Juncus bufonius

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Juncus bufonius
Juncus bufonius.jpeg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Clade: Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Juncaceae
Genus: Juncus
Species: J. bufonius
Binomial name
Juncus bufonius

Juncus bufonius, known commonly as toad rush, is a widespread flowering plant species complex in the rush family Juncaceae.[1][2][3]


Its native range is circumpolar throughout tropical, subtropical, subarctic, and temperate climate areas of the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere.[4][1][5][6][7][8] [9] It is also widely distributed as an introduced species in suitable habitats worldwide. It grows in moist and muddy places, often in wetlands and riparian areas.[10]

In habitats where it is not native and has naturalized it may be considered a weed. The relationship of North America plants to the Eurasian Juncus ranarius is weakly delineated.[3]


Juncus bufonius is an annual monocot that is quite variable in appearance. It is generally a green clumping grasslike rush, with many thin stems wrapped with few threadlike leaves.[3]

The flowers are borne in inflorescences and also in the joint where the inflorescence branches off of the stem. It is a grassy flower folded within tough bracts and sepals.[3] The blooming period is March through May.[10]


Varieties include:[10]

  • Juncus bufonius var. bufonius — North America.[11]
  • Juncus bufonius var. congestus — North America.[12]
  • Juncus bufonius var. occidentalis — North America.[13]
  • Juncus bufonius var. rechingeriSouth Asia.[7]


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