Jules Paivio

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Jules Peter Paivio (29 April 1916 – 4 September 2013)[1] was a Canadian architect, professor, and soldier. A veteran of the Spanish Civil War, he was the last surviving member of the Mackenzie–Papineau Battalion.

Early life and family[edit]

Paivio was born near Port Arthur, Ontario,[2] and raised in nearby Sudbury by his Finnish parents.[3] His father Aku Päiviö was a Finnish Canadian journalist, poet and socialist. Päiviö's brother Allan Paivio is an emeritus professor of psychology at the University of Western Ontario. He is best known for his dual-coding theory.[4]

Spanish Civil War[edit]

Paivio left Canada at the age of 19 to fight in the Spanish Civil War.[3] He was captured during the war, saved from execution by an Italian officer, and placed in a prisoner-of-war camp.[3] Paivio was the last surviving Canadian veteran of the Spanish Civil War, and in 2012 he was honored by the Spanish government by being granted honorary citizenship.[5]

World War Two[edit]

During World War Two, Paivio trained soldiers in map-reading and surveying.[5]

Academic career[edit]

Paivio was a trained architect and taught at Ryerson University.[2]


Jules Paivio died on 4 September 2013, at the age of 97.[3]


  1. ^ http://www.legacy.com/obituaries/thestar/obituary.aspx?n=jules-peter-paivio&pid=166936459#fbLoggedOut
  2. ^ a b "Man of conviction - Jules Paivio is an unwavering left-winger, academic and Spanish civil war veteran". Vapaa Sana. Retrieved 10 September 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c d Terrence Rundle West (9 September 2013). "Mac-Paps fought fascism, but their last dies unnoticed". Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved 10 September 2013. 
  4. ^ "Idealist fought fascism during Spanish Civil War". The Globe and Mail. 17 October 2013. Retrieved 8 May 2014. 
  5. ^ a b Adrian Morrow (23 January 2012). "Spain grants citizenship to Canadian veteran of the Spanish Civil War". Globe & Mail. Retrieved 10 September 2013.