Jumper (dress)

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Contemporary outfit including a black jumper or pinafore dress.

A jumper or jumper dress (in American English), pinafore dress or informally pinafore (British English)[1][2] is a sleeveless, collarless dress intended to be worn over a blouse, shirt or sweater.[3][4][5] Hemlines can be of different lengths and the type of collar and whether or not there is pleating are also variables in the design.[6]

In British English, the term jumper describes what is called a sweater in American English. Also, in more formal British usage, a distinction is made between a pinafore dress and a pinafore. The latter, though a related garment, has an open back and is worn as an apron. In American English, pinafore always refers to an apron.

A sundress, like a jumper, is sleeveless and collarless; however, such articles are not worn over a blouse or sweater, and are of distinctly different cuts and fashions. The apron dress may be viewed as a special case of the jumper. If the design of the dress is directly inspired by an apron (having a bib in front and ties in the back, for example), the garment is typically described as an apron dress.[7]

History[edit]

Jumper dresses for fall were described in The Fort Wayne Sentinel in 1906.[8] The dresses were "imported from Paris" and featured "original lines."[8]

Jumper dresses in the United States were part of the sportswear collections of Jean Patou, Coco Chanel and Paul Poiret.[6] Suzanne Lenglen wore Patou's jumper design in the 1920s.[6] The dresses, worn over blouses, became popular during the decade of the 1920s.[9] Jumper dresses were often worn in the summer and made out of various types of fabrics.[10]

Jumper dresses were touted as an "American" and a "sports fashion" in 1930 by the Pittsburgh Press.[11] The dresses were also praised for allowing women to create color combinations through the choice of blouse worn underneath.[11]

Jumpers were again popularized in 1953, when Hubert de Givenchy promoted his own jumper dress.[12] Jumper dresses, now considered a "classic" look, were considered "suitable to all ages."[13]

See also[edit]

  • Gymslip – a British pinafore worn as athletic wear or school uniform
  • Kirtle – a medieval garment of similar function
  • Romper suit
  • Sarafan – a Russian jumper women wear when in tall grass or more often, farming

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Erin McKean The Hundred Dresses: The Most Iconic Styles of Our Time 2013 1408190508 "the jumper dress (known in the UK as a Pinafore dress) is a sleeveless dress intended to be worn over a blouse, shirt, or sweater. A Jumper may have a bodice with a completely closed back, or it may have a bib front, like a pair of overalls."
  2. ^ "Hints for the Home Dressmaker". Chicago Tribune. 1906-11-11. p. 83. Retrieved 2018-02-09 – via Newspapers.com. 
  3. ^ Gavin Ambrose, Paul Harris The Visual Dictionary of Fashion Design 2940373612-- 2007 - Page 190 "Also called a pinny, a pinafore dress was intended to be worn over a top or blouse, but the name refers to any sleeveless dress that fastens behind. The name originates from the aprons that were pinned to the front of a dress."
  4. ^ Jumper, definition in Collins American Dictionary
  5. ^ "Pinafore" Oxford Dictionaries
  6. ^ a b c Marie, Jen (2 June 2015). "A Brief History Of The Jumper". Bustle. Retrieved 2018-02-09. 
  7. ^ Picken 1957, p. 101.
  8. ^ a b "A New Model 'Jumper' Dress for Fall". The Fort Wayne Sentinel. 1906-09-10. p. 6. Retrieved 2018-02-09 – via Newspapers.com. 
  9. ^ Howell, Frances S.; Costilow, Christopher T. (2010). History of American Dress from the 15th and 16th Century Through 1965. Chris Costilow. p. 147. ISBN 9781450547383. 
  10. ^ Bottomley, Julia (1925-07-10). "Jumper Dress is Popular; In the Ultra Smart Mode". West Schuylkill Herald. p. 3. Retrieved 2018-02-09 – via Newspapers.com. 
  11. ^ a b Parrish, Amos (1930-10-14). "What's In Fashion: The Youthful Jumper Dress". The Pittsburgh Press. p. 26. Retrieved 2018-02-09 – via Newspapers.com. 
  12. ^ Snodgrass, Mary Ellen (2015). World Clothing and Fashion: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Social Influence. Routledge. p. 75. ISBN 9781317451679. 
  13. ^ Blair, Beth (1957-03-07). "Classic Jumper Dress Is Suitable to All Ages". Courier-Post. p. 22. Retrieved 2018-02-09 – via Newspapers.com. 

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]