Julia (women of the Julii Caesares)

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Julia (Classical Latin: IVLIA) is the nomen of various women of the gens Julia, one of the most ancient patrician houses at ancient Rome.

By the time of the later Republic, Roman daughters were seldom given personal names, or praenomina, unless there were several sisters in a family, and were instead known by a variety of less formal names when it became necessary to distinguish between them. A first daughter might simply continue to be known by her nomen alone, especially if she were much older than her sisters, or she might become known as Julia Major ("the elder"), Julia Maxima ("the eldest"), or Julia Prima ("the first"). Younger daughters might become known as Julia Minor ("the younger"), Julia Secunda ("the second"), Julia Tertia ("the third"), Julia Paulla ("little Julia"), and soforth.

Outside the family, some women became known by a combination of their father's nomen and cognomen; the daughter of Lucius Julius Severus would be referred to as Julia Severa in order to distinguish her from other women named Julia. But because many names were very common, this was often insufficient to distinguish among individuals. Often women were identified by reference to their fathers or husbands. Julia, the daughter of Sextus Julius Caesar, might be identified as Julia Caesaris filia ("Julia, daughter of Caesar"). This particular nomenclature has led to the mistaken belief that Caesaris and similar names are the women's surnames, although in fact they are merely the genitive forms of masculine names, and refer to other people. Care must be taken to distinguish between these names and women's cognomina.

Julia (wife of Sulla)[edit]

Main article: Julia (wife of Sulla)

Julia (d. 104 BC) known in modern-day references as Julia Cornelia to distinguish her from her other family members. She was the first cousin of Julius Caesar's father and wife of Lucius Cornelius Sulla.[1]

Julia (wife of Marius)[edit]

Julia (d. 69 BC) was the paternal aunt of Julius Caesar and the wife of Gaius Marius.

Julia (mother of Marcus Antonius)[edit]

Julia (circa 104 BC – after 39 BC), known in the sources as Julia Antonia to distinguish her from the others, was the wife of Marcus Antonius Creticus and mother of Gaius and Lucius Antonius and Mark Antony, the triumvir.

Julia Major (grandaunt of Augustus)[edit]

The elder of the two sisters of the dictator Caesar, she was twice married, to Lucius Pinarius and Quintus Pedius, although the order of her marriages is not known. Her grandsons, also called Lucius Pinarius and Quintus Pedius, were named Caesar's heirs in the dictator's will, together with their cousin, Gaius Octavius, grandson of Julia Minor, and the future emperor Augustus. Either this Julia or her sister gave testimony against Publius Clodius Pulcher, when he was impeached for impiety in 61 BC. She should not be confused with Julia the Elder, daughter of Augustus.

Julia Minor (grandmother of Augustus)[edit]

The younger of the dictator's two sisters, also known as "Julia the Younger" (101–51 BC), she was the grandmother of Augustus. She should not be confused with Julia the Younger, granddaughter of Augustus.

Julia (wife of Pompeius)[edit]

Julius Caesar's only legitimate child to survive to adulthood, married strategically to Pompey to cement the First Triumvirate, died in childbirth in 54 BC.

Julia Augusta[edit]

Main article: Livia

Livia Drusilla (30 January 58 BC – 28 September 29 AD) was adopted into her husband's family (the Julii Caesares) in his will. She became known as Julia Augusta after her adoption.

Julia Major (daughter of Augustus)[edit]

Main article: Julia the Elder

Julia Major (October 39 BC-AD 14), also known as Julia the Elder, was the only child of Augustus, from his second marriage with Scribonia.

Julia Minor (granddaughter of Augustus)[edit]

Main article: Julia the Younger

Vipsania Julia Agrippina, daughter of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder, also known as "Julia Minor" or "Julia the Younger". Technically, she belonged to the Vipsanii Agrippae, her father's family.

Julia Livia (daughter of Drusus Julius Caesar)[edit]

Main article: Julia Livia

Julia (5 - 43), was the daughter of Drusus Julius Caesar and Livilla. She was the elder sister to Tiberius Gemellus and the biological granddaughter of Tiberius. She is known as Julia Drusi Caesaris filia or Livia Julia.

Julia Agrippina[edit]

Main article: Agrippina the Younger

Julia Agrippina or Agrippina Minor (Minor Latin for the younger, 15 - 59) was the eldest daughter of Germanicus, who was a member of the gens Claudius by birth, but was adopted into the family of the Julii Caesares by Tiberius. Despite the adoption of her father, Agrippina the Younger is rarely referred to as "Julia".

Julia Drusilla[edit]

Main article: Julia Drusilla

Like with her sister Agrippina, Julia Drusilla or Drusilla (16 - 38) is seldom identified as "Julia". She was the first younger sister to Agrippina the Younger and beloved sister to Caligula. Caligula's daughter, Julia Drusilla was named after her.

Julia Livilla[edit]

Main article: Julia Livilla

Known as Julia Livia, or more familiarly by the diminutive "Livilla" (18 - late 41 or early 42).

Julia Drusilla (daughter of Caligula)[edit]

Julia Drusilla (AD 39 – 41).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Keaveney, Arthur, Sulla: The Last Republican, Routledge; 2 edition (June 23, 2005). Page 8. ISBN 978-0-415-33660-4.