July 1981

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July 17, 1981: 114 killed at Hyatt Regency Hotel collapse in Kansas City
July 29, 1981: Prince Charles marries Diana Spencer in British royal wedding
July 27, 1981: Microsoft buys the secret to its success
July 17, 1981: Nissan announces phasing out of Datsun trademark

The following events occurred in July 1981:

July 1, 1981 (Wednesday)[edit]

July 2, 1981 (Thursday)[edit]

  • The United States Supreme Court ruled unanimously that then-President Jimmy Carter had acted within his authority in ending the Iran hostage crisis when he agreed in the Algiers Accords to release frozen Iranian assets no later than July 19, in return for the release of 52 American hostages from Iran. The decision, made only 8 days after the Court heard arguments, cleared the way for $2.3 billion to be transferred from U.S. banks to Iran. Earlier on the same day, eight of the former hostages sued Iran in federal court, seeking $5,000,000 apiece, despite a waiver of the right to sue as part of the same accords.[8]

July 3, 1981 (Friday)[edit]

  • Chris Evert Lloyd defeated Hana Mandlíková in straight sets, becoming the first woman in 14 years to win the singles championship at Wimbledon without losing a single set. In seven matches, she lost only 26 games.[9]
  • A race riot began in Southall, London, as a group of white "skinheads" clashed with British Asians. The next day, black British youths in the Toxteth section of Liverpool fought with police, and within a week, disturbances broke out in other English cities.[10]
  • 1981 Wimbledon Championships – Women's Singles: Chris Evert Lloyd defeated Hana Mandlíková in straight sets, becoming the first woman in 14 years to win the tournament without losing a single set. In seven matches, she lost only 26 games.[9]
  • The New York Times became the first major newspaper to report on the existence of AIDS, with a report on page 20, headlined "Rare Cancer Seen in 41 Homosexuals". Initially referred to as "GRID" (for "Gay Related Immune Disorder"), the illness would later be named Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.[11] The news, picked up by CNN the next day, was based on an article in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, entitled "Kaposi's Sarcoma and Pneumocystis Pneumonia Among Homosexual Men- New York City and California".[12]
  • Died:
    • Ross Martin, 61, American TV actor best known as Artemus Gordon on The Wild Wild West. Born as Martin Rosenblatt in Poland, Martin was playing tennis in 100 degree heat at Ramona, California, when he collapsed.
    • Wen-Chen Chen, Carnegie Mellon University professor from Taiwan, was killed by security police during a vacation in his homeland.[13]

July 4, 1981 (Saturday)[edit]

July 5, 1981 (Sunday)[edit]

  • After initial doubts about whether his Likud party had been defeated by the Labor Party of Shimon Peres, Prime Minister Menachem Begin was able to declare victory in the closest election in the history of Israel. Under the Israeli system of government, representation in Parliament was based upon the proportion of the overall balloting. With 718,941 votes, Likud had 37.1% for 48 seats, while the 708,356 for Labour was 36.6% for 47 seats, giving Begin the right to assemble the coalition in the 120 seat Knesset.[17]
  • Rajan Mahadevan recited pi to 31,811 digits before an audience in Mangalore. The event took 3 hours and 49 minutes, including a total of 26 minutes of breaks, and was sponsored by the local Lions Club International, Lion Seva Mandir.[18] The record stood until 1987, when Hideaki Tomoyoni repeated the first 40,000 digits.[19]
  • Died: Manuel Urrutia, 81, former President of Cuba who was installed, and later deposed, by Fidel Castro following the 1959 Revolution

July 6, 1981 (Monday)[edit]

  • On trial in Los Angeles under accusation of being the Hillside Strangler, Kenneth Bianchi took the witness stand in his own defense. After initially denying his involvement in the slayings of ten young women, Bianchi unexpectedly began a detailed confession and calmly described each of the murders in detail.[20]

July 7, 1981 (Tuesday)[edit]

July 8, 1981 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Lt. Adriano Bomba of Mozambique flew a Soviet-built MiG-17 jet fighter into South Africa and then signaled to intercepting forces that he wished to surrender. Bomba, a black African defector, was given asylum by the white minority government that ruled the nation during the apartheid era, in return for military intelligence.[23]
  • Born: Anastasia Myskina, Russian tennis player, 2004 French Open winner; in Moscow
  • Died: Irish Republican Joe McDonnell, at the Long Kesh Internment Camp after a 61-day hunger strike.

July 9, 1981 (Thursday)[edit]

July 10, 1981 (Friday)[edit]

July 11, 1981 (Saturday)[edit]

July 12, 1981 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Three days of torrential rains began in China's Sichuan Province, with up to 18.8 inches (480 mm) raising the level of the Yangtze River and its tributaries as much as 16.5 feet (5.0 m). Initial reports from the Xinhua news agency reported 3,000 deaths and 100,000 injuries.[31] The official numbers were revised two weeks later, but the toll was still high, with 753 dead, 558 missing, 28,140 injured and 1.5 million people left homeless.[32]
  • Died:
    • William A. Keeler, President of ARCO Gas and Oil Company, and his wife Anita, were murdered by their 14-year-old son, David, at their home in Dallas.
    • Edward H. Little, 100, former soap salesman who built the Colgate-Palmolive Company into one of the world's largest manufacturers of grooming products.

July 13, 1981 (Monday)[edit]

July 14, 1981 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Max Hugel, a millionaire who had been appointed by CIA Director William Casey to serve as Deputy Director for Clandestine Operations, despite having "no visible qualifications" [34] resigned hours after the Washington Post broke a story headlined, "Spymaster Is Accused of Improper Stock Practices."[35]

July 15, 1981 (Wednesday)[edit]

July 16, 1981 (Thursday)[edit]

July 17, 1981 (Friday)[edit]

  • The collapse of a hotel walkway killed 114 people at the Hyatt Regency Hotel in Kansas City, Missouri. At 7:05 pm, a fourth floor walk at the hotel broke from its moorings and dropped onto a second floor walk directly below, and then both structures fell into the hotel lobby below. All three areas were crowded with people who had gathered for a dance. In addition to the 114 who died, 185 more were injured. Ultimately, the disaster was traced to a flaw in design and construction. While the original plan had been for the two walkways to hang separately, nuts and bolts intended to bear the weight of the fourth floor were holding the weight of both. The failure of a single nut under the stress led to the chain reaction.[40]
  • More than 300 people were killed and 800 injured when aircraft from Israel bombed a residential area in West Beirut, where the headquarters of Palestine Liberation Organization in Lebanon was based. Ten apartment buildings were destroyed. Most of the victims were civilians.[41]
  • The Nissan Motor Company announced that it was phasing out the name "Datsun" for its cars and trucks sold outside Japan.[42]

July 18, 1981 (Saturday)[edit]

  • Jack Henry Abbott, a convicted murderer turned author of the bestseller In the Belly of the Beast, had been paroled in June with the influence of author Norman Mailer. Abbott and two friends walked into a Manhattan cafe called Binibon, and he got into an argument with Richard Adan over use of a restroom. Abbott stabbed Adan to death and then fled the scene. Ironically, Abbott's return to crime took place as the praise of his book was being printed in that Sunday's New York Times Book Review.[43] Abbott was captured two months later, convicted of the murder, and spent the rest of his life in prison until hanging himself in 2002.[44]

July 19, 1981 (Sunday)[edit]

Presidents Mitterrand and Reagan
  • At the summit of Western leaders in Ottawa, French President François Mitterrand revealed to U.S. President Ronald Reagan the existence of the Farewell Dossier, 4,000 pages of Soviet documents that had been supplied to France by former KGB Colonel Vladimir Vetrov, codenamed "Farewell". The material showed that the Soviets had, after years of infiltration, been stealing American technological research and development. While other advisers to the National Security Council were looking for ways to stop the leaks, Gus Weiss proposed the idea of creating defective technology and allowing it to be stolen. The first trial was for computer programs which, months after being applied to operate the Siberian gas pipeline, began to fail. USSR didn't have computer managed gas pipelines in the 1980s which makes this claim highly improbable. The existence of the Farewell Dossier remained a secret until 1997.[45]

July 20, 1981 (Monday)[edit]

  • David A. Kirwan, a 24-year-old tourist at Yellowstone National Park, jumped into the alkaline (pH 9) and scalding (202 F, 94 C) Celestine Pool to save his dog. The dog died within moments and its body dissolved in the hot spring. Kirwan, burned over his entire body, was airlifted to Salt Lake City and died the next day.[46][47]
  • Martina Navratilova became an American citizen at a ceremony in Los Angeles. Until then, the women's tennis star, who had defected from Czechoslovakia, had lived in fear that she would be kidnapped and returned for trial.[48]
  • Died: Lou Peters, Cadillac dealer from Lodi, California, whose cooperation with the FBI led to the conviction of organized crime leader Joe Bonanno earlier in the year. The Bureau named the Louis E. Peters Memorial Service Award in his honor.[49]

July 21, 1981 (Tuesday)[edit]

July 22, 1981 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • FTC Commissioner Michael Pertschuk announced the most comprehensive regulations ever applied to the American funeral industry, ending deceptive practices after a nearly ten-year study. Among the changes were a requirement for funeral homes to itemize their prices, and a prohibition against a common practice of requiring the bereaved to buy a casket even for a cremation.[52]
  • Mehmet Ali Agca was sentenced to life imprisonment for his attempt to assassinate Pope John Paul II on May 13.[53]

July 23, 1981 (Thursday)[edit]

  • A coal mine fire, burning since May 27, 1962,[54] broke to the surface in the town of Centralia, Pennsylvania.[55] Condemning and buying all the property in the town was less expensive than trying to extinguish the fire, so the 1,000 residents of Centralia were relocated over the next several years. The virtual ghost town had 20 residents by 2003.[56]
  • An artificial heart was implanted into a human being for the second time in history (the first was in 1969), as Dr. Denton Cooley placed the Akutsu-III into Willibrord Meuffels, a 26-year-old Netherlands man undergoing bypass surgery at St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital in Houston. Meuffels remained on the TAH for 55 hours until receiving a donor heart, dying from complications ten days later.[57]
  • Died:

July 24, 1981 (Friday)[edit]

  • Kosmos 1275, a Soviet satellite that had been launched on June 4, was struck by debris while in orbit 600 miles (970 km) over Alaska, breaking into more than 140 pieces of space junk.[58]
  • American mediator Philip Habib brokered a cease-fire between Israel and the PLO, temporarily halting the Lebanese Civil War.[59]
  • In one of the largest alleged UFO sightings, thousands of people in China claimed to have observed a bright object surrounded by "Saturn-like rings" in Tibet, flying for seven minutes. China's official Xinhua News Agency reported the story eleven days later.[60]

July 25, 1981 (Saturday)[edit]

  • The very first World Games, a quadrennial international competition for non-Olympic sports, began in Santa Clara, California.[61] Organized by Hal Uplinger, the events ran until August 3.[62]
  • Anti-apartheid protestors in Hamilton, New Zealand forced the cancellation of the second game of the 16 game tour by the South African national rugby union team (the Springboks) and the host team, Waikato.[63] New Zealand History Online. Before the scheduled match could begin, 300 protestors occupied the field at Rugby Park, despite the presence of 4,700 police. The game was cancelled at 3:10 pm after word was received that a pilot had stolen a Cessna plane and was flying toward the stadium, which was crowded with 27,000 fans. Nevertheless, the controversial tour continued with a game four days later at Wellington[64]

July 26, 1981 (Sunday)[edit]

  • After six years, the FBI brought "Operation Donnie Brasco" to an end. Undercover agent Joseph D. Pistone had infiltrated the Bonanno crime family starting in 1975, using the alias Donnie Brasco and gathering evidence for the Bureau. When the family's boss, Dominic Napolitano, asked Pistone to carry out a hit against Bruno Indelicato, his FBI handlers decided that Pistone/Brasco would be discovered. Only after Pistone's assignment ended did FBI agents inform Napolitano that his trusted aide had been an informant. Napolitano would be killed by the Bonanno mob on August 17 for making the mistake.[65]
  • Swelled by a downpour that had happened hours earlier and far upriver, the Tanque Verde Falls in Arizona was the site of a flash flood that killed eight people without warning.[66]
  • Born: Maicon (Maicon Douglas Sisenando), Brazilian soccer football player, in Novo Hamburgo

July 27, 1981 (Monday)[edit]

John Walsh
  • Adam Walsh, age 6, was kidnapped from a Sears store in Hollywood, Florida, and murdered. His father, hotel executive John Walsh, became an activist for missing children and for crime prevention, and would later become host for the television program America's Most Wanted.[67] Serial killer Ottis Toole, who confessed to the crime in 1983 and then recanted, died in 1996. Investigators concluded in 2008 that Toole had been the perpetrator and closed the case.[68]
  • Rod Brock, owner of Seattle Computer Products and of the 86-DOS disk operating system designed by one of its former employees (Tim Paterson), sold all rights to the program to Microsoft for $50,000. Renamed MS-DOS, the system earned Microsoft billions of dollars.[69]
  • In a nationally televised speech, President Reagan explained, in simple terms, his proposal for the largest tax cut in U.S. history, and said, asked for the public to "contact your Senators and Congressmen. Tell them of your support for this bipartisan proposal.".[70] Americans followed suit, and two days later, the bill passed the House 238–195, and the Senate 89–11.[71]
  • The perigee of the Moon, its shortest distance from the Earth, coincided with the week that the Earth, Moon and Sun were aligned. During the total solar eclipse that happened on Friday, July 31, the Moon occluded more of the view of the Sun that usually occurs during an eclipse.
  • Born: Li Xiaopeng, Chinese gymnast, 4 time Olympic gold medalist, world championships in vault (1999, 2002, 2003) and parallel bars (1998, 2002, 2006), in Changsha
  • Died:

July 28, 1981 (Tuesday)[edit]

July 29, 1981 (Wednesday)[edit]

July 30, 1981 (Thursday)[edit]

July 31, 1981 (Friday)[edit]

  • The end of the 1981 Major League Baseball strike was announced in New York by federal mediator Kenneth Moffett, after major league owners and players came to an agreement. The All-Star game, set for August 9 in Cleveland, would mark the return of baseball, and regularly scheduled games would resume on August 10.[79]
  • A total solar eclipse was visible over much of northern Asia, from Turkey to the Soviet Union and much of Mongolia, China and Japan. Because the Moon had made its closet approach to Earth only four days earlier, the diameter of the Moon as it occluded the view of the Sun was greater than would normally have been seen.
  • Died:
    • General Omar Torrijos, 52, military leader of Panama, and head of state from 1972 to 1978. Torrijos and six other people had taken off from Penonomé in a storm, bound for Coclesito, and the plane crashed into the Cerro Julio mountain.[80]
    • Joe Gqabi (born 1929), African National Congress representative in Zimbabwe and former member of the Umkhonto we Sizwe, was assassinated as he backed out of his driveway in Harare;[81] decades later, the Ukhahlamba district of South Africa would be renamed in his honour.


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  2. ^ "Storm Kills 120 In Philippines", Pittsburgh Press, July 1, 1981, pA-12; "Philippines' dead buried", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 3, 1981, p2
  3. ^ "US order man's deportation for alleged Nazi role", Milwaukee Sentinel, July 2, 1981, p2
  4. ^ "Neighbors ignored screams from house where 4 were killed", Anchorage Daily News, July 3, 1981, pA-12
  5. ^ John Heidenry, What Wild Ecstasy (Simon and Schuster, 2002) p236
  6. ^ "Canada's postal workers strike for better fringe benefits", Anchorage Daily News, July 1, 1981, p5
  7. ^ "Mail moving at last", Ottawa Citizen, August 11, 1981, p1
  8. ^ "Hostages deal wins court OK"; "Ex-hostages seek $5 million each"; Spokane Spokesman-Review, July 3, 1981, p1
  9. ^ a b "Lloyd reigns at Wimbledon again", Milwaukee Sentinel, July 4, 1981, p1
  10. ^ "Rioters lay waste to part of Liverpool", Milwaukee Journal, July 6, 1981, p1
  11. ^ "Rare Cancer Seen in 41 Homosexuals", by Dr. Lawrence K. Atlman, New York Times, July 3, 1981, p20 James Kinsella, Covering the Plague: AIDS and the American Media (Rutgers University Press, 1989) p61
  12. ^ Dudley Clendinen and Adam Nagourney, Out for Good: The Struggle to Build a Gay Rights Movement in America (Simon and Schuster, 2001)
  13. ^ "Death of CMU prof in Taiwan is puzzling", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 8, 1981, p1
  14. ^ "McEnroe leaves British in dither", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 6, 1981, p11
  15. ^ "Killer robot: Japanese worker first victim of technological revolution", Deseret News (Salt Lake City UT), December 8, 1981, p1
  16. ^ $10 million Awarded To Family Of U.S. Plant Worker Killed By Robot", Ottawa Citizen, August 11, 1983, p14
  17. ^ "Begin claims victory", Ottawa Citizen, July 6, 1981, p1; Tenth Knesset Results
  18. ^ N. M. Khilnani, Socio-political Dimensions of Modern India (M.D. Publications, 1993) p131
  19. ^ Richard F. Thompson and Stephen A. Madigan, Memory: The Key to Consciousness (Princeton University Press, 2007) p4
  20. ^ "10 hillside slayings admitted by suspect", Milwaukee Sentinel, July 7, 1981, p3; Ted Schwarz, The Hillside Strangler: The Three Faces of America's Most Savage Rapist and Murderer and the Shocking Revelations from the Sensational Los Angeles Trial! (Quill Driver Books, 2004) p253
  21. ^ "Woman chosen for high court", Milwaukee Journal, July 7, 1981, p1; Ronald Reagan Presidential Library archives
  22. ^ "MacCready, Paul Beattie" Britannica Book of the Year 2008 (Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009) p140; "Solar Flight Is 'Perfect'", Gainesville (Fla.) Sun, July 8, 1981, p1
  23. ^ "Black fighter pilot defect to South Africa, of all places", Eugene (Ore.) Register-Guard, July 19, 1981, p2E
  24. ^ Steven L. Kent, The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story behind the Craze that Touched Our Lives and Changed the World (Three Rivers Press, 2001)
  25. ^ Robert J. Thomas, New Product Success Stories: Lessons from Leading Innovators (John Wiley and Sons, 1995) p119
  26. ^ Harry N. MacLean, In Broad Daylight (Harper and Row, 1988) p367; "A town bully is gunned down... and 60 witnesses didn't see a thing", Montreal Gazette, July 29, 1981, p84
  27. ^ "Rajneeshism", in George A. Mather, et al., Encyclopedic Dictionary of Cults, Sects, and World Religions (Zondervan, 2006)
  28. ^ Cheryl A. Rubenberg, Israel and the American National Interest: A Critical Examination (University of Illinois Press, 1989) p267
  29. ^ "LONDON BLITZ: Fury spreads across country",Sun-Herald (Sydney), July 12, 1981 pp1-3
  30. ^ "Writers guild, producers reach contract settlement", New London (CT) Day, July 11, 1981, p7
  31. ^ "China flooding death toll at 3,000", Miami News, July 17, 1981, p10A
  32. ^ "In Flooding in Sichuan", New York Times, July 26, 1981
  33. ^ "U.S. discus star stripped of world record for steroids", Anchorage Daily News, July 14, 1981, pB-1
  34. ^ Old Skeletons Rattle the CIA, Time magazine, July 27, 1981
  35. ^ Bob Woodward, Veil: The Secret Wars of the CIA, 1981–1987 (Simon and Schuster, 1987) pp122-123; ""CIA Spy Director Resigns Over Stock Market Charges." Sarasota Herald-Tribune, July 15, 1981, p1
  36. ^ "New Sweetener Gets OK; To Be Sold Immediately", Sarasota Herald-Tribune, July 16, 1981, p1
  37. ^ "Malaysia's Outspoken Leader", The Age (Melbourne), 16 July 1981, p13
  38. ^ "Profile: Mahathir Mohamad", BBCNews 31 October 2003
  39. ^ "Singer Harry Chapin Killed In Auto Crash", Sarasota (FL) Herald-Tribune, July 17, 1981, p10-A "Jury Awards $7.2M to Widow of Chapin in LIE Accident", Newsday, October 7, 1986
  40. ^ Mark D. Abkowitz, Operational Risk Management: A Case Study Approach to Effective Planning and Response (John Wiley and Sons, 2008) pp11-21; "The Night the Sky Bridges Fell", TIME Magazine, July 27, 1981
  41. ^ "The Bombing of Beirut", Journal of Palestine Studies (1981) pp218–225;James Ron, Frontiers and Ghettos: State Violence in Serbia and Israel (University of California Press, 2003) p175
  42. ^ "Datsun title driven out", Milwaukee Sentinel, July 18, 1981, p2-7
  43. ^ "Convict, author, now fugitive", Milwaukee Journal, August 18, 1981, p1
  44. ^ Patrick Bunyan, All Around the Town: Amazing Manhattan Facts and Curiosities (2d.Ed.) (Fordham Univ Press, 2010) p152
  45. ^ Paul Kregor, The Crusader: Ronald Reagan and the Fall of Communism (HarperCollins, 2007) pp124-132
  46. ^ Lee H. Whittlesey, Death in Yellowstone: Accidents and Foolhardiness in the First National Park (Roberts Rinehart Publishers, 2014) pp3-4
  47. ^ Tim Friend, The Third Domain: The Untold Story of Archaea and the Future of Biotechnology (National Academies Press, 2007) p115; "Thermal pool kills man and his dog", Modesto (CA) Bee, July 22, 1981, p3; Snopes.com
  48. ^ Johnette Howard, The Rivals: Chris Evert vs. Martina Navratilova (Random House, 2006) p175
  49. ^ Society of Former Special Agents of the FBI (Turner Publishing Company, 1998) p28
  50. ^ "Panda is mother again", Milwaukee Journal, July 22, 1981, p2
  51. ^ "Accord averts postal strike", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 22, 1981, p1
  52. ^ "FTC approves requiring itemized costs of funerals",Milwaukee Sentinel, July 23, 1981, p1
  53. ^ "Turk Gets Life Term In Shooting Of Pope", Pittsburgh Press, July 22, 1981, p1
  54. ^ David DeKok, Unseen Danger: A Tragedy of People, Government, and the Centralia Mine Fire (Iuniverse Inc, 2000) p22, p192
  55. ^ "Mine fire surfaces in Pennsylvania", The Milwaukee Journal, July 24, 1981, p12
  56. ^ "Zip Code 00000", by Tyler Currie, Washington Post, April 2, 2003
  57. ^ Lawrence H. Cohn, Cardiac Surgery in the Adult (McGraw-Hill Professional, 2008) p1630; "Dutchman Gets A Mechanical Heart", Montreal Gazette, July 25, 1981, p1
  58. ^ "The Growing Peril of Space Debris", by Jim Schefter, Popular Science (July 1982) p48
  59. ^ "Lebanese Civil War of 1975–90", Dictionary of Wars (George C. Kohn, ed.) (Infobase Publishing, 2006) p301
  60. ^ "UFO seen over Tibet", Pittsburgh Press, August 5, 1981, pA-14; Chris A. Rutkowski, A World of UFOs (Dundurn Press Ltd., 2008) p89
  61. ^ "De-pomped games open", Bend (OR) Bulletin, July 24, 1981, pD-3
  62. ^ "World Games end without fanfare", Lodi (CA) News-Sentinel, August 4, 1981, p12
  63. ^ "Tour diary – 1981 Springbok tour: 'A war played out twice a week',
  64. ^ "Pilot in a stolen plane scuttles rugby game"; "NZ police chief fails to halt Springbok tour" The Age (Melbourne), 27 July 1981, p1
  65. ^ Nate Hendley, American Gangsters, Then and Now: An Encyclopedia (ABC-CLIO, 2010) p192
  66. ^ Richard H. French, Hydraulic Processes on Alluvial Fans (Elsevier, 1987) p12
  67. ^ John Walsh, with Susan Schindehette, Tears of Rage (Simon and Schuster, 2003); "Boy still missing- not a trace", Deseret News (Salt Lake City), July 29, 1981, p6A; "Grisly Find Confirms Parents' Worst Fears", Pittsburgh Press, August 12, 1981, p1
  68. ^ "Cops: 1981 Adam Walsh Murder Solved", CBSNews.com, December 16, 2008
  69. ^ James Wallace and Jim Erickson, Hard Drive: Bill Gates and the Making of the Microsoft Empire (HarperCollins, 1993) pp202-204
  70. ^ "Ronald Reagan Presidential Library archives".
  71. ^ "Reagan Asks Public Support On Tax Cut", Pittsburgh Press, July 28, 1981, p1; "Congress swamped with calls on tax cut", Milwaukee Sentinel, July 29, 1981, p1; Karl A. Lamb, Reasonable Disagreement: Two U.S. Senators and the Choices they Make(Taylor & Francis, 1998) p107
  72. ^ "Iran quake toll may hit 5,000", Anchorage Daily News, July 29, 1981, p1
  73. ^ "U.N. REVISES THE TOLL IN IRAN QUAKE TO 1,500", New York Times, August 5, 1981, p1
  74. ^ Brock Yates, Against Death and Time: One Fatal Season in Racing's Glory Years (Da Capo Press, 2005) p214
  75. ^ "Charles, Diana Wed In Splendor — All World Watches Ceremony", Pittsburgh Press, July 29, 1981, p1
  76. ^ "Bani-Sadr Escapes To France", Pittsburgh Press, July 29, 1981, p1; "How Bani-Sadr escaped in hijacked plane", Montreal Gazette, July 30, 1981, p47
  77. ^ "http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/media/video/clash-on-molesworth-street-springbok-tour"
  78. ^ Jim Hudgens and Richard Trillo, The Rough Guide to West Africa (Rough Guides, 2003) p264; "Gambia Leader Ousted While At Wedding", Youngstown (OH) Vindicator, July 30, 1981, p1
  79. ^ "Baseball Pact Reached", Pittsburgh Press, July 31, 1981, p1
  80. ^ "Panama Leader Torrijos Killed In Plane Crash", Pittsburgh Press, August 2, 1981, pA-1
  81. ^ "Joe Nzingo Gqabi". South African History Online. Retrieved 2012-10-05.