Julius Paulus Prudentissimus
Julius Paulus Prudentissimus (Greek: Ἰούλιος Παῦλος; fl. 2nd century and 3rd century AD) was one of the most influential and distinguished Roman jurists. He was also a praetorian prefect under the Roman Emperor Alexander Severus.
Little is known of the life and family of Paulus. Paulus was a man of Greek descent, who originated from an unknown Phoenician town or from Patavium (modern Padua Italy). The possibility that Paulus could come from Patavium is based on a statue with an inscription found in Patavium dedicated to a Paulus.
During the reign of emperors Septimius Severus and Caracalla, Paulus served as a jurist. He was exiled by the emperor Elagabalus and recalled from exile by his successor, emperor Alexander Severus. Severus and his mother Julia Avita Mamaea in 222, appointed Paulus among the emperor’s chief advisers and between 228-235, Paulus was the Praetorian prefect of the Praetorian Guard. Paulus was a contemporary of the jurist Ulpian. Paulus partly followed the career path of former Praetorian prefect Aemilius Papinianus. Due to his cautious politic nature and opinion, the emperor Gordian III, awarded him the honorific title of Prudentissimus.
Paulus’s legal works
Paulus had written 319 various legal publications. His surviving works are extremely prolific. Paulus’ works display a keen analysis of other opinions of jurists and Paulus expressed his legal views. He appears to have written a great variety on legal subjects and had a thorough knowledge of legal subjects and law.
Paulus in his works, comments on the jurists Javolenus Priscus, Quintus Cervidius Scaevola, Marcus Antistius Labeo, Salvius Julianus and Aemilius Papinianus. He is cited by the jurists Macer and Herennius Modestinus. Paulus’ writing style is condensed and sometimes obscure, however his work is just as good as the other Roman jurists. Paulus’ work has survived from excerpts, however his work needs to be carefully read to be understood.
Paulus’ was one of the five jurists whose opinions were made constitutionally authoritative in 426 by Roman Emperors Theodosius II and Valentinian III. Another legacy from Paulus is the inclusion of his writings in The Digest which was written and put together by Byzantine Emperor Justinian I.
One sixth of the Corpus Juris Civilis in the Digest consists of Paulus’ work. Paulus is the most excerpted Roman jurist in the Digest. After Paulus, Ulpian is the second most excerpted Roman jurist in the Digest. The Digest attributes to Paulus the first articulation of the presumption of innocence in Roman law: Ei incumbit probatio qui dicit, non qui negat—"Proof lies on him who asserts, not on him who denies". Paulus in the Digest is also referred in two passages, which he gave a contrary opinion to Alexander Severus, but Severus chose Papinianus‘ opinion.
Due to his fame several other works have been attributed to him, in particular the 3rd century compilation Pauli sententiae ("Paul's Views" or "Sentences"). From Paulus’ surviving works and works attributed to him, the Sententiae ad Filium have the longest fragments.
- "Digesta seu Pandectae 22.3.2". Grenoble: Université Pierre-Mendés-France. Retrieved 2010-10-13.
- Watson, Alan, ed. (1998) . "22.3.2". The Digest of Justinian. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1636-9.
- Honoré, Tony (2003), "Iulius Paulus", in Hornblower, Simon; Spawforth, Anthony, The Oxford Classical Dictionary (3rd ed.), Oxford: OxfordUP, pp. 785–6, ISBN 978-0-19-860641-3
- A list of various legal publications from Paulus, see ‘Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology’
- Schumpeter, Joseph A. (1954). History of Economic Analysis. Oxford University Press. — Part II (From the Beginnings to The First Classical Situation (to About 1790)), chapter 1 (Graeco-Roman Economics), section 7 (The Contribution of the Romans), page 70, footnote 6.
- The Ancient Library
- The Roman Law Library by Yves Lassard and Alexandr Koptev.
- Google book : Latin Literature A History, Gian Biagio Conte
- Book I, The Opinions of Julius Paulus, Addressed to His Son
- Book II, The Opinions of Julius Paulus, Addressed to His Son
- Book III, The Opinions of Julius Paulus, Addressed to His Son
- Julius Paulus, in ‘Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology’, ancientlibrary.com