A jukebox musical is a stage musical or musical film in which a majority of the songs are well-known popular music songs, rather than original music. Many jukebox musicals confine themselves to songs performed by one singer or band, or songs written by one songwriter. In such cases, the plot is often a biography of the artist(s) in question. In other jukebox musicals, the plot is purely fictional. For musicals about a musician or musical act, some of the songs can be diegetic, meaning that they are performed within the world of the play or film. Works in which all of the music is diegetic, however, such as a biographical film about a singer who is at times shown performing their songs, are generally not considered jukebox musicals.
Artists whose life and songs have served as the basis for a jukebox musical include Peter Allen, Susan Boyle, Shlomo Carlebach, Johnny Cash, Cher, Patsy Cline, Bobby Darin, Emilio and Gloria Estefan, Buddy Holly, Michael Jackson, Janis Joplin, Carole King, The Kinks, Fela Kuti, John Lennon, Udo Lindenberg, Johnny O'Keefe, Dusty Springfield (twice), Donna Summer, The Temptations, Tina Turner (twice), Frankie Valli and The Four Seasons, and Hank Williams. Others who have gotten similar treatment include songwriter/producers Bert Berns, Berry Gordy and Ellie Greenwich, record producer Florence Greenberg, and composer/songwriter Norbert Glanzberg.
For jukebox musicals with a fictional plot, one common approach is to center the plot around one or more (fictional) singers or musicians, thus letting some of the songs be performed as songs within the show. Examples of such musicals include Boogie Nights (1998), Mamma Mia! (1999), Hoy no me puedo levantar (2005), Bésame mucho, el musical (2005), Rock of Ages (2005), Daddy Cool (2006), Never Forget (2007), Viva Forever! (2012), All Out of Love (2018) and Jukebox Hero (2018).
Some shows and films combine original and previously-released songs; it may be a matter of opinion whether these qualify as jukebox musicals. For example, the stage musicals 42nd Street (1980), Five Guys Named Moe (1990), Crazy for You (1992) and Xanadu (2007) are all adaptations of earlier source material that added to the original score other well-known songs written by the original songwriters. Films that combine old and original songs include Singin' in the Rain (1952), Idlewild (2006) and Trolls (2016).
In Europe in the 17th and 18th century, many comic operas were produced that parodied popular songs of the time by performing them with modified lyrics. Comédie en vaudevilles and ballad operas are two genres that made heavy use of well-known melodies. The Beggar's Opera (1728), the first ballad opera and the most famous, has been called "the original jukebox musical".
The songwriting team of Robert Wright and George Forrest pioneered the concept of musicals whose songs are derived from one composer's instrumental works, with newly-written lyrics. Some of these musicals also told the life story of that composer. Musicals and operettas that they produced in this fashion include Song of Norway (1944, using the music of Edvard Grieg), Magdalena: a Musical Adventure (1948, music of Heitor Villa-Lobos), a 1949 reworking of the 1934 musical The Great Waltz (music of Johann Strauss I and Johann Strauss II), Kismet (1953, music of Alexander Borodin) and Anya (1965, music of Sergei Rachmaninoff).
The origin of the phrase "jukebox musical" in its current meaning is unclear. The word "jukebox" dates to around 1939. The first documented use of "jukebox musical" in print may have been in a 1962 description of the musical Do Re Mi, but that was a musical (with original music) about a man who sells jukeboxes. In a 1964 review of the Beatles film A Hard Day's Night, critic Andrew Sarris described that film as "the Citizen Kane of jukebox musicals", but he too may have had a meaning in mind other than the contemporary one, since most of that film's songs were original.
Although jukebox musicals had achieved success for years (for example the 1989 musical Buddy – The Buddy Holly Story), a surge in popularity was led by the success of Mamma Mia! (1999), built around the music of ABBA.
List of stage jukebox musicals
|Year||Title||Based on the music of|
|1976||Bubbling Brown Sugar||Duke Ellington, Count Basie, Cab Calloway, et al.|
|1978||Ain't Misbehavin'||Fats Waller|
|Year||Title||Based on the music of|
|1980||42nd Street||Al Dubin, Johnny Mercer, and Harry Warren|
|1984||Leader of the Pack||Ellie Greenwich, Jeff Barry, and Phil Spector|
|1986||Big Deal||Popular songs from the 1920s and 30s|
|1987||Hank Williams: Lost Highway||Hank Williams|
|1988||Always ... Patsy Cline||Patsy Cline|
|1989||Buddy – The Buddy Holly Story||Buddy Holly, including many early rock "standards"|
|1989||Return to the Forbidden Planet||1960s rock and roll|
|Year||Title||Based on the music of|
|1997||Boogie Nights||the 70s|
|1998||Saturday Night Fever||Bee Gees and others|
|1999||Disco Inferno||1970s disco|
|1999||The Marvelous Wonderettes||female vocal harmony groups of the 1950s and 1960s|
|Year||Title||Based on the music of|
|2020||My Best Friend's Wedding||Burt Bacharach and Hal David, based on the film My Best Friend's Wedding|
|2021||MJ: The Musical||Michael Jackson|
|2021||Once Upon a One More Time||Britney Spears|
|2021||What's New Pussycat?||Tom Jones|
List of jukebox musical films
- Yankee Doodle Dandy (1942), a picture dealing with the life of Playwright and Composer George M. Cohan, and featuring many of his greatest songs, which were among the most popular songs of their day (Late 19th Century-Early 20th Century).
- Meet Me in St. Louis (1945), featuring mostly popular songs from the earlier 20th century and three new songs written for Judy Garland.
- Till the Clouds Roll By (1946), a biopic of composer Jerome Kern, featuring his songs.
- Easter Parade (1948), featuring a collection of songs by Irving Berlin.
- One Sunday Afternoon (1948), featuring popular songs from the earlier 20th century.
- An American in Paris (1951), a fictionalized story based around George Gershwin's "An American in Paris" suite. The score consists entirely of George and Ira Gershwin pieces, with "American in Paris" being a recurring theme.
- Singin' in the Rain (1952), featuring popular songs from the 1920s and '30s and songs by Arthur Freed, with the exception of two numbers ("Make 'Em Laugh" and "Moses Supposes")
- The Band Wagon (1953) shared a title with The Band Wagon (musical), but only used three songs from the show. It featured an entirely new book by Betty Comden and Adolph Green, written to showcase the Howard Dietz - Arthur Schwartz songbook, including songs from Between the Devil, Flying Colors, and others. Only one song, "That's Entertainment!", was written for the film.
- Love Me or Leave Me (1955), featuring popular songs} from the 1930s.
- Rock Around the Clock (1956), the first rock-and-roll movie musical, featuring the commercial recordings of Bill Haley and His Comets and The Platters.
- Don't Knock the Rock (1957), another Bill Haley jukebox musical, with the commercial recordings of Haley, Little Richard, and The Treniers.
- Hootenanny Hoot (1963), a low-budget MGM picture intended to capitalize on the Folk Music craze then sweeping America, featuring on-screen performances by Johnny Cash, Judy Henske, and several other Folk Music artists.
- Yellow Submarine (1968), based on the songs of The Beatles.
- Son of Dracula (1974), featuring songs from Harry Nilsson's albums Nilsson Schmilsson and Son of Schmilsson.
- At Long Last Love (1975), based on the songs of Cole Porter.
- All That Jazz (1979), featuring popular music from the earlier 20th century.
- Can't Stop the Music (1980), featuring contemporary disco songs.
- The Blues Brothers (1980), featuring various popular rhythm & blues songs.
- American Pop (1981), featuring rock songs from the 1960s and '70s.
- Beetlejuice (1988), featuring songs by Harry Belafonte.
- Everyone Says I Love You (1996), featuring popular music from the earlier 20th century.
- Spice World (1997), based on the music of The Spice Girls.
- Blues Brothers 2000 (1998), featuring various popular rhythm & blues songs.
- Love's Labour's Lost (2000), featuring classic Broadway songs of the 1930s.
- Moulin Rouge! (2001), featuring a variety of pop songs from various decades.
- 20 centímetros (2005), Various Artists, featuring a variety of pop songs from various decades.
- Happy Feet (2006), featuring a variety of pop songs from various decades.
- Idlewild (2006), featuring the songs of OutKast.
- Romance & Cigarettes (2006), featuring mostly love themed pop-songs from the 1950s through '70s.
- Across the Universe (2007), featuring the songs of The Beatles.
- Stilyagi (2008), featuring Soviet rock songs from the 1970s and '80s.
- Mamma Mia! (2008), based on the musical Mamma Mia!, which is based on the songs of ABBA
- Gnomeo & Juliet (2011), based mostly on the music of Elton John.
- Happy Feet Two (2011), featuring a variety of pop songs from various decades.
- Toi, moi, les autres (2011), featuring a variety of French songs.
- The Perks of Being a Wallflower (film) (2012), featuring various songs by numerous artists.
- Pitch Perfect (2012), featuring songs of various genres and various artists.
- Rock of Ages (2012), featuring hard rock and metal songs of the 1980s.
- Lovestruck: The Musical (2013), featuring various pop and dance songs of the 1980s through present.
- Sunshine on Leith (2013), based on the Musical Sunshine on Leith, which is based on the songs of The Proclaimers.
- Jersey Boys (2014), based on the musical Jersey Boys, which is based on the music of The Four Seasons.
- Walking on Sunshine (2014), featuring pop-songs from the 1980s.
- Strange Magic (2015) featuring various genres and various artists.
- Trolls (2016) featuring various genres and various artists.
- Sing (2016) featuring various genres and various artists.
- Mamma Mia! Here We Go Again (2018), sequel to the first film based on the musical Mamma Mia!, which is based on the songs of ABBA.
- Rocketman (film) (2019), based on the life and music of Elton John.
- Judy (film) (2019), based on the life and music of Judy Garland
- En del av mitt hjärta (2019), based on the songs of Tomas Ledin.
- Valley Girl (2020), featuring pop-songs from the 1980s.
- Greatest Days (TBC), based on the stage musical The Band (musical)
List of jukebox musical TV shows
- Kids Incorporated (1984)
- Kidd Video (1984)
- Blackpool (2007)
- Viva Laughlin (2007)
- Glee (2009)
- Smash (2012)
- Beat Bugs (2016) which uses a different Beatles song
- Motown Magic (2018) which uses a different Motown song
- Zoey's Extraordinary Playlist (2020) which uses a different pop song
Works based on concept albums
In a different category are films or stage musicals based around a concept album, in which the story being told is not original but rather a fleshed-out version of the narrative already contained in the album. Examples include:
- The 1974 musical Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band on the Road, based on the 1967 album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band by the Beatles
- The 1975 film Tommy, based on the 1969 album Tommy by The Who
- The 1978 film Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, loosely based on Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band on the Road, although it incorporated songs from the some of the Beatles' other albums as well
- The 1982 film Pink Floyd – The Wall, based on the 1979 album The Wall by Pink Floyd
- The 1992 musical The Who's Tommy, similarly based on the album Tommy
- The 2010 musical American Idiot, based on the 2004 album American Idiot by Green Day
- The 2017 musical Bat Out of Hell: The Musical, based on the 1977 album Bat Out of Hell by Meat Loaf, and additionally incorporating music from Bat Out of Hell II: Back into Hell (1993) and Bat Out of Hell III: The Monster Is Loose (2006), all originally performed by Meat Loaf and written by Jim Steinman
- List of highest-grossing musicals
- Soundtrack album
- Brown, Mark (23 April 2013). "The Commitments to be turned into West End musical". guardian.co.uk. London: The Guardian. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
It will include many classic soul songs, including Mustang Sally, but most definitely will not be a "jukebox musical", said Doyle.
- "Can Critics Learn to Love the Jukebox Musical?". The New York Times. August 29, 2018.
- Larson, Sarah (July 22, 2014). "LET'S ROCK: IN DEFENSE OF JUKEBOX MUSICALS". The New Yorker.
- Smith, Rowena (August 17, 2018). "The Beggar's Opera review – the original jukebox musical reimagined". The Guardian.
- Guide to the Performing Arts: 3460, Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1962, p. 204, "—Kanin, Garson; his jukebox musical with Phil Silvers, Nancy Walker".
- Eder, Bruce (December 11, 1989). "A Hard Day's Night". The Criterion Collection.
- "Mamma Mia! and the Rise of the Jukebox Musical". Cheap Theater Tickets. Retrieved 11 October 2015.
- Jeff Giles (October 21, 2016). "Cheap Trick, Journey and Foreigner vets lead new 'Rock Pack' concert experience". Ultimate Classic Rock. Townsquare Media. Retrieved 2018-10-18.
- "Photo Flash: First Look At The Air Supply Musical ALL OUT OF LOVE in Manila". Broadway World. Wisdom Digital Media. 19 October 2018. Retrieved 21 October 2018.
- Katigbak, Fran (23 June 2018). "All Out of Love: Here it is, an Air Supply jukebox musical!". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 21 October 2018.