kyu 2 Kyu 1
Color White White-Yellow Yellow Yellow-Orange Orange Orange-Green Green Green-Blue Blue Blue-Brown Brown
Belt

South Africa

[edit]
Judo kyu belt colors of Judo South Africa[17]
Degree Kyu 8 Kyu 7 Kyu 6 Kyu 5 Kyu 4 Kyu 3 Kyu 2 Kyu 1
Color White White-Yellow Yellow Yellow-Orange Orange Orange-Green Green Blue Brown
Belt

United Kingdom

[edit]

In the United Kingdom a red belt is used between the white and yellow belts to signify full membership of the judo club or the country's judo association. A practitioner must be at least fifteen before being eligible to grade for black belt. The British Judo Association Kyu Grade system is as follows:

Judo kyu belt colors of the British Judo Association[18]
Degree Novice Kyu 6 Kyu 5 Kyu 4 Kyu 3 Kyu 2 Kyu 1
Color White Red Yellow Orange Green Blue Brown
Belt

United States

[edit]

In the United States only senior players (usually those age 16 and over) are allowed to earn dan levels, signified by wearing a black belt. The United States Judo Federation (USJF) and United States Judo Association (USJA) recognize dan grades awarded by the other organization. Advanced kyū levels can be earned by both seniors and juniors (children under the age of about 16) and are signified by wearing belts of various colours other than black. The order of belt colours can vary from dōjō to dōjō, depending on the dōjō's organizational affiliation.

Seniors
[edit]

For senior players, both the USJF[19] and the USJA specify six kyū, as listed in the table. The USJA requires "Beginners" (not a kyū) to wear a white belt until they test for yellow belt. The USJA also recommends wearing a patch specifying the practitioner's level. This is true for both kyū and dan levels.

Seniors
Degree Beginner Rokkyū Gokyū Yonkyū Sankyū Nikyū Ikkyū
USJF Color - White Green Blue Brown Brown Brown
Belt
USJA Color White Yellow Orange Green Brown Brown Brown
Belt
Juniors
[edit]

The USJF Juniors ranking system specifies ranks to 11th kyū (jūichikyū). The USJA Juniors ranking system specifies twelve levels of kyū rank, beginning with "Junior 1st Degree" (equivalent to jūnikyū, or 12th kyū) and ending with "Junior 12th Degree" (equivalent to ikkyū). As with the senior practitioners, the USJA recommends that juniors wear a patch specifying their rank. When a USJA Junior reaches the age of 17, their conversion to Senior rank is:[20]

  • Yellow belt converts to 6th kyū (rokkyū)
  • Orange belt converts to 5th kyū (gokyū)
  • Green belt converts to 4th kyū (yonkyū)
  • Blue belt or higher converts to 3rd kyū (sankyū)
Juniors
Degree Jūnikyū Jūichikyū Jūkyū Kukyū Hachikyū Nanakyū Rokkyū Gokyū Yonkyū Sankyū Nikyū Ikkyū
USA Judo

[21]

Color White White-Yellow Yellow Yellow-Orange Orange Orange-Green Green Green-Blue Blue Blue-
purple
Purple
Belt
USJF Color White White-Yellow Yellow Yellow-Orange Orange Orange-Green Green Green-Blue Blue Blue-
purple
Purple
Belt
USJA Name Junior 12th Class Junior 11th Class Junior 10th Class Junior 9th Class Junior 8th Class Junior 7th Class Junior 6th Class Junior 5th Class Junior 4th Class Junior 3rd Class Junior 2nd Class Junior 1st Class
Color White Yellow Orange Orange Green Green Blue Blue Purple Purple Brown Brown
Belt

Notes

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  1. ^ kata and shiai
  2. ^ self defense and taiso

References

[edit]
  1. ^ a b c Ohlenkamp, Neil (March 25, 2007). "The Judo Rank System". JudoInfo.com. Retrieved 2007-10-15.
  2. ^ a b "Judo: 20 questions responses according to the studies and documents published by the Judo review of the Kodokan in Tokyo". Kōdōkan. 1963: 3/2573. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. ^ 柔道帯の最高位は、何と紅!? "紅帯"所持者に投げられてきた! (in Japanese). R25.jp. 2008-05-15. Archived from the original on 2008-05-19. Retrieved 2008-11-11.
  4. ^ Dominy, Eric (1958). Judo. NEL four square.
  5. ^ "Judo Federation of Australia Inc. GRADING POLICY, PROCEDURES and GUIDELINES MANUAL (November 2014)" (PDF).
  6. ^ "KYU-PRÜFUNGSORDNUNG" (PDF). de-AT. p. 8.
  7. ^ "FJERJ (Judo Federation of Rio de Janeiro) - Judo Graduation". Archived from the original on 2012-03-24.
  8. ^ "Ordem das Faixas no Judô".
  9. ^ "NATIONAL KYU GRADING SYLLABUS" (PDF).
  10. ^ "ZKUŠEBNÍ ŘÁD" [EXAMINATION ORDER]. Archived from the original on 2024-06-12.
  11. ^ "Bæltegrader". Judo Danmark. Retrieved 2024-07-10.
  12. ^ "Graduierungssystem".
  13. ^ "GRADING INFORMATION 2022" (PDF).
  14. ^ "takanonsargot" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-10.
  15. ^ "BondsVademecum Hoofdstuk 6.02 - Dan- en kyu-promotiereglement judo" (PDF). 2024-05-07.
  16. ^ "MANUAL DE GRADUAÇÕES E REGULAMENTO DE GRADUAÇÕES" (PDF). web.archive.org. 2010-04-20. p. 58. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2023-05-12. Retrieved 2024-07-10.
  17. ^ "Judo South Africa Library of Resources | JSA". judosa.co.za. Retrieved 2024-07-10.
  18. ^ "KYU GRADE PROMOTION SYLLABUS" (PDF). British Judo Association. 2016-05-01.
  19. ^ "United States Judo Federation Rank Requirements" (PDF).
  20. ^ "United States Judo Association Senior Handbook".
  21. ^ "JUNIOR RANK PROGRAM" (PDF).