Jumu'ah

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Jumu'ah at a university in Malaysia

Jumu'ah (Arabic: صلاة الجمعة‎, ṣalāt al-jumu‘ah, "Friday prayer"), is a congregational prayer (ṣalāt) that Muslims hold every Friday, just after noon instead of the Zuhr prayer. Muslims pray ordinarily five times each day according to the sun's sky path regardless of time zones.[1]

Meaning[edit]

ṣalāt al-jum‘ah, in some areas transliterated as salaat-ul-Jumu'ah (the Friday prayer), is a religious obligation which takes the place of the daily afternoon prayer (Zuhr prayer, Arabic: ṣalāt aẓ-ẓuhr) on Friday. It is one of the most exalted Islamic rituals and one of its confirmed obligatory acts.[2]

Etymology[edit]

The name al-Jumu'ah is derived from the verb ijta'ama which means the gathering together of people. "[3]

Name variations[edit]

Region/country Language Main
Arab world Arabic صلاة الجمعة (Ṣalāh al-Jumu'ah)
Iran, Afghanistan Persian نماز جمعه (Namaz Jumah)
North India, East India, Pakistan Urdu جمعہ نماز (Jumma namaaz)
Bangladesh, West Bengal, North-east India Bengali জুম'আ, জুম্মা (Jum'aa, jumma)
Turkey Turkish Cuma namazı
Azerbaijan Azeri Cümə namazı
Balkans Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian Džuma-namaz
Balkans Albanian language Namazi i Xhumasë
Poland Polish Dżummuah
Spain, Latin America Spanish Yumu'ah
Somalia, Djibouti Somali Salaadda Jimce
Southeast Asia Bahasa Indonesia, Bahasa Melayu Salat jumat, Solat jumaat
Java Basa Jawa Jemuwahan
Uzbekistan Uzbek Juma namozi
Iraqi Kurdistan Sorani نوێژی ھەینی
Central Anatolia Kurmanji Nimiya Îniyê, نمیا ئینیێ
Xinjiang Uyghur جۈمە نامىزى

Obligation[edit]

There is consensus among all the Muslims regarding the Friday prayer (salat al-jumu’ah) being wajib in accordance with the aboved quoted Qur'anic verse,as well as the many traditions narrated both by Shi’i and Sunni sources. According to the majority of Sunni schools and some Shiite jurists, Friday prayer is a religious obligation,[4] but their differences were based on to whether its obligation is conditional to the presence of the ruler or his deputy in it or if it is wajib unconditionally. The Hanafis and the Imamis state: The presence of the ruler or his deputy is necessary; the Friday prayer is not obligatory if neither of them is present. The Imamis require the ruler to be just (‘adil); otherwise his presence is equal to his absence. To the Hanafis, his presence is sufficient even if he is not just. The Shafi’is, Malikis and Hanbalis attach no significance to the presence of the ruler. "[5]

  • Moreover, it has been stated that Jumu'ah is not obligatory for the following groups of people:
  1. "Old men. # Children. # Women. # Slaves. # Travellers. # The sick, blind and disabled. # Those who are outside the limit of two farsakhs ". "[6]

In the Quran[edit]

It is mentioned in the Quran:

O ye who believe! When the call is proclaimed to prayer on Friday (the Day of Assembly, yawm al-jumu'ah), hasten earnestly to the Remembrance of Allah, and leave off business (and traffic): That is best for you if ye but knew!
And when the Prayer is finished, then may ye disperse through the land, and seek of the Bounty of Allah: and celebrate the Praises of Allah often (and without stint): that ye may prosper.

— Qur'an, sura 62 (Al-Jumua), āyāt 9-10[7]

In Sunnah[edit]

From hadith:

Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "On every Friday the angels take their stand at every gate of the mosques to write the names of the people chronologically (i.e. according to the time of their arrival for the Friday prayer) and when the Imam sits (on the pulpit) they fold up their scrolls and get ready to listen to the sermon."

Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj an-Naysaburi relates that the Islamic prophet Muhammad used to read Surah 87 (Al-Ala) and Surah 88, (Al-Ghashiya), in Eid Prayers and also in Friday prayers. If one of the festivals fell on a Friday, Muhammad would have made sure to read these two Surahs in the prayers.

Muhammad is quoted as saying “The best day the sun rises over is Friday; on it Allah created Adam. On it, he was made to enter paradise, on it he was expelled from it, and the Last Hour will take place on no other day than Friday.”[ Ahmad and At-At-Tirmithi].

Aws ibn Aws, narrated that Muhammad said: “Whoever performs Ghusl on Friday and causes (his wife) to do ghusl, then goes early to the mosque and attends from the beginning of the Khutbah and draws near to the Imam and listens to him attentively, Allah will give him the full reward of fasting all the days of a year and observing night-vigil on each of its nights for every step that he took towards the mosque.”[Ibn Khuzaymah, Ahmad].

In Sunni Islam[edit]

Jumu'ah prayer in Pristina

The Jumu'ah prayer is half the Zuhr (dhuhr) prayer, for convenience, preceded by a khutbah (a sermon as a technical replacement of the two reduced rakaʿāt of the ordinary Zuhr (dhuhr) prayer), and followed by a congregational prayer, led by the imām. In most cases the khaṭīb also serves as the imam. Attendance is strictly incumbent upon all adult males who are legal residents of the locality.[9] The muezzin (muʾadhdhin) makes the call to prayer, called the adhan, usually 15–20 minutes prior to the start of Jum'ah. When the khaṭīb takes his place on the minbar, a second adhan is made. The khaṭīb is supposed to deliver two sermons, stopping and sitting briefly between them. In practice, the first sermon is longer and contains most of the content. The second sermon is very brief and concludes with a dua, after which the muezzin calls the iqāmah. This signals the start of the main two rak'at prayer of Jumu'ah.

In Shia Islam[edit]

In Shia Islam, Salat al-Jumuah is Wajib Takhyiri, which means that we have an option to offer Jumuah prayers, if its necessary conditions are fulfilled, or to offer Zuhr prayers. Hence, if Salat al-Jumuah is offered then it is not necessary to offer Zuhr prayer. It is also recommended by Shiite Scholars to attend Jumu'ah as it will become Wajib after the appearance of Imam al-Mahdi and Jesus Christ (Isa). [10] Shiite(Imamite) attach high significance to the presence of a just ruler or his representative or Faqih and In the absence of a just Ruler or his representative and a just faqih, there exists an option between performing either the Friday or the zuhr prayer, although preference lies with the performance of Friday prayer. "[5]

In the History of Islam[edit]

According to the history of Islam and the report from Abdullah bn 'Abbas narrated from the Prophet saying that: the permission to perform the Friday prayer was given by Allah before hijrah, but the people were unable to congregate and perform it. The Prophet wrote a note to Mus'ab b. Umair, who represent the Prophet in Madinah to pray two raka'at in congregation on Friday(that is, Jumu'ah). Then, after the migration of the Prophet to Medina,the Jumu'ah was been held by himself.[11]

For Shiites, historically, their clergy discouraged Shiites from attending Friday prayers.[12][13] According to them, communal Friday prayers with a sermon were wrong and had lapsed (along with several other religious practices) until the return of their 12th Imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi.[13] However, among others, Shiite modernist Muhammad ibn Muhammad Mahdi al-Khalisi (1890-1963) demanded that Shiites should more carefully observe Friday prayers in a step to bridge the gap with Sunnis.[14] Later, the practice of communal Friday prayers was developed, and became standard there-afterwards, by Ruhollah Khomeini in Iran and later by Mohammad Mohammad Sadeq al-Sadr in Iraq. They justified the practice under the newly promoted Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists doctrine. When al-Sadr installed Friday prayer imams in Shia-majority areas—a practice not traditional in Iraqi Shiism and considered "revolutionary, if not heretical"[13]—it put him at odds with the Shia religious establishment in Najaf.[15] Under both Khomeini and al-Sadr, political sermons would be heard.[13]

Attendance rates[edit]

The communal prayers have higher compliance of worshipers, as compared to the non-communal ritual prayers. In Turkey for example, the ritual prayers are performed regularly by 44% of the whole adult population, whereas Friday prayers were regularly attended by 56% (25% responded that they sometimes attended and 19% that they didn't).[16] According to surveys conducted by Iran's Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance, less than 1.4% of Iranians attend Friday prayers.[17]

Conditions[edit]

An accurate Jumu'ah was said to fulfill certain conditions, including the follows :

  • Friday prayer must be prayed in congregational.
  • There must be at least 5 (better 7) persons including the Imam.
  • According to some Shiite law Only one Friday prayer may be prayed in a radius of 3 miles 720 yards. If two prayers are held within this distance, the later will be null and void.
  • There must be two sermons delivered by the Imam before the prayer and attentively listened to by at least 4 (or 6) persons".[18]

Format[edit]

Khutbah Jumu'ah[edit]

  • Khutbah(jumu'ah) is refers to as a talk or sermon delivered in mosques before the Friday prayer.[19] The sermon consists of two distinct parts and between the two parts of the sermon the Khatib(speaker) must sits down for a short time of rest.[20]
  • Among the rules that had been stated for khutbah jumu'ah one is that there should not be an undue interval or irrelevant action intervening between the sermon and the prayer. "[21] It should preferably be in Arabic, especially the Qur'anic passage which has to be recited in the sermon. Otherwise, it should be given in the language understood by the majority of the faithful who are there. But in this case the preacher should first recite in Arabic Qurʾānic verses and formulas praising God and Muhammad. "[22]
  • According to the majority of Shiite and Sunni doctrine, the contents of Friday sermon(Khutbah) must contain the following: "[23]
  1. The praise and glorification of Allah.
  2. Invocation of blessings on Muhammad and his Progeny
  3. Enjoining the participants Taqwa,admonition and exhorations.
  4. Reciting short surah from Quran
  • Also, in addition to the aboved said issues, the followings were advice to be address in the second sermon :
  1. What will be useful for all Muslims in this world and hereafter.
  2. The important events allover the world in-favor or dis-favor of Muslims.
  3. special attention should be paid to issues in the Muslim world.
  4. Political and economical aspect of the society and worldwide."[24] "[25]
  • Among the manner of Jumu'ah is that the attendants must listen attentively to the sermon and avoid any action that might distract their attentions."[24]

Jumu'ah prayer[edit]

  • Jumu'ah prayer consists of two rak'ats prayer just like morning(fajr)prayer,offer immediately after Khutbah(sermon).And it is a replacement of Zuhr prayer.[10]
  • According to Shiite doctrine it is advisable(Sunnat) to recite Surah al-Jumu’ah in the first rak'at and Surah al-Munafiqun in the second rak'at, after Surah al-Hamd.[18]

Qunut[edit]

  • According to shiite doctrine,two qunut(raising one hands for supplication during salat)n is specially recommended during salatul Jumu'ah. The first Qunut offers in the 1st rak’at before ruku’ and the second one offer in the 2nd rak’at after rising from ruku’.[18]

Significance in tradition[edit]

There are many hadiths(traditions) reported on the significance of Jumu'ah. among whom are quoted below:

  • The Prophet has been reported saying:"The Jumu'ah is the pilgrimage (Hajj) of the poor". "[26]
  • The Prophet also said:"Whoever misses three Jumu'ah, being indifferent to them, Allah seals his heart".[27]
  • It has been related from Ahmad that the Prophet said: “A worshipper who washes fully on Friday then comes to Salatul Jumuޏah in the early time, then listens to the Imam's speeches and does not do anything wrong, Allah will grant this worshipper the reward of one year of fasting and prayer.[28]
  • Furthermore, Prophet Muhammed was quoted saying : “Any Muslim who dies during the day or night of Friday will be protected by Allah from the trial of the grave.” [At-Tirmithi and Ahmad].
  • Also, hadith related by Al-Bukhari,quoted the Prophet saying that: "In the day of friday, there exists an hour that if a worshipper asks from Allah, anything he wishes in this hour, Allah will grant it and does not reject it,as long as he or she did not wishing for bad".

[28]

  • Similarly, it is narrated that the Prophet said : "Friday has 12 hours, one of which is hour where dua are granted for Muslim believers. This hour is thought to be in the after noon, after Asr prayer".[29]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Dar ul Haqq Islamic Institute - Masjed At Taqwaa". Reno Mosque. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 28 September 2012. 
  2. ^ Fahd Salem Bahammam. The Muslim’s Prayer. Modern Guide. Archived from the original on 1 May 2018. Retrieved 29 January 2018. 
  3. ^ "Hussain, Musharraf." The five pillars of Islam: Laying the foundations of divine love and service to humanity. Kube Publishing Ltd,Oct 10, 2012
  4. ^ "Hashemi, Kamran." Religious legal traditions, international human rights law and Muslim states.vol.7.Brill, 2008
  5. ^ a b "Maghniyyah, M. J." The Five Schools of Islamic Law: Al-hanafi. Al-hanbali, Al-ja'fari, Al-maliki, Al-shafi'i. Anssariyan, 1995
  6. ^ "Al-Tusi, M. H."A concise description of Islamic law and legal opinions.". 2008
  7. ^ Quran 62:9–10
  8. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 2:13:51
  9. ^ Margoliouth, G. (2003). "Sabbath (Muhammadan)". In Hastings, James. Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics. 20. Selbie, John A., contrib. Kessinger Publishing. pp. 893–894. ISBN 978-0-7661-3698-4. Retrieved 17 March 2009. 
  10. ^ a b "Sayyid Ali Al Husaini Seestani."Islamic Laws English Version of Taudhihul Masae'l.Createspace Independent, 2014
  11. ^ Rafat, Amari (2004). Islam: In Light of History. Religion Research Institute. 
  12. ^ Gilles Kepel (2004). The War for Muslim Minds: Islam and the West (illustrated ed.). Harvard University Press. p. 226. ISBN 9780674015753. 
  13. ^ a b c d Jonathan Steele (12 Jan 2008). Defeat: Why They Lost Iraq. I.B.Tauris. p. 96. ISBN 9780857712004. 
  14. ^ Brunner, Rainer; Ende, Werner, eds. (1 Jan 2001). The Twelver Shia in Modern Times: Religious Culture and Political History (illustrated ed.). BRILL. p. 178. ISBN 9789004118034. 
  15. ^ Joel Rayburn (1 Aug 2014). Iraq after America: Strongmen, Sectarians, Resistance. Hoover Institution Press. p. 173. ISBN 9780817916947. 
  16. ^ "Religion, Secularism and the Veil in Daily Life" (PDF). KONDA Research and Consultancy. 8 September 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 November 2010. 
  17. ^ Russ Kick; Nasrin Alavi (1 Jun 2007). Kick, Russ, ed. Everything You Know About God Is Wrong: The Disinformation Guide to Religion. Reformation Hymns: Islam, Iran, and Blogs: Red Wheel Weiser. ISBN 9781934708378. Yet according to surveys by Iran's own Ministry of Culture and Guidance, fewer than 1.4 percent of the population actually bothers to attend Friday prayers. 
  18. ^ a b c Akhtar Rizvi, Sayyid Saeed (1989). Elements of Islamic Studies. Bilal Muslim Mission of Tanzania. 
  19. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-09-19. Retrieved 2018-02-03. 
  20. ^ ʻAlī Nadvī, Abulḥasan (2006). The Musalman. the University of Michigan. 
  21. ^ "Muhammad Abdul-Rauf." Islam Creed and Worship. Islamic Center, 2008
  22. ^ "Chanfi Ahmed" West African ʿulamāʾ and Salafism in Mecca and Medina. Journal of Religion in Africa 47.2 , 2018. Reference. 2018
  23. ^ "Sabiq As-Sayyid" "FIQH us-SUNNAH". Indianapolis: American Trust Publishers, 1992.
  24. ^ a b "Ayatullah Shahid Murtadha Mutahhari"Salatul Jumuah in the Thoughts and Words of Ayatullah Shahid Murtadha Mutahhari . Al-Fath Al-Mubin Publications.
  25. ^ "Ilyas Ba-Yunus, Kassim Kone" Muslims in the United States. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006.
  26. ^ "Shomali, Mohammad Ali and William Skudlarek, eds." Monks and Muslims: Monastic Spirituality in Dialogue with Islam. Liturgical Press, 2012.
  27. ^ Rayshahri, M. Muhammadi (2008). Scale of Wisdom: A Compendium of Shi'a Hadith: Bilingual Edition. ICAS Press. 
  28. ^ a b "Sheikh Ramzy."The Complete Guide to Islamic Prayer(Salāh). 2012
  29. ^ "SW Al-Qahtani."Fortress of the Muslim: Invocations from the Qur'an and Sunnah. Dakwah Corner Bookstore 2009

External links[edit]