July 1961

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July 21, 1961: U.S. astronaut Gus Grissom escapes sinking space capsule on return to Earth
July 2, 1961: Author Ernest Hemingway commits suicide
July 4, 1961: Soviet nuclear sub K-19 has reactor accident
July 12, 1961: TIROS weather satellite launched by U.S.

The following events occurred in July 1961.

July 1, 1961 (Saturday)[edit]

July 2, 1961 (Sunday)[edit]

  • In a meeting at the Kremlin, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev warned Sir Frank Roberts, the British Ambassador, that Britain and France should avoid joining the United States in going to war over West Berlin, telling him "Six hydrogen bombs would be quite enough to annihilate the British Isles, and nine would take care of France."[5]
  • In elections for the Chamber of Deputies, voters went to the polls to elect 178 members to serve for three-year terms.[6] The ruling PRI party won a majority of the seats.[7]
  • Died: Shortly after 7:30 am, American novelist Ernest Hemingway committed suicide at his home in Ketchum, Idaho[8] two days after returning home to Idaho from a course of treatment for depression at the Mayo Clinic.[9] His wife, Mary, told reporters initially that the renowned author had accidentally died while cleaning a double barrelled shotgun.[10]

July 3, 1961 (Monday)[edit]

July 4, 1961 (Tuesday)[edit]

July 5, 1961 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • The first Israeli rocket, Shavit 2, was launched.[16][17] At 4:41 am, the missile, ostensibly for "meteorological research" rather than for carrying warheads, was sent up "from a secret installation on the Mediterranean".[18]
  • Bizerte crisis: Tunisia announced that it was claiming the French military base located at Bizerte, which had been the only base remaining after France had withdrawn all of its forces in 1958.[19]
  • Died:
    • Ludwik Fleck, 64, Polish doctor and biologist, developer of the concept of Denkkollektiv ("thought collectives")
    • David Kingscote, 32, British-born big game hunter, of injuries received when a lion attacked him at his tent while he was in Tanganyika.[20]

July 6, 1961 (Thursday)[edit]

July 7, 1961 (Friday)[edit]

July 8, 1961 (Saturday)[edit]

July 9, 1961 (Sunday)[edit]

July 10, 1961 (Monday)[edit]

  • In a secret meeting with Soviet nuclear scientists, Nikita Khrushchev announced his decision to resume nuclear testing and to end the moratorium that the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. had observed since 1958. Khrushchev gave the go-ahead for physicists Andrei Sakharov and Yakov Zeldovich to test a 100 megaton hydrogen bomb, the largest up to that time, which, Sakharov would say later, Khrushchev would call a device that would "hang over capitalists like the sword of Damocles".[33]
  • Mildred Gillars, nicknamed "Axis Sally", was released from the women's federal prison in Alderson, West Virginia, after serving 12 years of a sentence for treason. An American citizen, she moved to Berlin in 1934; during World War II, she was "the starring voice of Nazi propaganda" in English-language radio broadcasts aimed at American troops in Europe.[34]
  • The German Banking Act was passed, creating a federal bank regulating agency, the Bundesaufsichtsamt für das Kreditwesen (Federal Bank Supervisory Office).[35]
  • Born: Liyel Imoke, Nigerian politician, in Ibadan

July 11, 1961 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Five days after signing a friendship and military assistance treaty with the Soviet Union, North Korea signed a similar agreement with the People's Republic of China. Together, the two treaties established a balance of power at the 38th parallel, between the northern allies (North Korea, the USSR and China) and the southern allies (South Korea and the US)[21]
  • Following a contest to come up with a name for an artificial lake, near Mount Isa, Queensland, Australia, created in 1958 by a dam on the Leichhardt River, the winning entry was selected from 471 suggested names. Lake Moondarra, the entry suggested by 9 year old Danny Driscoll, is said to have been an Australian aboriginal (Murri language) name that means, "plenty of rain, also thunder".[36]
  • Born: Ophir Pines-Paz, Israeli politician, in Rishon LeZion

July 12, 1961 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • The TIROS-3 satellite was launched from Florida, and the MIDAS-3 satellite was fired into orbit from California.[37] TIROS-3 would become the first satellite to photograph storms during the 1961 Atlantic hurricane season.[38] The MIDAS-3 spy satellite reached orbit, but ran out of power after only five orbits when its solar power arrays failed to completely deploy.[39]
  • A Czechoslovakian Airlines Ilyushin-18 turboprop airplane crashed while attempting to make a landing in Casablanca, Morocco, killing all 72 persons on board. The flight had originated in Prague and stopped at Zurich before continuing to Africa. The accident came one day after United Airlines Flight 859, a DC-8 jet, crashed while landing in Denver, killing 17 people on board.[40]
  • Lech Walesa, 17, began working at the Lenin Shipyard in Gdańsk, Poland. In 1980, he would lead a strike there and help form the Solidarność (Solidarity) trade union, a key moment in the downfall of Communism.[41]
  • Mario Jascalevich was granted his medical license by the state of New Jersey. He later would be indicted for homicide in the multiple deaths of patients at the Riverdell Hospital in Oradell, New Jersey.[42]
  • A dam at Panshet in India the burst, causing massive flooding in the city of Pune. Although there was significant damage to property, there was little to no loss of human life.
  • Eight people were killed when lightning struck a tobacco curing barn in Clinton, North Carolina, where they had taken shelter from a storm. Although they were inside, the victims had been sitting on metal surfaces when the bolt hit.[43]
  • An alleged "unexplained incident" is said to have occurred in Shreveport, Louisiana, when peaches "fell from the sky" on a group of carpenters roofing a house. Though oft-repeated,[44] there were no contemporary accounts of such an occurrence[45] and the earliest mention appears to have been in a 1978 book.[46]
  • The first Ohrid Summer Festival opened in Macedonia.
  • The Voynich manuscript was sold for the last time, to bookdealer Hans Kraus for $24,500. Although the undeciphered medieval book had been the subject of much study, and Kraus asked as much as $160,000 for it, he had no takers, and finally donated it to Yale University in 1969.[47]
  • Born: Robert Shafran, Eddy Galland and David Kellman were born at Long Island Jewish Hospital and put up for adoption to three separate families, each unaware of the multiple birth. By chance, the identical triplets would discover each other in 1980,[48] and found out that the Louise Wise Agency had secretly studied them to gather data on separation of twins and triplets.[49]
  • Died:
    • Mazo de la Roche, 82, Canadian novelist
    • Roger Tredwell, 76, American diplomat, best known for his imprisonment during the Russian Revolution in 1918

July 13, 1961 (Thursday)[edit]

  • In "the last of the early Cold War spy cases",[50] Robert Soblen was convicted of espionage for the Soviet Union against the United States. Sentenced to life imprisonment, but allowed to post bail while the conviction was on appeal, Soblen fled to Israel. He would take an overdose of barbiturates while awaiting deportation back to the U.S. and die on September 11, 1962.
  • Born: Anders Järryd, Swedish tennis player, in Lidköping

July 14, 1961 (Friday)[edit]

July 15, 1961 (Saturday)[edit]

  • In Pakistan, President Ayub Khan promulgated the Muslim Family Laws Ordinance of 1961 to supersede traditional Sunni and Shia Muslim law practices concerning marriage, divorce, and inheritance. Under the unpopular MFLO, divorces, remairrages, and polygamous marriages had to be approved by a local Arbitration Council, and violations of the law were punishable by jail.[52]
  • William A. Fitzgerald, alias Nathan Boya, became the fifth person known to have ridden over Niagara Falls and survived. Fitzgerald, an African-American, encased himself in a six-foot diameter "rubber-coated steel ball", and said, "I have integrated Niagara Falls."[53]
  • Elections were held in the Australian state of Victoria to elect the 66 members of the state's Legislative Assembly and 17 members of the 34-member Legislative Council. The Liberal and Country Party (LCP) government of Premier Henry Bolte won a third term in office.
  • The 1961 British Grand Prix at Aintree was won by Wolfgang von Trips.
  • Born: Forest Whitaker, African-American film actor, and winner of 2002 Academy Award for Best Actor; in Longview, Texas
  • Died: Anselmo Alliegro y Milá, 61, former acting President of Cuba

July 16, 1961 (Sunday)[edit]

July 17, 1961 (Monday)[edit]

  • Valery Brumel of the Soviet Union broke the world record for the high jump with a leap of 2.24 meters. On June 18, Brumel had reached 2.23 meters, appearing to have bested the record set in 1960 by American John Thomas, until Thomas's 1960 record of 7 feet, 3 34 inches, was recalculated from 2.22 to 2.23[56] When Brumel and Thomas competed against each other at the US-USSR dual track and field meet in Moscow, Brumel set a new mark of 2.24 m or 7'4". At the same meet, Ralph Boston broke his own record in the long jump, reaching 8.28 m or 27'2".[57]
  • Born:
  • Died: Ty Cobb, 74, American baseball player who was the American League batting champion 12 times during the 13 seasons between 1907 and 1919, and was one of the first players to be inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame

July 18, 1961 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • The Basque separatist group ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna) carried out its first act of terrorism on the 25th anniversary of the 1936 uprising that brought Francisco Franco to power in Spain, by sabotaging a train carrying hundreds of veterans to San Sebastián. Whether it was a plan "to derail the trains without harming any of the passengers,[58] or an action which, "had it not been discovered.. might well have caused injuries or even deaths"[59] no trains were derailed, but the Franco government arrested more than 100 Basque activists and sentenced many of them to long prison terms. The ETA responded by stepping up its attacks.
  • Meeting at Bad Godesberg in West Germany, the leaders of the six European Economic Community nations (Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany) agreed to a plan to hold regular summits, and to further the goals of "political unification" of the Common Market nations, a forerunner of the European Community.[60]
  • At a council in Zagorsk of bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church, Alexy I, the Patriarch of Moscow, pressured the assembled group to approve changes in the laws of the church. The new rules, demanded by Nikita Khrushchev in a meeting with Alexy, transferred control of affairs in the various parishes, from the local priests, to committees of three laymen who would follow the guidance of the Soviet Communist Party.[61]
  • Born: Elizabeth McGovern, American actress, in Evanston, Illinois
  • Died:

July 19, 1961 (Wednesday)[edit]

Memorial for 670 killed in French attack on Tunisian protesters
  • Bizerte crisis: Tunisia sent troops to surround the French naval base at Bizerte, beginning a standoff between the two nations. The demonstration started out peacefully[63] until 2:15 pm, when a French Army helicopter was fired at by ground forces while flying supplies into the base.[64] France responded by bombing and strafing the Tunisian positions as the two sides exchanged gunfire.[65] Two days later, France attacked the city of Bizerte. French losses were 13 dead and 35 wounded. The Tunisians suffered 670 dead and 1,555 wounded.[66]
  • An Aerolíneas Argentinas DC-6 airplane crashed while flying from Buenos Aires to Comodoro Rivadavia, killing all 67 persons on board. The plane had been attempting to make an emergency landing at Azul and burst into flames after crashing near Chachari.[67]
  • The USS Theodore Roosevelt (SSBN-600) began its first deterrent patrol, loaded with Polaris missiles.
  • The first moves were made in the formation of the NATO Tiger Association.
  • Born: Harsha Bhogle, Indian cricket commentator and journalist, in Hyderabad
  • Died: Hjalmar Gullberg, 63, Swedish poet, committed suicide

July 20, 1961 (Thursday)[edit]

  • Meeting in Cairo, the Council of the Arab League voted to admit Kuwait as its 11th member nation, and to send troops to replace the British in protecting the newly independent state from annexation by Iraq. Admission of new members required unanimous approval by the representatives present, but Iraq's Foreign Minister, Hashim Jawad, had made the mistake of boycotting the meeting in protest.[68]
  • Three years after Egypt and Syria had merged their governments to form the United Arab Republic, with Egypt's Gamal Abdel Nasser as President, Nasser nationalized Syria's banks, insurance companies, and other private businesses. Nasser's moves to put Syria's economy under his control would prompt the breakup of the UAR two months later.[69]
  • After two years of living and working in Minsk, American defector Lee Harvey Oswald applied to the Soviet Union for an exit visa so that he could return to the United States. He, his wife and daughter were finally granted permission to leave on May 30, 1962.[70]
  • What is now the Barzilai Medical Center opened at Ashkelon, Israel, and is named for Yisrael Barzilai.
  • Hurricane Anna formed in the Atlantic.

July 21, 1961 (Friday)[edit]

Gus Grissom
  • Mercury program: Gus Grissom, piloting the Mercury-Redstone 4 capsule Liberty Bell 7, became the second American astronaut to go into space. Grissom lifted off at 7:20 am, reached an altitude of 118 miles without attaining orbit, then descended in his capsule by parachute, with splashdown at 7:36. The hatch opened prematurely, and Grissom escaped and swam to safety as the capsule filled with water.[71] Although a helicopter managed to secure the capsule and attempted to lift it, weight of the water added 4,000 pounds to the load. The $5,000,000 spacecraft was cut loose and sank to the bottom of the ocean, and would not be found until May 1999.[72] Grissom almost drowned when water filled his suit, and a 10-foot long shark was observed in the water soon after his rescue. Grissom would die in 1967, unable to escape the capsule of Apollo 1 when it caught fire.[73] An unidentified NASA official commented, "We've got only one Gus, but we've got plenty of space capsules."[74]
  • Dominica adopted a new coat of arms, consisting of a shield with two guardian Sisserou Parrots bracing the shield atop of which is a raging lion.
  • Alaska Airlines Flight 779, a Douglas DC-6 delivering 26,000 pounds of cargo to Japan, crashed 300 feet short of the runway as it came in for a landing at the Shemya Air Force Base in Alaska, killing the crew of six. [75] An investigation found that the power cable for the runway approach lights, and to many of the pairs of threshold lights and runway lights, had been cut off two days before the accident to allow construction vehicles to pass; and that nobody had notified the crew of Flight 779.
  • Born:
  • Died: Sérvulo Gutiérrez, 47, Peruvian artist

July 22, 1961 (Saturday)[edit]

  • The Economic Planning Board (EPB) was created by order of South Korean dictator Park Chung Hee, to implement the goals of the Comprehensive Economic Development Five-Year Plan, drafted by three young economists (Kim Song Bom, 37; Paek Yong Chan, 32; and Chong So Yong, 29). South Korea went from being a poor nation to an economic powerhouse; per capita income rose from $80 to $1,000 during Park's 18 years in office. The gross national product, only $2.7 billion when Park took office, is now more than one trillion dollars.[76]
  • The British government agreed to pay the government of San Marino the sum of 732,000,000 Italian lira (80,000 British pounds, or at the time US $224,000) as compensation for the erroneous bombing of the republic on June 26, 1944, during a British raid on Italy.[77] The attack on the small (38 square miles) republic had killed 59 people and caused extensive damage. San Marino's Grand Council had refused the £80,000 offer in 1946.[78]
  • The Roman Catholic Diocese of Tilarán and the Roman Catholic Diocese of Huehuetenango were erected.

July 23, 1961 (Sunday)[edit]

July 24, 1961 (Monday)[edit]

  • Eastern Airlines Flight 202 was hijacked shortly after takeoff from Miami, en route to Tampa. Wilfred Roman Oquendo, a Cuban-born American citizen, who had boarded as "J. Marin" and carried a pistol on board, entered the cockpit and forced the pilot to fly to Cuba. The crew of 5 and the other 32 passengers were allowed to fly back to Miami the next day, while Fidel Castro did not allow the release of the Lockheed L-188 Electra until August 15. Oquendo was indicted for 37 counts of kidnapping by a federal grand jury on August 23, and never returned to the United States.[80]
  • Born: Michael Donald, American victim of a Ku Klux Klan lynching in 1981

July 25, 1961 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Berlin Crisis: President Kennedy delivered a nationwide address on American television and radio, making clear that if the Soviet Union attempted to take control of West Berlin, then the United States would be prepared to go to war, even at the risk of nuclear annihilation. "We must have sea and air lift capable of moving our forces quickly and in large numbers to any part of the world," said Kennedy, and announced that he was "ordering that our draft calls be doubled and tripled" to increase the U.S. Army from 875,000 to one million men. Kennedy then announced, "We have another sober responsibility. To recognize the possibilities of nuclear war in the missile age, without our citizens knowing what they should do and where they should go if bombs begin to fall, would be a failure of responsibility." To that end, he would ask Congress for funding to identify and stock "fallout shelters in case of attack" and upgrade an emergency warning system, adding that "In the event of an attack, the lives of those families which are not hit in a nuclear blast and fire can still be saved--if they can be warned to take shelter and if that shelter is available."[81][82] "It was nearly a presidential proclamation of a national emergency," one author would note later, "with the unmistakable implication that nuclear war might be imminent."[83]
  • The very last Convair B-36 Peacemaker strategic bomber was dismantled at AMARC the aircraft boneyard at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base at Tucson, Arizona.[84]
  • The Secular Institute of the Scalabrinian Missionary Women was founded by the Missionaries of St. Charles Borromeo.
  • Born:

July 26, 1961 (Wednesday)[edit]

July 27, 1961 (Thursday)[edit]

July 28, 1961 (Friday)[edit]

July 29, 1961 (Saturday)[edit]

  • The islands of Wallis and Futuna, located in the South Pacific Ocean, were accepted as "an integral part of the French Republic" in the form of a single French overseas territory.[90]
  • Using an IBM 7090 computer, researchers Daniel Shanks and John W. Wrench, Jr., were able to calculate the value of pi to 100,000 digits for the first time. In 1949, prior to the use of computers, the first 1,120 digits had been found "by hand". The same year, the ENIAC computer took 70 hours to reach 2,037 decimal places. The 10,000 mark had been broken in 1957 on an IBM 704 in 100 minutes. The IBM 7090 operation took 8 hours and 43 minutes.[91]
  • Country music singer Patsy Cline sang at a concert in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and a recording was made of the live performance. Thirty years after Cline's death in 1963, the tape was purchased at a yard sale. MCA Records bought the rights, enhanced the sound quality, and on July 29, 1997, released it in CD form as Live at the Cimarron Ballroom.[92]
  • KGB Director Alexander Shelepin presented to Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev the outline for a plan to combat "The Main Adversary", the euphemism for the United States. The Shelepin recommendation, accepted by the Politburo three days later, was to finance popular uprisings in Central American nations and to spread disinformation in the NATO nations. After the end of the Cold War, when secret American and Russian documents were finally declassified, the Shelepin plan was revealed by retired KGB archivist Vasili Mitrokhin.[93]
  • Born: Dimitris Saravakos, Greek footballer

July 30, 1961 (Sunday)[edit]

  • The Communist Party of the Soviet Union unveiled First Secretary Khrushchev's twenty-year program for reform, with 47,000 words printed in nine of the ten pages of the newspaper Pravda and broadcast in a six-hour program on Radio Moscow. Among the promises were that by 1970, the workday would be reduced to six hours, and the USSR would surpass the United States in industrial and agricultural production. By 1980, Soviet workers would enjoy free housing and public utilities, free public transportation, and free meals at schools and at the workplace.[94]
  • The first NASCAR race (referred to at the time as the Volunteer 500) at Bristol Motor Speedway, the shortest track on the circuit, was won by Jack Smith (who started the race) and Johnny Allen, who finished after Smith's foot was burned by his car.[95]
  • Born:
  • Died:

July 31, 1961 (Monday)[edit]


  1. ^ Hala Mundhir Fattah and Frank Caso, A Brief History of Iraq (Infobase Publishing, 2009) p203
  2. ^ Jodi O'Brien, Encyclopedia of Gender and Society (Volume 1) (SAGE, 2008)
  3. ^ Jim Futrell, Amusement Parks of New York (Stackpole Books, 2006) p157
  4. ^ Joann F. Price, Martha Stewart: A Biography (Greenwood Publishing, 2007) p28
  5. ^ Richard K. Betts, Nuclear Blackmail and Nuclear Balance (Brookings Institution Press, 1987) p107
  6. ^ Elections in the Americas: a data handbook / ed. by Dieter Nohlen, Vol. 1. [Oxford] [u.a.]: (Oxford University Press, 2005). p.459.
  7. ^ "Incumbents Win Mexican Election", Miami News, July 3, 1961, p2
  8. ^ Reynolds 2000, p. 16
  9. ^ Meyers 1985, p. 551
  10. ^ "GUN KILLS ERNEST HEMINGWAY", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 3, 1961, p1
  11. ^ "A Loyal Filipino, MacArthur Returns", Miami News, July 3, 1961, p2
  12. ^ "New Korea Coup; Chang Quits", Miami News, July 3, 1961, p1
  13. ^ Holly Dressel, Who Killed the Queen?: the Story of a Community Hospital and How to Fix Public Health Care (McGill-Queen's Press) p204
  14. ^ "Rush On To Send The Ships To Sea", Miami News, July 4, 1961, p1
  15. ^ Gary E. Weir and Walter J. Boyne, Rising Tide: The Untold Story of the Russian Submarines That Fought the Cold War (Basic Books, 2003) p70
  16. ^ "Missile Overview". Nuclear Threat Initiative. Retrieved 2007-12-18. 
  17. ^ "July 1961". NASA. Retrieved 2007-12-18. '
  18. ^ "Israel Joins Ranks, Fires Space Rocket", Miami News, July 5, 1961, p1
  19. ^ Chris Cook and John Stevenson, The Routledge Companion to World History since 1914 (Routledge, 2005) p283
  20. ^ "Great White Hunter Killed By A Lion", Miami News, July 6, 1961, p1
  21. ^ a b Jae-Cheon Lim, Kim Jong Il's Leadership of North Korea (Taylor & Francis US, 2009) p47
  22. ^ Phillip C. Naylor, Historical Dictionary of Algeria (Scarecrow Press, 2006) pp130-131
  23. ^ "108 Czech Miners Die in Blaze", Spokane Spokesman-Review, July 9, 1961, p1
  24. ^ Blaze at Dukla mine in Karviná on July 7th, 1961 (in Czech language)
  25. ^ "McKinley No Match for Laver in Wimbledon Final", Milwaukee Sentinel, July 8, 1961, p2-3
  26. ^ Terry Crowdy, Military Misdemeanors: Corruption, Incompetence, Lust and Downright Stupidity (Osprey Publishing, 2007) p204
  27. ^ "237 Perish In Sea Blast", Miami News, July 10, 1961, p1
  28. ^ Patsy Sims, The Klan (University Press of Kentucky, 1996) p94
  29. ^ "Angela Wins Wimbledon Singles Title", Miami News, July 9, 1961, p2-C
  30. ^ Vincent Bugliosi, Reclaiming History: The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy (W. W. Norton & Company, 2007) p616
  31. ^ Allan F. Tatham, Enlargement of the European Union (Kluwer Law International, 2009) pp 28-29; "Pact Links Greece with Common Market", New York Times, July 10, 1961
  32. ^ Jacob M. Landau, Radical Politics in Modern Turkey (BRILL, 1974) p9
  33. ^ Vladislav M. Zubok, A Failed Empire: The Soviet Union in the Cold War from Stalin to Gorbachev (UNC Press Books, 2007) p141
  34. ^ "'Axis Sally' Walks Jauntily Out Of Prison", Miami News, July 10, 1961, p1
  35. ^ Bank Regulatory Structure: The Federal Republic of Germany (DIANE Publishing, 1994) p9
  36. ^ "Mount Isa Biz"
  37. ^ "U.S. Midas 'Spies' on Russ — Weather Eye Also Launched", Milwaukee Sentinel, July 13, 1961, p1
  38. ^ Dennis R. Jenkins, To Reach the High Frontier: A History of U.S. Launch Vehicles (University Press of Kentucky, 2002) pp112-114
  39. ^ Walter J. Boyne, Air Warfare: an International Encyclopedia: A-L (ABC-CLIO, 2002) pp170-171
  40. ^ AirDisaster.com; "ANOTHER PLANE CRASHES, 71 KILLED", Miami News, July 12, 1961, p1
  41. ^ Lech Wałęsa and Arkadiusz Rybicki, The Struggle and the Triumph: An Autobiography (Arcade Publishing, 1992) p95
  42. ^ Colin Evans, Blood on the Table: The Greatest Cases of New York City's Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (Penguin, 2008)
  43. ^ Spokane Spokesman-Review, July 12, 1961, p1
  44. ^ E. Randall Floyd, Great Southern Mysteries (Barnes & Noble Publishing, 2000) p76
  45. ^ [1]
  46. ^ Jim Brandon Weird America: A Guide to Places of Mystery in the United States (Dutton, 1978)
  47. ^ Gerry Kennedy and Rob Churchill, The Voynich Manuscript: The Unsolved Riddle of an Extraordinary Book Which Has Defied Interpretation for Centuries (Orion, 2004) p242
  48. ^ "Identical Triplets Reunited After 19 Years Apart", Daytona Beach Morning Journal, September 24, 1980, p1
  49. ^ Elyse Schein and Paula Bernstein, Identical Strangers: A Memoir of Twins Separated and Reunited (Random House Digital, Inc., 2008)
  50. ^ John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Early Cold War Spies: The Espionage Trials that Shaped American Politics (Cambridge University Press, 2006) p222
  51. ^ "Governor Takes Control As Finn Crisis Ends", Deseret News (Salt Lake City), July 15, 1961, p1
  52. ^ Christophe Jaffrelot, A History of Pakistan and Its Origins (Anthem Press, 2004) pp70-71
  53. ^ "Negro Beats Niagara Falls", Miami News, July 16, 1961, p1
  54. ^ Langley, Brig C A (22 December 1961), Report on the Collision at Singleton Bank (PDF), HMSO, retrieved 2009-01-10 ; "Train Crash Fatal to Six- 125 Others Are Hurt in Britain on Way to Sea Coast", Milwaukee Journal, July 17, 1961, p2
  55. ^ "200 Red Guerillas Killed In Viet Trap", Miami News, July 17, 1961, p1
  56. ^ "Russ Goof, So Brumel Just Ties Thomas' Mark", Milwaukee Sentinel, June 19, 1961, p2-2
  57. ^ "Brumel Ends On Top Over John Thomas", Edmonton Journal, July 17, 1961, p9
  58. ^ Robert P. Clark, The Basques, the Franco Years and Beyond (University of Nevada Press, 1979) p157
  59. ^ Walter Laqueur, Voices of terror: Manifestos, Writings, and Manuals of Al Qaeda, Hamas, and Other Terrorists from around the World and throughout the Ages (Sourcebooks, Inc., 2004) p500
  60. ^ Mark Gilbert, Surpassing Realism: The Politics of European Integration since 1945 (Rowman & Littlefield, 2003) p91
  61. ^ Geoffrey A. Hosking, Church, Nation and State in Russia and Ukraine (CIUS Press, 1990) p318
  62. ^ Douglas Gomery, Shared Ppleasures: A History of Movie Presentation in the United States (University of Wisconsin Press, 1992) p141
  63. ^ "Navy Base At Bizerte Ringed By Tunisians", Miami News, July 19, 1961, p1 (first edition)
  64. ^ "Tunis Fires On Helicopter Over Bizerte", Miami News, July 19, 1961, p1 (final edition)
  65. ^ "TUNISIANS, FRENCH OPEN FIRE", Windsor (Ont.) Star, July 19, 1961, p1
  66. ^ Christopher Alexander, Tunisia (Taylor & Francis, 2010) p90
  67. ^ "Airliner Crashes, All 67 Killed", Miami News, July 19, 1961, p1
  68. ^ Fred Moore, ed., Iraq Speaks: Documents on the Gulf Crisis (DIANE Publishing, 1993) p39
  69. ^ Malik Mufti, Sovereign Creations: Pan-Arabism and Political Order in Syria and Iraq (Cornell University Press, 1996) pp133-134
  70. ^ Norman Mailer, Oswald's Tale: An American Mystery (Random House, 1995) p235, 295
  71. ^ "GRISSOM SAVED, CAPSULE LOST", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 22, 1961, p1; "It Was a Good Flight and a Great Float", by Virgil Grissom, LIFE Magazine, July 28, 1961, p27
  72. ^ "Salvage team finds Mercury capsule", Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel, May 3, 1999, p7A; "Gus Grissom's Space Capsule Recovered", Toledo Blade, July 21, 1999, p14
  73. ^ Francis French, et al., Into That Silent Sea: Trailblazers of the Space Era, 1961-1965 (University of Nebraska Press, 2009) pp79-90
  74. ^ "'We've Got Only One Gus But Plenty Of Capsules'", Ottawa Citizen, July 21, 1961, p1
  75. ^ Aviation-Safety-Network]
  76. ^ Byung-Kook Kim and Ezra F. Vogel, eds., The Park Chung Hee Era: The Transformation of South Korea (Harvard University Press, 2011) p100, p257
  77. ^ United Nations Treaty Series
  78. ^ On July 7, the 1961 Council voted 32-17 to accept. "San Marino OKs Britain's Offer For War Damage", Youngstown Vindicator, July 6, 1961, p5
  79. ^ Stephen E. Atkins, Encyclopedia of Modern Worldwide Extremists and Extremist Groups (Greenwood Publishing, 2004) p97
  80. ^ Michael Newton, The Encyclopedia of Kidnappings (Infobase Publishing, 2002) p214
  81. ^ Video and text of speech, "Report on the Berlin Crisis" MillerCenter.org
  82. ^ "U.S. WILL FIGHT FOR BERLIN, PRESIDENT WARNS RUSSIANS", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 26, 1961, p1
  83. ^ Dee Garrison, Bracing for Armageddon: Why Civil Defense Never Worked (Oxford University Press US, 2006) p112
  84. ^ Nicholas A. Veronico, et al., Military Aircraft Boneyards (Zenith Imprint, 2000) p103
  85. ^ Dickson A. Mungazi, The last defenders of the laager: Ian D. Smith and F.W. de Klerk (Greenwood Publishing, 1998) p112
  86. ^ "New Evidence on the Berlin Crisis 1958-1962", by Douglas Selvage, Cold War International History Project Bulletin 11, p219
  87. ^ Kiminas 2009, pp. 25.
  88. ^ "Britain Will Seek Ties With Common Market", Milwaukee Journal, July 29, 1961, p2
  89. ^ HMTIndia.com
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