Juglans mandshurica

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Monkey nuts
Juglans mandshurica Walnut JPG.jpg
Monkey nuts
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Fagales
Family: Juglandaceae
Genus: Juglans
Section: Juglans sect. Cardiocaryon
J. mandshurica
Binomial name
Juglans mandshurica

Juglans cathayensis

Juglans mandshurica (Chinese: 胡桃楸), also known as Monkey nuts,[3] or Tigernut, is a deciduous tree of the genus Juglans (section Cardiocaryon), native to the Eastern Asiatic Region (China, Russian Far East, North Korea and South Korea). It grows to about 25 m.

This species was first described by the Russian botanist Carl Johann Maximowicz, in Bulletin de la Classe Physico-Mathématique de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint-Pétersbourg, which was published in 1856.[4]

The leaves are alternate, 40–90 cm long, odd-pinnate, with 7–19 leaflets, 6–17 cm long and 2–7.5 cm broad (margin serrate or serrulate, apex acuminate). The male flowers are in drooping catkins 9–40 cm long, the wind-pollinated female flowers (April–May) are terminal, in spikes of 4 to 10, ripening in August–October into nuts, 3-7.5 × 3–5 cm, with densely glandular pubescent green husk and very thick shell.

The tree is exceptionally hardy (down to at least -45 °C), has a relatively short vegetation period compared to other walnuts, grows rapidly and is cultivated as an ornamental in colder temperate regions all over the Northern Hemisphere. (For example, it has been found to grow satisfactorily in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.[5]) The kernels of the nuts are edible, but small and difficult to extract. The timber is in use, but less valuable than that of English walnut or black walnut.

Rendeux AR3bJPG.jpg

The Manchurian walnut contains and exudes much lesser quantities of allelopathic compounds (such as juglone) than other popular Juglans species[6] and usually causes few significant allelopathic effects in cultivation.

Juglans cathayensis, characterized by tomentose leaflets, producing more flowers per spike and growing south of the Yellow River, was sometimes recognized as a species separate from J. mandshurica.

The Japanese walnut (オニグルミ) is listed by some authorities as Juglans mandshurica var. sachalinensis (syn. Juglans ailantifolia).


  1. ^ Juglans mandshurica Maximowicz, Bull. Cl. Phys.-Math. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, sér. 2. 15: 127. 1856.
  2. ^ "Juglans cathayensis Dode". Plants of the World Online. Kew Science. Retrieved 21 January 2023.
  3. ^ Lee, Sangtae; Chang, Kae Sun, eds. (2015). English Names for Korean Native Plants (PDF). Pocheon: Korea National Arboretum. p. 503. ISBN 978-89-97450-98-5. Retrieved 7 March 2019 – via Korea Forest Service.
  4. ^ Christophe Wiart (5 November 2012). Lead Compounds from Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Cancer. Academic Press. pp. 341–. ISBN 978-0-12-398371-8.
  5. ^ Barkley, Shelley (2007-05-22). "Juglans sp. (Butternut/Walnut)". Government of Alberta. Archived from the original on 2007-09-21. Retrieved 2007-10-27.
  6. ^ Помогайбин А.В., Кавеленова Л.М., Силаева О.Н. (2002). Некоторые особенности химического состава и биологической активности листового отпада видов рода орех (Juglans L.) при интродукции в Среднем Поволжье Archived 2007-10-25 at the Wayback Machine. Химия растительного сырья 4, 43-47.

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