Junagadh State

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Junagadh State
જુનાગઢ રિયાસત
Princely State of British India

1807–1948
Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
History
 •  Established 1807
 •  Indian integration of Junagadh 1948
Area
 •  1921 8,643 km2 (3,337 sq mi)
Population
 •  1921 465,493 
Density 53.9 /km2  (139.5 /sq mi)
Today part of Gujarat, India
Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

Junagadh was a princely state in Gujarat ruled by a Muslim Babi Dynasty in British India, until its integration into the Indian Union in 1948.

History[edit]

Muhammad Sher Khan Babi was the founder of the Babi Dynasty of Junagadh State dynasty. His descendants, the Babi Nawabs of Junagadh, conquered large territories in southern Saurashtra. Mohammad Sher Khan Babi, a Babi Khel Pathan who owed allegiance to the Mughal governor of Gujarat subah, founded the state of Junagadh and declared independence in 1730 after the Maratha invasion. Junagadh remained a tributary to the Maratha Empire,[1] until it came under British suzerainty in 1807, following the Second Anglo-Maratha War.

In 1807, the Junagadh State became a British protectorate and The East India Company took control of the state. By 1818, the Saurashtra area, along with other princely states of Kathiawar, were separately administrated under Kathiawar Agency by British India.

In 1947, upon the independence and partition of India, the last Babi dynasty ruler of the state, Mohammad Mahabat Khanji III, decided to merge it into the newly formed Pakistan. However, the Hindu citizens, who formed the majority of the population, revolted, leading to several events and also a plebiscite, resulting in the integration of Junagadh in to India.[2]

Rulers[edit]

Main article: Nawab of Junagarh

The Nawabs of Junagadh belonged to Pathan Babi khel tribe. They were granted a 13 gun salute by the British authorities:[3]

  • 1730 - 1758 : Mohammad Bahadur Khanji or Mohammad Sher Khan Babi[4]
  • 1758 - 1774 : Mohammad Mahabat Khanji I
  • 1774 - 1811 : Mohammad Hamid Khanji I
  • 1811 - 1840 : Mohammad Bahadur Khanji I
  • 1840 - 1851 : Mohammad Hamid Khanji II
  • 1851 - 1882 : Mohammad Mahabat Khanji II
  • 1882 - 1892 : Mohammad Bahadur Khanji II
  • 1892 - 1911 : Mohammad Rasul Khanji
  • 1911 - 1948 : Mohammad Mahabat Khanji III (last de facto ruler)
Junagadh Nawabs and state officials, 19th century.
Mohammad Mahabat Khanji II, the Nawab of Junagarh, with young, Mohammad Bahadur Khanji III. 1870s.
Bahadur Khanji III (r. 1882-1892), Nawab of Junagadh, and state officials, 1880s.
Mohammad Rasul Khanji, Nawab of Junagadh, Bahaduddinbhai Hasainbhai, Wazier, Junagadh, 1890s.

One of the Junagadh family resides in Ahmedabad India--descendants of the family of Valid Ahad Shehzada Shri Sherzaman Khanji Rasul Khanji Babi Bahadur, who was the elder brother of last ruling Nawab Sahab Shri HH Nawab Sahab Shri Mahabat Khanji III Rasul khanji. The present head of the family, Darbar Sahab Shri Shamsher Ali Khanji Hayat Khanji Babi Sahab of Devgam, itself an offshoot of Junagadh state, is the great grand son of Valid Ahad Shehzada Sahab. His representative is his eldest nephew Sahibzada Muzammil Hayat Khanji Anis Mohammad Khanji Babi.

The actress Parveen Babi was from this Junagadh family.

Integration into India[edit]

Early in 1947, Shah Nawaz Bhutto joined the council of ministers of Nawab Muhammad Mahabat Khan III, becoming his Dewan, or prime minister in May.

With the independence of India in 1947, the princely states were left by the British to decide whether to accede to one of the newly independent states of India or Pakistan or to remain outside them. The Constitutional Advisor to the Nawab, Nabi Baksh, indicated to Lord Mountbatten that he was recommending that the State should join India. However, the Nawab did not make a decision. However, upon the advice of his dewan Bhutto, on 15 August 1947, the Nawab announced that the State had acceded to Pakistan. On 13 September, the Government of Pakistan accepted the accession.[5]

However, the Hindu citizens of the State revolted, leading to several events and also a plebiscite, resulting in the integration of Junagadh in to India.[6] Nawab Muhammad Mahabat Khan III of Junagadh (erstwhile Babi nawab dynasty of Junagadh) left to live in Sindh, Pakistan.[7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Georg Pfeffer and Deepak Kumar Behera, Contemporary Society: Concept of tribal society, p. 198 
  2. ^ Gandhi, Rajmohan (1991). Patel: A Life. India: Navajivan. p. 292.
  3. ^ Junagadh Princely State (13 gun salute)
  4. ^ Nawabs of Junagadh British Library.
  5. ^ Menon, V. P. (1956). The Story of Integration of the Indian States (PDF). Orient Longman. pp. 85–87. 
  6. ^ Gandhi, Rajmohan (1991). Patel: A Life. India: Navajivan. p. 292.
  7. ^ http://www.junagadhmunicipal.org/history.php

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 21°31′N 70°28′E / 21.52°N 70.47°E / 21.52; 70.47