Julii Caesares

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For other people named Julius Caesar, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation).
Julius Caesar, a.k.a. Gaius Julius Caesar IV, the best known of the Julii Caesares

Julii Caesares is a subdivision of the patrician Julii family in the Roman Republic, and the beginnings of the Julian side of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty. All its members had the nomen Julius and the cognomen Caesar. When further historical details are lacking they can be told apart by (often recurring) praenomina, the offices they held, the era they lived in and/or known or surmised relatives.


Emperor Caligula and his three sisters (Agrippina the Younger, Julia Drusilla and Julia Livilla), Julii Caesares after adoption of their father Germanicus by Tiberius

The first Caesar may have been a grandson of the Lucius Julius Libo who was consul in 267 BC.[1] His praenomen may have been Numerius[2] or Sextus.[3] Genealogies show a lot of variation up to the grandfather of Julius Caesar, the Roman dictator. For these earlier generations of Caesars descendancy is largely a conjectural construct by later historians,[3] often intended to illustrate some noble or even divine descent (e.g. translatio imperii) with little or no evidence from the period these people actually lived. From the generation of the dictator's grandfather the descendance is better documented, including the adoptions from Julius Caesar's posthumous adoption of his grandnephew Octavian.

The paths chosen in the descendancy trees below are, for the generations between Libo and the grandfather of the Roman dictator, among the variants offered by historians.[4] Other variants are indicated below in the by praenomen section.

Male lineage[edit]

Male lineage with the same uncertainties for the generations between Libo, the consul, and Julius Caesar's grandfather as in the general descendancy tree above:

Abbreviations for praenomina
  • C. = Gaius
  • Drus. = Drusus
  • Germ. = Germanicus
  • L. = Lucius
  • M. = Marcus
  • N. = Numerius
  • Sex. = Sextus
  • Ti. = Tiberius

L. Julius Libo I
L. Julius Libo II
N. Julius Caesar
L. Julius Caesar I
Sex. Julius Caesar I
Sex. Julius Caesar II
C. Julius Caesar I
L. Julius Caesar II
C. Julius Caesar II
L. Julius Caesar III
C. Julius Caesar Strabo
C. Julius Caesar III
Sex. Julius Caesar III
L. Julius Caesar IV
C. Julius Caesar IV
Sex. Julius Caesar IV
L. Julius Caesar V
Augustus (C. Julius Caesar V)
C. Julius Caesar VI
L. Julius Caesar VI
Tiberius (Ti. Julius Caesar I)
M. Julius Caesar
Drus. Julius Caesar I
Germ. Julius Caesar
Ti. Julius Caesar II
Nero Julius Caesar
Drus. Julius Caesar II
Caligula (C. Julius Caesar VII)

Without adoptions[edit]

Some of the adopted Julii Caesares had Julii Caesares among their ancestors before adoption. From the emperors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty only Tiberius, Augustus' stepson when he married Livia, had no such ancestor before adoption. Expliciting these blood lines without the adoptions (note that the offspring of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder appears twice, they descended from Julii Caesares both from the paternal and the maternal side):

Men (by praenomen)[edit]

Germanicus, descendant of Lucius Julius Caesar III through his mother Antonia Minor, became one of the Julii Caesares himself after adoption by Tiberius, adopted into the Julii Caesares by Augustus, the posthumously adopted son of Julius Caesar

When a praenomen recurs, without other distinguishing features of the name, there is a tradition to use ordinals in order to distinguish the names.[5]

Among these praenomina below, Drusus and Nero were originally cognomina of the gentes Livia and Claudia respectively.[citation needed] Germanicus was an agnomen (from Germanicus's father Drusus's victory in Germania).[6]


  • Drusus Julius Caesar (13 BC – AD 23, military commander, etc.), son of Tiberius and father of Tiberius Gemellus;
  • Drusus Julius Caesar Germanicus, i.e. Drusus Caesar (AD 7 – AD 33), son of Germanicus;


Main article: Gaius Julius Caesar
  • I: Gaius Julius Caesar I can possibly be identical to Gaius Julius (historian), a senator who around 143 BC would have written a Roman history in Greek. May have been a son of Sextus, the military tribune of 181 BC (and so a brother of Sextus, the consul of 157 BC). May have been the father of the next Gaius.[3]
  • II: Gaius Julius Caesar II, grandfather of Caesar, may have been a praetor.[3]
  • Gaius Julius Caesar Strabo Vopiscus, second cousin of Caesar's father (c.130 BC – 87 BC, quaestor, aedile, killed by partisans of Marius);
  • III: Gaius Julius Caesar (proconsul), father of Caesar and proconsul of Asia in 90s BC (c. 135 BC – 85 BC, quaestor, praetor, supporter of Marius)[7]
  • IV: Gaius Julius Caesar, most famous member (100 BC – 44 BC, consul, dictator, etc.);
  • V: Gaius Julius Caesar (Octavianus), i.e. Augustus, Caesar's adopted son, first Roman emperor (63 BC – AD 14, Emperor from 27 BC);
  • VI Gaius Julius Caesar (Agrippa), i.e. Gaius Caesar (20 BC – AD 4), formerly Gaius Vipsanius Agrippa (as biological son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa). He was the grandson and later the adopted son of Augustus;
  • VII: Gaius Julius Caesar Germanicus, i.e. Caligula (AD 12 – AD 41, Emperor from AD 37), the third Roman emperor, who was a great-grandson of Augustus and son of Germanicus.


  • Germanicus Julius Caesar, i.e. Germanicus (15 BC – AD 19, military commander, etc.), nephew of Tiberius and grandson of Octavia Minor, Augustus' sister;


Main article: Lucius Julius Caesar


  • Marcus Julius Caesar Agrippa Postumus, i.e. Agrippa Postumus a.k.a. Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Postumus (as son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa) was the grandson and later the adopted son of Augustus (12 BC – AD 14);




Main article: Sextus Julius Caesar


  • Tiberius Julius Caesar, i.e. Tiberius (42 BC – AD 37, Emperor from AD 14), stepson, son-in-law and adopted son of Augustus, second Roman emperor;
  • Tiberius Julius Caesar Nero Gemellus, i.e. Tiberius Gemellus (AD 19 – AD 37), grandson of Tiberius.

Women (chronological)[edit]

Main article: Julia Caesaris
Julia the Elder, granddaughter of Julius Caesar's sister, daughter of Augustus, was known in her time as Julia Caesaris filia (Julia, Caesar's daughter) or Julia Augusti filia (Julia, Augustus' daughter)

Feminine names were their father's gens and cognomen declined in the female form, and so all female members are Julia Caesaris.


  1. ^ a b c Griffin 2009 p. 13–14 (info partly derived from Livy 27.22.9)
  2. ^ a b c d Everett Francis Briggs. A Briggs memorial: some ancestors of John Briggs of Taunton, Massachusetts : with collateral Deighton (Williams), Whitney, and Mayflower-Rogers lines, p. 5 Family History Publishers, 1997 ISBN 0965435512 ISBN 9780965435512
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i William Smith. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 1870. Volume 1 p. 536 ff.
  4. ^ a b c d Napoleon III. Histoire de Jules César Volume 1, p. 253 Paris: H. Plon 1865
  5. ^ Wurts 1945
  6. ^ Suetonius, 121, Claudius I 1. 3, "... and the surname Germanicus for himself and his descendants."
  7. ^ Griffin 2009 pp. 15–16
  8. ^ a b Wurts 1945 Vol. 4 p. 627
  9. ^ a b c d e Griffin 2009 p. 14
  10. ^ Griffin 2009 p. 15


External links[edit]