|This article needs additional citations for verification. (May 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
In modern Danish culture Julemanden is the equivalent of the English Father Christmas although the roots of the character reach into Danish folklore and mythology wherein Julemanden is a mythical character who is said to bring Christmas presents to children  in Denmark on Christmas Eve, celebrated December 24.
The main differences to the English Father Christmas is that Julemanden lives in Greenland, loves risengrød which is rice pudding with cinnamon-sugar, and a slice of butter on top, and is assisted by nisser which are the Danish version of elves. According to myths, he would come to houses either by foot or by sleigh and often wears fur to keep him warm.
Julemanden is a relatively new phenomenon in Denmark, appearing some time after World War 2. Until then, there was "Nissefar", "Nissekongen" or "Julenissen" - a character with several resemblances to the modern "Julemand". This tradition is traced back centuries when people believed in Nisser (elves, leprechauns, spirits or mystical entities rarely or never seen directly). Local folklore dictated the expected actions of the Nisser, which could be moody creatures resulting in all kinds of fortunes or even disasters.
The role of the "Julenisse" was to bring good fortune to the family and to achieve this, he would have to be treated well especially around Jul (December). This was achieved by feeding him, traditionally with some form of porridge (now rice porridge). If the Nisse was satisfied he would bring good fortune in the coming year.
The "Julenisse" is still, however, "celebrated" and he acts as a stand-in for "Julemanden" in early December, to entertain the childish mind, bring small gifts and sometimes plays tricks on the household, kindergarten etc. where such "creatures" can prosper.
In popular culture
The gift-giving Nisse that became "Nissekongen" seems to have drawn influences from the American "Santa", when American culture began making an impact in Denmark, but rather than outright copying him, local traditions were tweaked, eventually resulting in a "Father Christmas" type character with only traces of the original "Nisse" and in some respects indistinguishable from "Santa".
In an attempt to attract more than 800,000 tourists, the Tivoli theme park in Copenhagen replaced their Julemanden display to that of its Russian counterpart – Father Frost in 2011.
- Rensdyrvej 1
- Postboks 2412
- 1566 København V
Rensdyrvej translates as "Reindeer Way", while the PO Box number 2412 is a reference to 24 December.
- Santa Claus, in Rock Hill, talks about his favorite duties Herald Online. 19 December 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2014
- Who is ... Julemanden? The Copenhagen Post. Victoria Steffensen. 23 December 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2014
- A merry and bright Christmas – and as joyfully eccentric as ever The Telegraph UK. Judith Woods. 15 December 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2014
- Christmas Traditions: Nordic Rituals and Fables of Denmark Magix Magazine. 26 December 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2014
- So many children, so little time, how do you do it Santa? The Royal Gazette. 19 December 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2014
- Psychology: Handling the Santa dilemma Capital Gazette. Scott Smith. 22 December 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2014
- Julemanden is the Danish version of the Father Christmas Indobase Christmas. Retrieved 3 May 2014
- Denmark’s Tivoli invests in Russian Christmas KyivPost. 22 September 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2014
- Post Danmark lover svar fra julemanden, Fyns Amts Avis, 26 November 2009
- Santa, our Arctic colleague
- Christmas History and Traditions of Different Cultures
- Danish Christmas by the Fireside