|Section:||Juglans sect. Rhysocaryon|
Juglans californica, the California black walnut, also called the California walnut, or the Southern California black walnut, is a large shrub or small tree (about 20-49 feet tall) of the walnut family, Juglandaceae, endemic to California.
Juglans californica is generally found in the southern California Coast Ranges, Transverse Ranges, and Peninsular Ranges. It grows as part of mixed woodlands, and also on slopes and in valleys wherever conditions are favorable. It is threatened by development and overgrazing. Some native stands remain in urban Los Angeles in the Santa Monica Mountains and Hollywood Hills. J. californica grows in riparian woodlands, either in single species stands or mixed with California's oaks (Quercus spp.) and cottonwoods (Populus fremontii).
Juglans californica can be either a large shrub with 1–5 trunks, or a small, single-trunked tree. The main trunk can fork close to the ground, making it look like two trees that have grown together, then diverged. It has thick bark, deeply channeled or furrowed at maturity. It has large, pinnately compound leaves with 11–19 lanceolate leaflets with toothed margins and no hair in the vein angles. It has a small hard nut in a shallowly grooved, thick shell that is difficult to remove.
Juglans californica is cultivated throughout California to support the walnut industry, used as a rootstock in English walnut orchards. It is also cultivated as an ornamental tree where it is planted in California native plant, xeriscape, and wildlife habitat gardens and natural landscaping in California, and in Hawaii.
Some authorities (e.g. the California Native Plant Society) combine this species with Juglans hindsii. On the other hand, a 2007 molecular analysis of the genus suggests J. californica is sister to the remaining black walnuts (section Rhysocaryon). This article follows the conventions of The Jepson Manual.
- Stritch, L. & Barstow, M. (2019). "Juglans californica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T35154A61524825. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
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- "California Black Walnut Trees | City of Walnut, CA". www.cityofwalnut.org. Retrieved 2019-10-17.
- Kershner, Mathews, Nelson, and Spellenberg, National Wildlife Federation field Guide to Trees of North America, 2008, Chanticleer Press, Inc. p. 229
- Elias, Thomas S.; Dykeman, Peter A. (2009) . Edible Wild Plants: A North American Field Guide to Over 200 Natural Foods. New York: Sterling. p. 247. ISBN 978-1-4027-6715-9. OCLC 244766414.
- Aradhya, M. K, D. Potter, F. Gao, & C. J. Simon: "Molecular phylogeny of Juglans (Juglandaceae): a biogeographic perspective: Tree Genetics & Genomes (2007)3:363–378
- Juglans californica S. Watson var. hindsii Jeps.
- Juglans hindsii Jeps. ex R. E. Sm.
- Anderson, E. N. "Some preliminary observations on the California black walnut (Juglans californica)" in Fremontia: A Journal of the California Native Plant Society. January 2002.
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