July 1962

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July 9, 1962: Hawaii receives EMP from distant nuclear test
July 12, 1962: The Rolling Stones debut
July 6, 1962:Nevada crater dug by nuclear test
Sedan Crater, 1200 feet wide, 320 feet deep
July 2, 1962: First Wal-Mart Discount City opens

The following events occurred in July 1962:

July 1, 1962 (Sunday)[edit]


July 2, 1962 (Monday)[edit]

July 3, 1962 (Tuesday)[edit]

July 4, 1962 (Wednesday)[edit]

July 5, 1962 (Thursday)[edit]

  • After Algeria's independence was recognized by France, the Oran massacre took place at Oran, the section of Algiers where most French Algerians lived. The official estimate of the death toll was 20 French Algerians and 75 Algerians killed.[11]
  • The French Assembly voted 241–72 to remove the immunity against arrest and prosecution that former Prime Minister Georges Bidault had in April 1961, when he called for the overthrow of President Charles De Gaulle, clearing the way for indictment of Bidault for treason. Bidault had fled to exile in Italy.[12]

July 6, 1962 (Friday)[edit]

  • The 320 feet (98 m) deep Sedan Crater, measuring 1,280 feet (390 m) in diameter, was created in less than a split-second in Nye County, Nevada with an underground nuclear test.[13] The fallout exposed 13 million Americans to radiation; regular monthly tours are now given of the crater, which ceased being radioactive after less than a year.[14]
  • Irish broadcaster Gay Byrne presented his first edition of The Late Late Show.[15] Byrne would go on to present the talk show for 37 years making Byrne the longest running TV talk show host in history.
  • Died:
    • William Faulkner, 64, American novelist and 1950 Nobel laureate
    • Roger Degueldre, 37, former French Army officer who rebelled to form the OAS Delta Commandos, was executed by firing squad

July 7, 1962 (Saturday)[edit]

July 8, 1962 (Sunday)[edit]

July 9, 1962 (Monday)[edit]

  • In the Starfish Prime test, the United States exploded a 1.4 megaton hydrogen bomb in outer space, sending the warhead on a Titan missile to an altitude of 248 miles over Johnston Island.[20] The first two attempts at exploding a nuclear missile above the Earth had failed. The flash was visible in Hawaii, 750 miles away, and scientists discovered the destructive effects of the first major manmade electromagnetic pulse (EMP), as a surge of electrons burned out streetlights, blew fuses, and disrupted communications.[21] Increasing radiation in some places one hundredfold, the EMP damaged at least ten orbiting satellites beyond repair.[22]
  • American artist Andy Warhol first presented his Campbell's Soup Cans at the Ferus Gallery in Los Angeles.[23]
  • Died: Reginald Somerset Ward, 81, English Anglican spiritualist

July 10, 1962 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • AT&T's Telstar, the world's first commercial communications satellite, was launched into orbit from Cape Canaveral at 3:35 a.m. local time, and activated that night.[24] The first image transmitted between continents was a black-and-white photo of the American flag[25] sent from the U.S. transmitter at Andover, Maine, to Pleumeur-Bodou in France.[26]
  • The All-Channel Television Receiver Bill was signed into law, requiring that all televisions made in the United States to be able to receive both VHF signals (channels 2 to 13 on 30 to 300 MHz) and UHF (channels 14 to 83, on frequencies between 470 and 896 MHz). The result was to open hundreds of new television channels.[27]
  • One of the spans in the Kings Bridge in Melbourne, Australia, collapsed after a 45-ton vehicle passed over it, only 15 months after the multi-lane highway bridge's opening on April 12, 1961. The collapse occurred immediately after the driver of the vehicle had passed over the span, and nobody was hurt.[28]
  • Francisco Brochado de Rocha was approved as the new Prime Minister of Brazil by a 215-58vote of Parliament.[29]
  • Died: Tommy Milton, 68, American racecar driver and first to win the Indianapolis 500 twice (1921, 1923), by suicide

July 11, 1962 (Wednesday)[edit]

July 12, 1962 (Thursday)[edit]

July 13, 1962 (Friday)[edit]

July 14, 1962 (Saturday)[edit]

  • A 1958 Pakistan law, banning all political parties, was repealed by a National Assembly resolution, amending the Constitution of 1962. The only requirement was that a party could not "prejudice Islamic ideology or the stability or integrity of Pakistan, and could not receive any aid from a foreign nation.[38]
  • In the third match of the Rugby league Test series between Australia and Great Britain, held at Sydney Cricket Ground, a controversial last-minute Australian try and the subsequent conversion resulted in an 18–17 win for Australia.[39]
  • Henry Brooke became the new UK Home Secretary in Harold Macmillan's reshuffled cabinet.
  • The Miss Universe 1962 beauty pageant took place at Miami Beach, Florida, US, and was won by Norma Nolan of Argentina.[40]

July 15, 1962 (Sunday)[edit]

  • The 1962 Tour de France concluded in Paris, and was won by Jacques Anquetil for the third time.[41]
  • The Washington Post broke the story of thalidomide tablets that had been distributed in the United States, in a story by Morton Mintz under the headline "Heroine of FDA Keeps Bad Drug Off Market". As a result of the publicity, more than 2.5 million thalidomide pills, that had been distributed to physicians by the Richardson-Merrell pharmaceutical company pending approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, were recalled. Although thousands of babies were born with defects in Europe, the FDA identified only 17 known cases in the United States.[42]
  • Radiation killed all six animals, sent up 24 hours earlier by NASA, in the first test of whether astronauts could safely endure prolonged exposure to cosmic rays. The two monkeys and four hamsters had been inside a space capsule that had been kept at an altitude of 131,000 feet by a balloon.[43]

July 16, 1962 (Monday)[edit]

  • French explorer Michel Siffre conducted a long-term experiment of chronobiology, the perception of the passage of time in the absence of information, entering a cave and staying for two months. While inside, he used a one-way field telephone to signal to researchers when he was going to sleep, when he was getting up, and how much time had passed between events during his waking hours. He was brought back out on September 14, 1962, sixty days later; according to his diary, he thought only 35 days had passed and that the date was August 20.[44][45]

July 17, 1962 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Major Robert M. White (USAF) piloted a North American X-15 to a record altitude of 314,750 feet (59 miles, 96 km),[46] narrowly missing the 100 kilometer altitude Kármán line that defines outer space, but passing the 50-mile altitude mark that NASA used to define the threshold of space. The record of 67 miles would be set by Joe Walker on July 19, 1963.[47]
  • The "Small Boy" test shot Little Feller I became the final atmospheric nuclear test by the United States.[48]
  • The U.S. Senate voted 52–48 against further consideration of President Kennedy's proposed plan for Medicare, government-subsidized health care for persons drawing social security benefits.[49] Two liberal U.S. Senators had switched sides, preventing a 50–50 tie that would have been broken in favor of Medicare by Vice-President Johnson; as President, Johnson would sign Medicare into law effective July 30, 1965.[50]
  • Four years after USS Nautilus had become the first submarine to reach the geographic North Pole, the Soviet Union reached the Pole with a sub for the first time, with the submarine K-3 (later renamed the Leninsky Komsomol)[51]
  • The Eritrean Liberation Front staged its first major attack in seeking to separate Eritrea from Ethiopia, by throwing a hand grenade at a reviewing stand that included General Abiy Abebe (Emperor Haile Selassie's representative), Eritrean provincial executive Asfaha Woldemikael, and Hamid Ferej, leader of the Eritrean provincial assembly.[52]
  • A penumbral lunar eclipse occurred.

July 18, 1962 (Wednesday)[edit]

July 19, 1962 (Thursday)[edit]

  • The first successful intercept of one missile by another took place at Kwajalein Island, with a Zeus missile passing within two kilometers of an incoming Atlas missile, close enough for a nuclear warhead to disable an enemy weapon.[59]
  • Born: Anthony Edwards, American actor, in Santa Barbara, California

July 20, 1962 (Friday)[edit]

  • The world's first regular passenger hovercraft service was introduced, as the VA-3 began the 20-mile run between Rhyl (in Wales) and Wallasey (in England).[60]
  • Tou Samouth, Communist leader of the Khmer People's Revolutionary Party in Cambodia, was arrested by government police, tortured and then killed. His successor, Saloth Sar, would go on to lead the Communist Party of Kampuchea as Pol Pot, and then exact revenge on former government employees.
  • Executive Order 11307 was issued, prohibiting unlicensed U.S. citizens and people under U.S. jurisdiction, from possessing or holding an interest in gold coins from outside the United States, unless the coins were of "exceptional numismatic value".[61]
  • France and Tunisia reestablished diplomatic relations, a year after breaking ties following the Bizerte crisis.[62]
  • Born: Jeong Han Kim, South Korean mathematician, in Seoul

July 21, 1962 (Saturday)[edit]

  • The United Arab Republic (Egypt) successfully fired four missiles which, President Gamal Abdel Nasser said, could strike any target "just south of Beirut", a reference to neighboring Israel. Nasser said that the Nakid El Kaher (Conqueror) missile had a range of 380 miles, which could reach all of Israel, as well as cities in Syria and Jordan, and that the El Zahir (Victory) missile had a range of 222 miles, including Tel Aviv.[63] The missiles came as a surprise to Israel's intelligence service, the Mossad. In August, Mossad chief Isser Harel would report to Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion that German scientists were assisting in the development of 900 more missiles capable of carrying chemical and biological weapons, and would organize Operation Damocles to target the scientists on the project.[64]
  • Died: G. M. Trevelyan, 86, British historian

July 22, 1962 (Sunday)[edit]

  • The Mariner 1 spacecraft flew erratically several minutes after launch and had to be destroyed after less than five minutes, at a cost of $4,000,000 for the satellite and $8,000,000 for the rocket.[65] The $12 million dollar loss was later traced[66] to the omission of an overbar in the handwritten text from which the computer programming for the rocket guidance system was drawn, which should have been written as : being rendered as :; thus, there was no smooth function to prevent over-correction of minor variations of data on rocket velocity.[67]
  • Canadian Pacific Flight 301 experienced engine problems on departure from Honolulu and returned to land on three engines, but crashed on the airfield, killing 27 of the 40 people on board.[68]

July 23, 1962 (Monday)[edit]

  • Telstar relayed the first live trans-Atlantic television signal, with two 20-minute programs. The first was a set of U.S. TV shows (President Kennedy's news conference, 90 seconds of the Phillies-Cubs baseball game, and the Mormon Tabernacle Choir) to Eurovision (2:00 pm New York, 8:00 pm London). At 4:58 pm, New York Time, live transmission of European broadcasting was shown on all three American networks, beginning with a live picture of the clock at London's Big Ben approaching 11:00 pm.[36][69]
  • The International Agreement on the Neutrality of Laos was signed in Geneva.[70] Under the agreement, all foreign military personnel were to withdraw within 75 days; the last Americans, advisers to the U.S. Special Forces, would leave by October 6.[71]
  • While in Geneva, W. Averell Harriman of the United States met with North Vietnam's Foreign Minister, Ung Văn Khiêm in an unsuccessful attempt to talk about a similar neutrality agreement in Vietnam. Decades after the end of the Vietnam War, sources in Hanoi would reveal that the North Vietnamese Politburo had approved the pursuit of discussions, but that Khiem had not been informed of the Politburo decision that might have averted a protracted war. American and North Vietnamese diplomats would not meet again for six years.[72]
  • The Saskatoon agreement brought an end to the Saskatchewan doctors' strike.[73]
  • Born: Eriq La Salle, African-American TV actor, in Hartford
  • Died: Henry Dworshak, 67, U.S. Senator from Idaho since 1949. Dworshak was the fourth conservative Republican Senator to die in less than a year.[74]

July 24, 1962 (Tuesday)[edit]

July 25, 1962 (Wednesday)[edit]

July 26, 1962 (Thursday)[edit]

July 27, 1962 (Friday)[edit]

July 28, 1962 (Saturday)[edit]

  • The Bundesliga, the national league of West Germany's top professional soccer football teams, was created by a 103–26 vote of delegates to the German Football Association (DFB) convention at Dortmund.[86] The Bundesliga would begin its first season on August 24, 1963 with 16 teams out of 46 applicants.[87]
  • Kosmos 7 was launched by the U.S.S.R., on the first successful Soviet mission to conduct surveillance photography of the entire United States.[88]
  • South Korea's President Park Chung Hee issued the memorandum "The Establishment of a Social Security System" and set about to forcibly implement programs for assistance for the elderly, disabled and unemployed in what was, at that time, a poor nation.[89]
  • Race riots broke out in Dudley, West Midlands, UK.[90]
  • The derailment of at Pennsylvania Railroad train at Steelton killed 19 people and injured 116. The nine-car train was carrying baseball fans to the Pirates-Phillies baseball game at Philadelphia, when the last five cars went off track, and three fell down a 40-foot embankment.[91]
  • Born: Jason Sherman, Canadian playwright and screenwriter, in Montreal

July 29, 1962 (Sunday)[edit]

July 30, 1962 (Monday)[edit]

  • The Trans-Canada Highway was opened at a ceremony to mark the completion of the 92-mile-long Rogers Pass Highway through the Canadian Rockies, for the final link of the nearly 5,000-mile system between St. John's, Newfoundland and Victoria, British Columbia. B.C. Premier W. A. C. Bennett snipped a ribbon near Revelstoke.[94]
  • U.S. President Kennedy agreed to halt reconnaissance flights over Soviet ships in the Caribbean Sea, after U.S.S.R. Premier Khrushchev proposed the idea "for the sake of better relations"; in the two months that followed, the ships delivered missiles to Cuba.[95]
  • On the same day, President Kennedy began tape recording conversations in the White House.[96]
  • Marilyn Monroe made a final telephone call to the U.S. Justice Department, six days before her death. Monroe had been a regular caller to U.S. Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, and historians speculate that he told her during the eight-minute phone call that they could no longer see each other. Monroe's phone records would be confiscated by the FBI, but Kennedy's phone logs would be donated to the National Archives after his death.[97]
  • Born: Alton Brown, American chef and host of Food Network show Good Eats, in Los Angeles
  • Died: Helge Krog, 73, Norwegian journalist

July 31, 1962 (Tuesday)[edit]


  1. ^ "African Nations Born as Belgian Rule Ends", Milwaukee Journal, July 1, 1962, p. 5
  2. ^ "Freedom From France", Sydney Morning Herald, July 4, 1962, p. 3
  3. ^ "Rivera Sworn In El Salvador", Spartanburg (SC) Herald, July 1, 1962, p. 14
  4. ^ "Doctors Strike In Province", Miami News, July 2, 1962, p. 1
  5. ^ "Thousands Protest MD Plan", Miami News, July 11, 1962, p. 1
  6. ^ "McLaren Wins Reims Classic", Youngstown (OH) Vindicator, July 2, 1962, p. 13
  7. ^ "The Rise of Wal-Mart", Frontline, November 16, 2004
  8. ^ "About Us", WalmartStores.com]
  9. ^ "Algeria Free- Still Fighting; France Leaves After 132 Years", Miami News, July 3, 1962, p. 1
  10. ^ "The Constitution of the Burma Socialist Programme Party"
  11. ^ Benjamin Stora, Algeria, 1830-2000: A Short History (Cornell University Press, 2004) p. 105
  12. ^ "French Assembly Strips Bidault Of His Parliamentary Immunity", New York Times, July 6, 1962, p. 3
  13. ^ "Sedan Crater", Historic Nevada website]
  14. ^ "Sedan Crater" in All Around Nevada website
  15. ^ "The Late Late Show - 50th Anniversary Special"
  16. ^ "Jetliner Vanishes, 94 Aboard", Miami News, July 7, 1962, p. 1
  17. ^ "15 Students Killed During Burma Riots", Toledo Blade, July 9, 1962, p. 1
  18. ^ "Old Foes Parade In Reims", Ottawa Citizen, July 9, 1962, p. 1; William Kidd and Brian Murdoch, Memory and Memorials: The Commemorative Century (Ashgate Publishing, 2004) p. 266
  19. ^ "Grand Prix Win to U.S. Driver", The Age (Melbourne), July 10, 1962, p. 10
  20. ^ Peter Goodchild, Edward Teller, the Real Dr. Strangelove (Harvard University Press, 2004) p. 300
  21. ^ "U.S. Fires H-Bomb In Sky", Miami News, July 9, 1962, p. 1; "U.S. Explodes Warhead 200 Miles Above Earth", Ottawa Citizen, July 9, 1962, p. 1
  22. ^ Ann Garrison Darrin and Beth Laura O'Leary, Handbook of Space Engineering, Archaeology, and Heritage (CRC Press, 2009) p. 536
  23. ^ "The Andy Warhol Family Album"
  24. ^ "TV Relay Satellite Streaks Into Orbit", Miami News, July 10, 1962, p. 1
  25. ^ Vaclav Smil, Transforming the Twentieth Century: Technical Innovations And Their Consequences (Oxford University Press, 2006) p. 310; "The Story Sent From Satellite ...And This Picture, Too", Miami News, July 11, 1962, p. 1
  26. ^ a b John Bray, Innovation and the Communications Revolution: From the Victorian Pioneers to Broadband Internet (IET, 2002) pp. 213–214
  27. ^ Max D. Paglin, The Communications Act: A Legislative History of the Major Amendments, 1934-1996 (Pike & Fischer, 1999) p. 190
  28. ^ "£4m Kings Bridge Closed Indefinitely", The Age (Melbourne), July 11, 1962, p. 1; Björn Åkesson, Understanding Bridge Collapses (CRC Press, 2008) p. 132
  29. ^ "New Premier OK'd, Brazil Crisis Ends", Miami News, July 10, 1962, p4A
  30. ^ "Floridian Swims Channel", Miami News, July 11, 1962, p. 1
  31. ^ Vladimir Bogdanov, et al., All Music Guide to the Blues: The Definitive Guide to the Blues (Hal Leonard Corporation, 2003) p. 476
  32. ^ "Ex-Governor of Missouri Found Dead", Miami News, July 12, 1962, p. 2
  33. ^ "Changes in the Cabinet - Mr Selwyn Lloyd Replaced", Glasgow Herald, July 14, 1962, p. 1; "U.K. Cabinet Sensation- 7 lose jobs in purge", Sydney Sun-Herald, July 15, 1962, p. 1; "Mac the Knife...And How He Must Answer To A Victim", Miami News, July 16, 1962, p. 1
  34. ^ Bernard Wasserstein, Barbarism and Civilization: A History of Europe in Our Time (Oxford University Press, 2007) p. 536
  35. ^ Samuel Berlinski, et al., Accounting for Ministers: Scandal and Survival in British Government 1945-2007 (Cambridge University Press, 2012) p. 95
  36. ^ a b "Spacecrafts Launched in 1962", Spacecraft Encyclopedia, Claude LeFleur
  37. ^ News items in The Guardian and The Nation of July 14, 1962
  38. ^ Party, Government and Freedom in the Muslim World (Brill Archive, 1968) p. 21
  39. ^ "Last-minute victory to Aust. in exciting R.L. test- Inquiry held", Sydney Sun-Herald, July 15, 1962, p. 3
  40. ^ "Miss Argentina Most Beautiful In World", Miami News, July 15, 1962, p. 1
  41. ^ "49th Tour de France 1962"
  42. ^ Philip J. Hilts, Protecting America's Health: The Fda, Business, and One Hundred Years of Regulation (UNC Press Books, 2004) pp. 157–158
  43. ^ "Balloon Animals Die Testing Cosmic Rays", Miami News, July 16, 1962, p. 1
  44. ^ Stefan Klein, The Secret Pulse of Time: Making Sense of Life's Scarcest Commodity (Da Capo Press, 2009) pp. 2–8; "Caveman: An Interview with Michel Siffre", by Joshua Foer and Michel Siffre, The Underground (Summer 2008)
  45. ^ "Chronobiology", Canadian Institute of Health Research
  46. ^ "X-15 Zooms 58 Miles Up- White's An Astronaut", Miami News, July 17, 1962, p. 1
  47. ^ Tim Furniss, A History of Space Exploration: And Its Future (Globe Pequot, 2003) p. 40
  48. ^ Jennifer A. Sandlin, Handbook of Public Pedagogy: Education and Learning Beyond Schooling (Taylor & Francis, 2010) p. 268
  49. ^ "Senate Vote Kills Medicare 52-48", Miami News, July 17, 1962, p. 1
  50. ^ Michael Meagher and Larry D. Gragg, John F. Kennedy: A Biography (ABC-CLIO, 2011) p. 118
  51. ^ Norman Polmar and Jurrien Noot, Submarines of the Russian and Soviet Navies, 1718-1990 (Naval Institute Press, 1991) p. 170
  52. ^ Tekeste Negash, Eritrea and Ethiopia: The Federal Experience (Nordic Africa Institute, 1997) p. 151
  53. ^ "13-Story Balloon Fired 950 Miles Above Cape", Miami News, July 18, 1962, p. 1
  54. ^ "Military Ousts Prado In Peru", Miami News, July 18, 1962, p. 1
  55. ^ Stephen G. Rabe, The Most Dangerous Area in the World: John F. Kennedy Confronts Communist Revolution in Latin America (UNC Press Books, 1999) p. 120
  56. ^ James A. Bill, The Eagle and the Lion: The Tragedy of American-Iranian Relations (Yale University Press, 1989) p. 146
  57. ^ "Allison, Killebrew Hit Record 'Slams'", Pittsburgh Press, July 19, 1962, p. 37
  58. ^ Baseball-Almanac.com
  59. ^ John A. Hamilton, Blazing Skies: Air Defense Artillery on Fort Bliss, Texas, 1940-2009 (Government Printing Office, 2009) p. 46
  60. ^ "The Hovercraft Pioneers- First Paying Passengers Take the Air To-day", Glasgow Herald, July 20, 1962, p. 4
  61. ^ David L Ganz, The Essential Guide to Investing in Precious Metals: How to Begin, Build and Maintain a Properly Diversified Portfolio (Krause Publications, 2011) pp. 62–63
  62. ^ "Paris and Tunis Resuming Ties; End Rift That Started After '61 Bizerte Fight", New York Times, July 21, 1962
  63. ^ "Egypt Fires 4 Rockets in Test Series- Nasser Boasts Missiles Could Hit Targets in Israel", Youngstown (OH) Vindicator, July 21, 1962, p. 2
  64. ^ Avery Plaw, Targeting Terrorists: A License to Kill? (Ashgate Publishing, 2008) p. 41
  65. ^ "Venus Shot Veers, Destroyed", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 23, 1962, p. 1
  66. ^ "So! It Was Man Who Goofed In Venus Probe", Deseret News (Salt Lake City), July 28, 1962, p. 1
  67. ^ "Mariner I -- no holds BARred", by Peter G. Neumann, The Risks Digest, 30 May 1989; Vincenzo De Florio, Application-Layer Fault-Tolerance Protocols (Idea Group Inc., 2009) p. 32; Peter G. Neumann, Computer-Related Risks (Addison-Wesley Professional, 1994)
  68. ^ Civil Aviation Authority 1974, p. 18/62; "Airliner Crashes, 25 Killed", Miami News, July 23, 1962, p. 1
  69. ^ "First Live European TV Due Via Telstar Today", Miami News, July 23, 1962, p. 1; "What America Saw 'Live' From Europe", Miami News, July 24, 1962, p9C
  70. ^ "14 Nations Sign Pact Of Peace For Laos", Miami News, July 23, 1962, p10A
  71. ^ Shelby L. Stanton, Special Forces at War: An Illustrated History, Southeast Asia 1957-1975 (Zenith Imprint, 2008) p. 23
  72. ^ Robert S. McNamara, et al., Argument Without End: In Search of Answers to the Vietnam Tragedy (PublicAffairs, 2000) pp. 125–127
  73. ^ Dick Spencer, Singing the Blues: The Conservatives in Saskatchewan (CPRC Press, Jan 30, 2007) p. 124
  74. ^ "Senator Dworshak Dies At 67", Miami News, July 24, 1962, p5A
  75. ^ Jan Dominik and Pavel Zacek, Heart Valve Surgery: An Illustrated Guide (Springer, 2008)p16
  76. ^ "Hello, Earth... This Is Jet Stewardess, Miss Patterson", Miami News, July 26, 1962, p. 1
  77. ^ Paolo Ulivi, et al., Lunar Exploration: Human Pioneers and Robotic Surveyors (Springer, 2004) pp. 15–16
  78. ^ Lynne Bell, et al., Queen and Consort: Elizabeth and Philip, 60 Years of Marriage (Dundurn Press Ltd., 2007) pp. 31–32
  79. ^ Steven G. Livingston, Student's Guide To Landmark Congressional Laws on Social Security and Welfare (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002) p. 107
  80. ^ Norman Polmar, Spyplane: The U-2 History Declassified (Zenith Imprint, 2001) p. 183
  81. ^ Dana Polan, Julia Child's The French Chef (Duke University Press, 2011) p. 129
  82. ^ Donald Malcolm Reid, Cairo University and the Making of Modern Egypt (Cambridge University Press, 2002) p. 174
  83. ^ Glenn Cuerden, Images of America: Nauvoo (Arcadia Publishing, 2006) p. 112
  84. ^ Ritchie Fliegler and Jon F. Eiche, Amps!: The Other Half of Rock 'n' Roll (Hal Leonard Corporation, 1993) p. 37
  85. ^ Robert Bud, Manifesting Medicine (NMSI Trading Ltd, 2004) pp. 107–108
  86. ^ Ulrich Hesse-Lichtenberger, Tor! The Story of German Football (WSC Books Limited, 2003) pp. 145–146
  87. ^ Wladimir Andreff and Stefan Szymański, Handbook on the Economics of Sport (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2006)
  88. ^ Craig Nelson, Rocket Men: The Epic Story of the First Men on the Moon (Penguin, 2010)
  89. ^ Myungsook Woo, The Politics Of Social Welfare Policy In South Korea: Growth And Citizenship (University Press of America, 2004) p. 37
  90. ^ "Mr. F. McEvoy and Mr. H. Reeve (Sentences) (Hansard, 20 January 1964)". Archived from the original on 13 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-10.
  91. ^ "PRR Derailing That Killed 19 Being Probed", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 30, 1962, p. 1
  92. ^ "Ex-Fascist Battered To Ground In England", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 30, 1962, p. 1
  93. ^ "Algiers Seized By Guerillas"
  94. ^ "5,000-Car Jam, One Crash Mark Opening of Highway", Vancouver Sun, July 31, 1962, p. 1
  95. ^ Robert Dallek, An Unfinished Life: John F. Kennedy, 1917-1963 (Hachette Digital, 2003)
  96. ^ Timothy J.. Naftali, et al, John F. Kennedy: the Great Crises, July 30-August 1962 (W. W. Norton & Company, 2001) p xlviii
  97. ^ Lamar Waldron and Thom Hartmann, Ultimate Sacrifice: John and Robert Kennedy, the Plan for a Coup in Cuba, and the Murder of JFK (Basic Books, 2006) p. 427
  98. ^ "Australia and the Vietnam War: Australia Enters, 1962"
  99. ^ "Ernie Davis Sick, Lost For All Star Tilt Friday", Daytona Beach (FL) Morning Journal, August 1, 1962, p. 6
  100. ^ Lewiston (ID) Morning Tribune, October 6, 1962, p. 2
  101. ^ "Ernie Davis Loses In Battle With Acute Leukemia At 23", Miami News, May 19, 1963, p2C
  102. ^ "Man Who Grows Dies at 79", Oakland Tribune, August 2, 1962, p. 15