June 1933

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June 19, 1933: Museum of Science and Industry opens in Chicago
June 16, 1933: National Recovery Administration is created
June 10, 1933: INS created

The following events occurred in June 1933:

June 1, 1933 (Thursday)[edit]

  • Germany's Law for the Encouragement of Marriage took effect, providing for the Ehestandsdarlehen (Marriage loan) to all German Aryan newlyweds, with 1000 Reichsmarks to be loaned, interest free, to couples on condition that the wife quit employment or remain unemployed. After encouraging women to vacate jobs in favor of men, the law was amended to encourage the growth of the Aryan population, with the debt to be reduced 25% each time a child was born. In the first four years of the program, 700,000 couples took out the loans.[1]
  • The Soviet Communist Party began a purge of party members whom General Secretary Joseph Stalin described as "double-dealers masked as Bolsheviks". Commissions in ten cities, including Moscow and Leningrad, screened one million members, and expelled one out of every six.[2]
  • J. P. Morgan, Jr. was testifying before the Senate Banking Committee when a man placed a circus midget, Lya Graf, onto his lap. The U.S. Senate warned that any newspapers that printed the photo risked being excluded from future Senate hearings.[3]
  • The Soviet Navy activated its new Northern Naval Flotilla as part of its continued growth, the second new fleet created in 15 months. On April 21, 1932, it had created the Naval Forces of the Far East.[4]
  • Born: Charles Wilson, U.S. Representative from Texas 1973–1996, whose role in obtaining funding for Afghan resistance to the Soviet invasion was dramatized in the film Charlie Wilson's War; in Trinity, Texas (d. 2010)

June 2, 1933 (Friday)[edit]

  • Bernhard Rust, Minister of Science, Art, and Education for Prussia, ordered that Jews be banned from youth, welfare and gymnastic organizations and that they be denied access to athletic facilities. At the start of 1933, there had been 40,000 German Jews in sports clubs, including 250 Jewish sports organizations. By 1935, there were none.[5]
  • Seven people were killed and another 50 injured in an explosion at the Richfield Oil Company refinery explosion in Long Beach, California.[6]

June 3, 1933 (Saturday)[edit]

Pope Pius XI

June 4, 1933 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Radio Luxembourg began broadcasting as an English-language station aimed at listeners in England, where the British Broadcasting Corporation had a monopoly on domestic radio.[9] Within a year, 90 British companies were running commercials on Radio Luxembourg, since the BBC did not permit advertising. In 1931, Radio Normandy had pioneered the concept of broadcasting commercial radio from the European continent to Britain.
  • An express train carrying holiday travelers from Paris to the Brittany coast derailed near Nantes, killing 14 people. The train struck debris that had spilled onto the track from the wreck of a freight train on adjoining track.[10]

June 5, 1933 (Monday)[edit]

  • The U.S. Congress passed the Gold Reserve Act of 1933 (Pub. Res. 73-10) nullifying the right of creditors to demand payment in gold.[11]

June 6, 1933 (Tuesday)[edit]

June 7, 1933 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Representatives of France, Britain, Germany and Italy initialled the Four-Power Pact in Rome, pledging Europe a decade of peace and pledging to work toward disarmament. The ceremony took place in Italian Premier Benito Mussolini's office at the Palazzo Venezia in Rome.[15]

June 8, 1933 (Thursday)[edit]

June 9, 1933 (Friday)[edit]

June 10, 1933 (Saturday)[edit]

June 11, 1933 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Seven unfortunate passengers who bought tickets for sightseeing trip over the World's Fair in Chicago, were killed along with the pilot and co-pilot when a wing crumpled. The amphibian plane, Northern Light, plunged 600 feet to the ground in Glenview, Illinois.[25]
  • Declared "Red Cross Day" by Nazi Germany to raise support and awareness for the reorganized German Red Cross.[26]
  • Died: Eugene James, 19, American jockey who had won the 1932 Kentucky Derby, drowned in Lake Michigan.[27]

June 12, 1933 (Monday)[edit]

  • The World Economic Conference of 1933 began in London, with representatives from 64 nations, to discuss the reduction of trade barriers, settlement of war debts, stabilizing exchange rates and coordinating monetary policies. The conference would last until July 27, without accomplishing its goals.[28]
  • Born: Eddie Adams, American photographer and Pulitzer Prize winner, in Kensington, Pennsylvania (d. 2004)

June 13, 1933 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • The Home Owners' Loan Corporation was established by law to provide lower interest (5 percent) loans to prevent foreclosures. At the time of its creation, 41 percent of home mortgages in the United States had been in default. The HOLC accepted applications until 1936, and effectively refinanced 992,531 homes. After the last of the 15-year loans was collected back, the HOLD ceased operations in 1951.[29]

June 14, 1933 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Jimmie Mattern, seeking to become the first person to fly a plane solo around the world, set off from Khabarovsk in Siberian Russia, headed toward U.S. territory for the first time since his departure from New York. Mattern never arrived in Nome, Alaska.[30] Unbeknownst to most of the world, his airplane, the Century of Progress, had engine failure 14 hours after takeoff, but he had crashed on land, near the Anadyr River, which he would reach after three days. Mattern would find an island in the middle of the river, reasoning that he would be able to signal boats more easily. He would finally be found after two weeks, on June 28, by Eskimos in two rowboats.[31]
  • The United States agreed to accept partial payment of $75,950,000 owed by Great Britain for loans from World War One, taking ten million dollars. An earlier request to pay 10% had been refused by President Roosevelt.[32]
  • Born:

June 15, 1933 (Thursday)[edit]

  • The Glass-Steagall Act of 1933 passed both houses of Congress and was signed into law the next day. The law severely restricted private banks from making risky investments with their depositors' capital.[33]

June 16, 1933 (Friday)[edit]


June 17, 1933 (Saturday)[edit]

Union Station
  • In a gunbattle at the Union Station in Kansas City, Missouri, gangster Pretty Boy Floyd and two of his men, Adam Richetti and Vern Miller, attempted to rescue bank robber Frank Nash, who was being transported by a team of federal agents and local policemen to the federal penitentiary in Leavenworth, Kansas. During the fight, Floyd and his men fired sub-machine guns, killing FBI agent Raymond Caffrey, Police Chief Ott Reed of McAlester, Oklahoma, Kansas City police detectives William Grooms and Frank Hermanson; and, inadvertently, Frank Nash himself.[38]
  • Baldur von Schirach was named "Youth Leader of the German Reich" as the Hitler Youth proceeded to absorb all other youth organizations in Germany.[39]
  • Born: Maurice Stokes, American NBA player whose career was halted by a head injury; in Pittsburgh (d. 1970)

June 18, 1933 (Sunday)[edit]

June 19, 1933 (Monday)[edit]

  • U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Henry Wallace announced a farm subsidy program to pay farmers to plow under as much as ten million acres of cotton and not to grow it, in order to reduce production and boost the price.[41]
  • The Austrian Nazi party was outlawed, by decree of Austrian Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss, after the party was linked to bombings over the previous two weeks. The decree came after 16 auxiliary police in Krems were injured, earlier in the day, by grenades thrown at them by party members.[42] Germany responded by banning its citizens from visiting Austria.[43]
  • The Museum of Science and Industry (Chicago) opened, originally as part of the 1933 World's Fair.[44]
  • The Convention on European Broadcasting was signed at Lucerne, Switzerland, by representatives of 21 European nations, with an agreement assigning specific radio frequencies for the various nations.[45]
  • Prince Alfonso of the Asturias, former Crown Prince of Spain, and the son of Spain's former King Alfonso XII, married Sra. Edelmira Sampedro in Lausanne, Switzerland.[46]
  • Born: Viktor Patsayev, Soviet cosmonaut who died during the ill-fated Soyuz 11 mission; in Aktyubinsk, Kazakh SSR (now Aktobe, Kazakhstan (d. 1971)
  • Died: Bolivar E. Kemp, 61, U.S. Representative from Louisiana since 1925, died of a heart attack. The Governor's choice of Kemp's widow as the "unopposed" Democratic Party in a special election would lead to rioting.

June 20, 1933 (Tuesday)[edit]

San Marino
  • Police in Rome announced the arrest of two Sicilian bandits who had been planning to overthrow the government of the tiny republic of San Marino.[49] Antonio Canepa of Palermo had plotted to seize the Republic's police station, military barracks and radio station, then to take control of the treasury to finance a resistance against the Fascist regime in Italy. After he and his co-conspirators were arrested, Catapa was placed in a mental hospital for one year.[50]
  • The government of Siam (now Thailand) was overthrown in a bloodless coup staged by Colonel Phraya Phahonphonphayauhasena, who took over after conflicts with the first Prime Minister, Phraya Manopakorn Nititada. As premier, Colonel Phahonphonphayauhasena took on the shorter name of Phot Phahonyothin.[51]
  • The Procuracy of the Soviet Union was created to control the national judicial system.[52]
  • Actress Barbara Hutton married Prince Alexis Mdivani of the former royal family of Georgia.[53]
  • Born: Danny Aiello, American film actor, in New York City
  • Died:

June 21, 1933 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Joseph Gallo, Sr., killed his wife Susie Gallo, and then himself, after being despondent from the financial troubles from his winemaking business. The couple's sons, Ernest Gallo and Julio Gallo inherited 2/3rds of the family assets, and when prohibition was repealed in December, began building the E & J Gallo Winery into what would become a multibillion-dollar company that became the largest manufacturer of California wines. The other 1/3rd went to Joseph Gallo, Jr., who would create the Joseph Gallo Farms, one of the largest dairy farming operations and cheese producers in America.[54]
  • Born:
  • Died: George Masa (Masahara Izuka), 52, Japanese-born American photographer

June 22, 1933 (Thursday)[edit]

  • In a ruling that would cost him his judicial career, Alabama circuit judge James E. Horton set aside the April 9 jury verdict against Haywood Patterson, the first of the Scottsboro Boys to be retried on charges of rape in 1931. Judge Horton wrote, after reviewing the proof presented at the trial, that "the evidence greatly preponderates in favor of the defendant", set aside the verdict and the death sentence, and ordered a retrial.[55] In making the unpopular decision, Horton would lose his bid for re-election in 1934, and retire to farming. All of the Scottsboro Boys would later be exonerated and released from prison. Lita Sorensen, The Scottsboro Boys Trial: A Primary Source Account (Rosen Publishing Group, 2003) p39
  • Germany outlawed the Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands or SPD), which had won the second largest number of seats (121) in the German Reichstag in the March 5 election.[56] The party would be revived in 1946, winning control of the West German Bundestag in 1969, and merging with the Communist Party in East Germany to form the SED.[57]
  • At Watchung, New Jersey, an alert garage employee discovered a 20-pound dynamite bomb that had been attached to the ignition of a car used by Congressman Charles A. Eaton of New Jersey, foiling an assassination attempt.[58]
  • Born: Dianne Feinstein, U.S. Senator for California since 1992, Mayor of San Francisco 1978–88; in San Francisco as Dianne Emiel Goldman

June 23, 1933 (Friday)[edit]


June 24, 1933 (Saturday)[edit]

  • The official Nazi newspaper, Völkischer Beobachter, had as its front-page headline "FOREIGN AIRCRAFT OVER BERLIN!", with the false story that a formation of unidentified bombers had dropped leaflets over the German capital, then turned back "toward the East", with the suggestion that the Soviet Union had penetrated German airspace because of a lack of sufficient air defense. The effect was to justify building a powerful German air force armada and airfields.[61]

June 25, 1933 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Seven thousand German members of the Jehovah's Witnesses convened at the Wilmersdorfer Tennishallen in Berlin to resist the persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses in Nazi Germany. From the convention emerged the "Declaration of Facts", which declared that the Witnesses had no intention to get into politics, and that their sole purpose was to preach about the Kingdom of God. Two days later, the Gestapo began arresting anyone who distributed the Declaration and closed the Witnesses' office in Magdeburg.[62]
King Boris III

June 26, 1933 (Monday)[edit]

June 26, 1933: Hugenberg fired after helping Hitler win power
  • Alfred Hugenberg, whose Nationalist Party formed a coalition that put the Nazi Party and Adolf Hitler into power, was forced to resign his cabinet positions as Minister of Economics and Minister of Agriculture, ending his attempt to keep Hitler in line. His political party was outlawed the next day. Hugenberg would never re-enter politics and die in 1951.[64]
Commandant Eicke

June 27, 1933 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • The German National People's Party (DVNP), which had helped the Nazi Party form a coalition government three months earlier, after the Nazis had failed to secure a majority in the March elections, was outlawed by the Nazi government.[66]
  • Germany's program to create a network of superhighways (autobahns) was begun with a decree establishing the Unternehmen Reichsautobahnen company, under the administration of the national railroad.[67]
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
  • Sir John Gilmour, the British Home Secretary, delivered the last official statement concerning the Union Jack, flag of the United Kingdom. Responding to a question of whether private citizens were barred from displaying the flag, Gilmour stated, "The Union Flag is the national flag and may properly be flown by any British subject on land".[68]
  • Born: Gary Crosby, American singer and son of Bing Crosby (d. 1995)

June 28, 1933 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle signed a movie deal with Warner Brothers in the first step of his comeback, with a deal to make a full-length feature film. Arbuckle had made four short (20 minutes) comedy films for Warner, including the recently released How've You Bean?, but no major films for more than a decade. He died of a heart attack in his hotel room the next day.[69]
  • Louise Arner Boyd set off on an expedition to Greenland, leading scientists on the Veslekari expedition that sailed from Aalesund, Norway.[70]

June 29, 1933 (Thursday)[edit]

  • In New York, Primo Carnera of Italy became the new heavyweight boxing champion of the world, knocking out champ Jack Sharkey in the 6th round.[71] Carnera was disliked by many American sportswriters "because so many of his early fights were faked, [and] his American managers were mobsters", according to one author, and there was uncertainty about whether his win over Sharkey was legitimate; Sharkey would hold his title for less than a year, losing on June 14, 1934 to boxer Max Baer.[72]
  • Gustav Bauer, formerly Chancellor of Germany (1919–20), was arrested in Berlin on charges of corruption.[73]
  • Jorge Prado y Ugarteche was sworn in as the new Prime Minister of Peru.[74]
  • Died: Fatty Arbuckle, American film actor and comedian

June 30, 1933 (Friday)[edit]


  1. ^ Robert Gellately, Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe (Random House Digital, 2008) p334
  2. ^ Robert C. Tucker, Stalin in Power: The Revolution from Above, 1928–1941 (W. W. Norton & Company, 1992) p243
  3. ^ "A Midget, Banker Hearings and Populism Circa 1933", Wall Street Journal Deal Journal Blog, January 12, 2010; "Photo of Morgan With Midget Can't Be Used, Warning", Milwaukee Journal, June 1, 1933, p1
  4. ^ Jürgen Rohwer and Mikhail S. Monakov, Stalin's Ocean-going Fleet: Soviet Naval Strategy and Shipbuilding Programmes, 1935–1953 (Frank Cass Publishers, 2001) p42
  5. ^ Molly Wilkinson Johnson, Training Socialist Citizens: Sports and the State in East Germany (BRILL, 2008) pp22-23
  6. ^ "BLAST KILLS 7, INJURES 50", Milwaukee Sentinel, June 3, 1933, p1
  7. ^ "Anti-Church Laws Bring Spain Under Papal Ban", Milwaukee Journal, June 3, 1933, p1
  8. ^ "Wilhelm Weds Commoner, Still Claims Throne Rights", Milwaukee Sentinel, June 4, 1933, p1
  9. ^ Andrew Crisell, An Introductory History of British Broadcasting (Routledge, 2002) p51
  10. ^ "Wreck in France Takes 14 Lives", Milwaukee Journal, June 5, 1933, p2
  11. ^ Richard H. Timberlake, Monetary Policy in the United States: An Intellectual and Institutional History (University of Chicago Press, 1993) p277
  12. ^ Kerry Segrave, Drive-in Theaters: A History from Their Inception In 1933 (McFarland, 2006) pp4-7
  13. ^ Saeed Moaveni, Engineering Fundamentals: An Introduction to Engineering (Cengage Learning, 2010) p413
  14. ^ "Afghan Minister Slain", Sarasota Herald-Tribune, June 7, 1933, p4
  15. ^ "Duce's Peace Treaty Signed by Big Powers", Milwaukee Sentinel, June 8, 1933, p1
  16. ^ "BAER STOPS SCHMELING IN TENTH", Milwaukee Sentinel, June 9, 1933, p17
  17. ^ Bill Mallon and Jeroen Heijmans, Historical Dictionary of the Olympic Movement (Scarecrow Press, Aug 16, 2011 p. li
  18. ^ "Count 10 Dead, Many Injured in Fire, Blast", Milwaukee Sentinel, June 10, 1933, p1; "Three Arrested As Plotters in Plant Explosion", Milwaukee Sentinel, June 11, 1933, p2
  19. ^ David J. Darling, The Complete Book of Spaceflight: From Apollo 1 to Zero Gravity (John Wiley & Sons, 2003) p252
  20. ^ "Train in Flood; 50 Are Missing", Milwaukee Sentinel, June 11, 1933, p1
  21. ^ Keith Fitzgerald, The Face of the Nation: Immigration, the State, and the National Identity (Stanford University Press, 1996) p164
  22. ^ Jerome A. Greene, Stricken Field: The Little Bighorn Since 1876 (University of Oklahoma Press, 2008) p73
  23. ^ . Russell Girardin, et al., Dillinger: The Untold Story (Indiana University Press, 2005) p271; New Carlisle Chamber of Commerce
  24. ^ William H. Young and Nancy K. Young, The Great Depression in America: A Cultural Encyclopedia (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007) p519
  25. ^ "NINE DIE IN FAIR PLANE CRASH", Milwaukee Sentinel, June 12, 1933, p1
  26. ^ Morgenbrod and Merkenich. Das Deutsche Rote Kreuz unter der NS-Diktatur 1933-1945 (in German). p. 32.
  27. ^ "Eugene James, up on Burgoo King in Kentucky Derby Last Year Drowns", St. Petersburg (FL) Independent, June 12, 1933, p7; Jim Bolus, Derby Magic (Pelican Publishing, 1998) p186
  28. ^ Warren J. Samuels and Ross B. Emmett, Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology: A Research Annual (Emerald Group Publishing, 2009) p121
  29. ^ James Stuart Olson, Historical Dictionary of the Great Depression, 1929–1940 (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001) pp146-147
  30. ^ "Mattern's Fate In Northland Is Still Unknown", Milwaukee Sentinel, June 17, 1933, p2
  31. ^ "Mattern Tells of Crash in Wilds, Rescue by Eskimo River Party", Milwaukee Journal, July 12, 1933, p1
  32. ^ "BRITAIN TO PAY $10,000,000", Milwaukee Sentinel, June 15, 1933, p1
  33. ^ Nomi Prins, It Takes a Pillage: Behind the Bailouts, Bonuses, and Backroom Deals from Washington to Wall Street (John Wiley & Sons, 2009) p136
  34. ^ Irving Bernstein and Frances Fox Piven, The Turbulent Years: A History of the American Worker, 1933–1941 (Haymarket Books, 2010) p34
  35. ^ Leslie Stein, The Hope Fulfilled: The Rise of Modern Israel (Greenwood Publishing, 2003) pp200-201
  36. ^ "Sheriff Freed By 'Pretty Boy' After Flight", Milwaukee Sentinel, June 18, 1933, p2
  37. ^ "65,300,000 in Reich", Milwaukee Sentinel, July 5, 1933, p2
  38. ^ "Gang Guns Slay Four Officers, Prisoner", Milwaukee Journal, June 17, 1933, p1; Michael Newton, The Encyclopedia of American Law Enforcement (Infobase Publishing, 2007) p182
  39. ^ Alan Dearn and Elizabeth Sharp, The Hitler Youth 1933–45 (Osprey Publishing, 2006)
  40. ^ Yung-Chen Chiang, Social Engineering and the Social Sciences in China, 1919–1949 (Cambridge University Press, 2001), p. 181.
  41. ^ "Cut Cotton Crop", Lewiston Morning Tribune, June 20, 1933, p1
  42. ^ "Austrian Nazis Are Outlawed", Montreal Gazette, June 20, 1933, p1
  43. ^ Leopold Schwarzschild and Andreas Wesemann, Chronicle of a Downfall: Germany 1929–1939 (I.B.Tauris, 2010) p113
  44. ^ Kee Malesky, All Facts Considered: The Essential Library of Inessential Knowledge (John Wiley & Sons, 2010) p54
  45. ^ Edmund Jan Osmańczyk and Anthony Mango, Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Agreements: A to F (Taylor & Francis, 2003) p232
  46. ^ "Prince Weds Today", Milwaukee Sentinel, June 19, 1933, p2
  47. ^ Cynthia Ann Ruder, Making History for Stalin: The Story of the Belomor Canal (University Press of Florida, 1998) p31
  48. ^ Stephanie E. McCarthy, Haunted Peoria (Arcadia Publishing, 2009) p152
  49. ^ "Revolt Is Overthrown", Milwaukee Journal, June 21, 1933, p2; "Plot in Tiny Nation", Milwaukee Sentinel, June 23, 1933, p2
  50. ^ Monte S. Finkelstein, Separatism, the Allies and the Mafia: The Struggle for Sicilian Independence, 1943–1948 (Lehigh University Press, 1998) p20
  51. ^ "Siamese King Bows", Milwaukee Sentinel, June 21, 1933, p1; Kasīan Tēchaphīra, Commodifying Marxism: The Formation Of Modern Thai Radical Culture, 1927–1958 (Trans Pacific Press, 2001) p39
  52. ^ "Procuracy", in Encyclopedia of Soviet Law (BRILL, 1985) p623
  53. ^ "Barbara Gives Her Hand to Prince But Keeps Purse", Milwaukee Sentinel, June 20, 1933, p1
  54. ^ Carol Robertson, The Little Red Book of Wine Law: A Case of Legal Issues (American Bar Association, 2008) p69
  55. ^ "Negro Given Third Trial— Scottsboro Black In New Lease On Life", Florence (AL) Times, June 22, 1933
  56. ^ "Adolf Hitler Outlaws Socialist Party in Germany", Milwaukee Journal, June 22, 1933, p1
  57. ^ Geoffrey K. Roberts, German Politics Today (Manchester University Press, 2000) p82
  58. ^ "Bomb Set for Congressman", Milwaukee Sentinel, June 23, 1933, p1
  59. ^ Lawrence A. Clayton, Peru and the United States: The Condor and the Eagle (University of Georgia Press 1999) p148
  60. ^ J. J. Johnston and Sean Curtin, Chicago Boxing (Arcadia Publishing, 2005) p640
  61. ^ Roy Godson and James J. Wirtz, Strategic Denial and Deception: The Twenty-First Century Challenge (Transaction Publishers, 2002) p63
  62. ^ John J. Michalczyk, Confront!: Resistance in Nazi Germany (Peter Lang, 2004) p27-28
  63. ^ "Army Rules Bulgaria", Milwaukee Sentinel, June 26, 1933, p2
  64. ^ Dan P. Silverman, Hitler's Economy: Nazi Work Creation Programs, 1933–1936 (Harvard University Press, 1998) p12
  65. ^ Harold Marcuse, Legacies of Dachau: The Uses and Abuses of a Concentration Camp, 1933–2001 (Cambridge University Press, 2001) pp23-24
  66. ^ "Nazis Outlaw Nationalists As Rival Party", Milwaukee Sentinel, June 28, 1933, p2
  67. ^ Thomas Zeller, Driving Germany: The Landscape of the German Autobahn, 1930–1970 (Berghahn Books, 2010) p55
  68. ^ Thomas Hylland Eriksen and Richard Jenkins, Flag, Nation and Symbolism in Europe and America (Psychology Press, 2007) p68
  69. ^ Robert Grant and Joseph Katz, The Great Trials Of The Twenties: The Watershed Decade in America's Courtrooms (Da Capo Press, 1998) p93
  70. ^ Elizabeth Fagg Olds, Women of the Four Winds (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1999) p251
  71. ^ "CARNERA K.O.'S SHARKEY", Milwaukee Sentinel, June 30, 1933, p1
  72. ^ Mark C. Carnes, ed., American National Biography: Supplement (Oxford University Press, 2005) pp79-80
  73. ^ "Jail Ex-Chancellor", Milwaukee Sentinel, June 30, 1933, p2
  74. ^ "New Peru Cabinet", Milwaukee Sentinel, June 30, 1933, p2
  75. ^ "SAG Timeline", SAG.org; Anna Kate Sterling, Celebrity Articles from the Screen Guild Magazine (Scarecrow Press, 1987) p v
  76. ^ "SAG, AFTRA Members Approve Merger to Form SAG-AFTRA", SAG-AFTRA.org
  77. ^ Sherree Owens Zalampas, Adolf Hitler: A Psychological Interpretation of His Views on Architecture, Art, and Music (Popular Press, 1990) pp67-68