June 1946

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1946
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June 13, 1946: Umberto II ends reign as the last King of Italy
June 1, 1946: Penicillin now available in Britain

The following events occurred in June 1946:

June 1, 1946 (Saturday)[edit]

Cochin-China

June 2, 1946 (Sunday)[edit]

June 3, 1946 (Monday)[edit]

Kalinin
  • By a 6-1 vote, the United States Supreme Court ruled in Morgan v. Virginia that a Virginia law, requiring segregation of white and African-American bus passengers, was illegal for interstate travel. The suit had been brought by Irene Morgan, who had refused to sit in the Negro section of a bus traveling from Gloucester County, Virginia, to Baltimore, Maryland.[7]
  • Died: Mikhail I. Kalinin, 70, former President of the U.S.S.R.; and Ch'en Kung-po, 54, founding member of Chinese Communist Party and collaborator (executed)

June 4, 1946 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • The United States Army recovered a treasure trove of jewelry and manuscripts that had been stolen by a group of American officers from the Friedrichshof Castle in Kronberg, Germany. Women's' Army Corps Captain Kathleen Nash Durant had hidden part of the loot at her sister's home in Hudson, Wisconsin, and her husband, Colonel Jack W. Durant, had hidden hundreds of diamonds and other gems in a locker at the Illinois Central railway station in Chicago.[8]
  • The National School Lunch Act was signed into law by U.S. President Harry S. Truman, permanently establishing federal financial support for free or low-cost meals for schoolchildren.[9]
  • The largest solar prominence (300,000 mi/500,000 km) observed to date occurred. The prominence was observed "from Climax, Colorado, by Walter Orr Roberts, the founding director of NCAR, UCAR, and the High Altitude Observatory. Within about an hour, this prominence became nearly as long as the Sun’s diameter, 1.39 million kilometers (865,000 miles)—the largest prominence ever documented up to that point. In a few more hours, it disappeared completely."[10]

June 5, 1946 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • A fire at the La Salle Hotel in Chicago killed 57 people. When the blaze broke out at 12:20 am, there were 1,059 guests and 108 employees in the 20-story building. Firefighters were not called until 15 minutes after the flames were spotted, and by 12:35, the blaze had spread from the hotel's Silver Grill Cocktail Lounge throughout the lower floors. Most of the dead were guests on 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th floors of the twenty-story building. At least ten people jumped to their deaths.[11]
  • Died: George A. Hormel, 85, American multi-millionaire and founder of Hormel Foods

June 6, 1946 (Thursday)[edit]

June 7, 1946 (Friday)[edit]

  • The BBC Television network went back on the air for the first time since it had halted abruptly halted broadcasting, in the middle of a Mickey Mouse cartoon, at noon on September 1, 1939, when World War II had begun. The first program shown when broadcasting resumed was the very same cartoon that had been halted almost seven years earlier.[14]
  • After setting a Friday evening deadline for walking out on strike two days earlier, the Pittsburgh Pirates baseball team voted to go ahead with their scheduled game against the New York Giants. On June 5, the players voted unanimously to walk off the job unless they were allowed to join a labor union. An unidentified player reported that the vote had been 20 to 17 against a walkout. The team went on to beat the Giants 10-5.[15]

June 8, 1946 (Saturday)[edit]

June 9, 1946 (Sunday)[edit]

Thailand's King Ananda Mahidol dead of gunshot wound
New King, Bhumibol Adulyadej
  • Ananda Mahidol, the 20-year-old King of Thailand, was found in his bedroom dead, from a single gunshot to his forehead, and with his Colt .45 pistol next to him. He was succeeded by his teenaged brother, Bhumibol Adulyadej, who became King Rama IX[17] and ruled until his death in October 2016. Although the death was initially ruled an accidental shooting, and speculated by author Rayne Kruger in The Devil's Discus (Cassell, 1964) to have been a suicide, royal secretary Chaleo Pathumros and two others were executed in 1955 after being convicted of King Ananda's murder.[18]
  • A fire at the Canfield Hotel in Dubuque, Iowa, killed 16 people.[19]

June 10, 1946 (Monday)[edit]

Jack Johnson
  • Jack Johnson, the world heavyweight boxing champion from 1908 to 1915, and the first African-American to win that title, was killed in an automobile accident. In 1910, Johnson had defended his title in what was called then "The Fight of the Century", matching him against "The Great White Hope", former champion Jim Jeffries. Johnson had been driving from Texas to New York when his car crashed into a light pole near Franklinton, North Carolina.[20]

June 11, 1946 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • The Administrative Procedure Act, which governs the rulemaking and judicial functions of all United States government agencies, was signed into law.[21] The law has been described as "the most important statute affecting the administration of justice in the federal field since the passage of the Judiciary Act of 1789".[22]

June 12, 1946 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • After the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry had unanimously recommended that up to 100,000 European Jews be allowed to immigrate to Palestine, British Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin declared that the United Kingdom would reject the plan.[23] Speaking at the annual conference of Britain's Labour Party, Bevin commented that the motive for American support for a Jewish state was "because they did not want too many of them in New York." Following the rejection of the proposal, Zionist leaders began a campaign of violence against the British government in the future state of Israel.[24]
  • Died: John H. Bankhead II, 73, U.S. Senator from Alabama since 1931

June 13, 1946 (Thursday)[edit]

June 14, 1946 (Friday)[edit]

June 14, 1946: Baruch presents his plan for UN control of all atomic weapons, "a choice between the quick and the dead"
  • Baruch Plan: As the United States representative to the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission, financier Bernard Baruch spoke at the UNAEC's temporary headquarters at New York's Hunter College, and presented the American proposal for United Nations' control of all nuclear weapons. At the time, the United States was the only nation to have produced an atomic bomb. Baruch opened his remarks by saying, "We are here to make a choice between the quick and the dead.".[26] Under the plan, the U.N.'s member nations would have agreed to not develop nuclear weapons and to allow inspections by the UNAEC to verify compliance, with punishments for violation of the agreement. No member of the U.N. Security Council would have been allowed to veto a resolution for enforcement. In return, the UNAEC would have assisted member nations in developing nuclear energy for peaceful uses. A week later, the Soviet Union made a counterproposal that would have delayed discussion of enforcement procedures until after weapons were destroyed.[27] No agreement was ever reached, and the world's nations developed their own nuclear arsenals.[28] One historian later offered the opinion that "the Baruch Plan was the nearest approach to a world government proposal ever offered by the United States",[29]
  • Born: Donald Trump, 45th President of the United States of America.
  • Died: John Logie Baird, 57, Scottish inventor of television technology; and Jorge Ubico, former Guatemalan dictator.

June 15, 1946 (Saturday)[edit]

June 15, 1946: Blue Angels team flies its first airshow
  • The Blue Angels, the aerial demonstration team for the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Marine Corps, made its very first performance, with four pilots under the leadership of Lt. Commander Butch Voris flying at an airshow at the Jacksonville Naval Air Station in Florida.[30]
  • 1946 U.S. Open: Byron Nelson, Lloyd Mangrum and Vic Ghezzi finished 72 holes of golf in a three-way tie, each having 283, at the tournament in Cleveland. Nelson would have won outright, but his caddy had accidentally brushed his foot against the ball when Nelson's fans crowded the area, costing a penalty stroke.[31] The next day, the three men tied again at 72 in an 18-hole playoff. In the second playoff, played during a violent thunderstorm, Mangrum — who had been wounded twice during the Battle of the Bulge finished at 72, a stroke ahead of Nelson and Ghezzi.[32]

June 16, 1946 (Sunday)[edit]

June 16, 1946: Zionists destroy eleven bridges in Palestine in one night
  • Night of the Bridges: Agents of the Palmach, a strike force of the Zionist group Haganah, destroyed eleven highway and railway bridges on the night of June 16–17.[33] Author Joseph Heller commented later "Ten bridges connecting Palestine with the neighboring states were destroyed with no casualties. British occupying forces rounded many of the Haganah members in Operation Agatha days later.[34]

June 17, 1946 (Monday)[edit]

  • Jordan achieved independence when the Treaty of London officially came into effect.
  • Mobile Telephone Service (MTS), the first "car phone" service in the United States, was introduced by AT&T in St. Louis, Missouri, working in conjunction with Southwestern Bell. With the aid of a radio tower that transmitted on 120 kHz and could handle only one call at a time, customers could place and receive phone calls in their automobiles. The service was then instituted in other American cities. To call someone on an MTS phone, a person would first call an AT&T operator, who would then send a signal to the designated MTS telephone number. Calls from an auto were also operator assisted.[35]
  • A tornado swept through Detroit and then across the U.S.-Canada border into Windsor, Ontario, killing 17 people.[36]
  • Born: Marcy Kaptur, U.S. Representative (D-Ohio) since 1983, in Toledo

June 18, 1946 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • In Goa, at that time part of the colony of Portuguese India, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia began the passive resistance movement against the Portuguese administration to become part of an independent India. The resistance continued for 15 years until Goa and other Portuguese colonies were invaded by the Indian army and annexed. Goa became India's 25th state in 1987.[37]
  • Born: Russell Ash, British author, in Surrey; Bruiser Brody, professional wrestler, as Frank Goodish in Detroit, Michigan (d. 1988)

June 19, 1946 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Georges Bidault was elected as the Provisional President of France by the National Assembly, with 389 votes out of the 586 possible. Communist legislators refused to participate in the vote.[38]
  • A rematch between world heavyweight boxing champion Joe Louis and challenger Billy Conn attracted 45,266 fight fans to Yankee Stadium, while another 140,000 viewed the fight on the NBC television network (including broadcasts in theaters). After a lackluster fight, Louis knocked Conn out in the eighth round.;[39]
  • Andrei Gromyko, the Soviet Union's representative to the United Nations submitted a response to the Baruch Plan proposed by the United States six days earlier, with a disarmament plan of his own. The Soviet proposal was that the world's nations ratify a treaty pledging not to build nuclear weapons, and that within 90 days after ratification, the United States would destroy its atomic weapons arsenal.[40]
  • Sixty-three Germans and twenty Ukrainian refugees were killed in the explosion of ammunition that had been stored by the Nazi German regime in a salt mine at Hänigsen, near Celle.[41]

June 20, 1946 (Thursday)[edit]

Chief Justice Vinson

June 21, 1946 (Friday)[edit]

  • At the Nuremberg trials, Albert Speer, who had been the German Minister of Armaments and War Production, testified before the War Crimes Tribunal that the Nazis had been "a year or two away from splitting the atom" before the end of World War II. Speer said that Germany's development of a nuclear bomb had been delayed because many of its atomic scientists had fled to the United States to escape Adolf Hitler's regime.[44]
  • A cloud of ammonia killed seven people and injured 41 at the Baker Hotel in Dallas. Most of the victims were hotel employees who were overcome when an air conditioning unit, in the hotel's basement, exploded.[45]

June 22, 1946 (Saturday)[edit]

Senator Bilbo
  • U.S. Senator Theodore G. Bilbo of Mississippi, running for re-election in the Democratic primary, said in a radio broadcast that he was calling on every "red-blooded Anglo-Saxon man in Mississippi to resort to any means to keep hundreds of Negroes from the polls in the July 2 primary", then added "And if you don't know what the means, you are just not up on your persuasive measures.".[46] Bilbo won re-election in the primary and general election, but as a result of his call for violence against African-American voters, the United States Senate refused to let him be sworn in for a new term.[47]
  • The first delivery of the United States mail by jet plane was made by two P-80 Shooting Star planes. The inaugural flight left Schenectady, New York at 12:18 and arrived in Washington, D.C. at 1:07 pm, with an air mail letter delivered to President Truman.[48]
  • Born: Kay Redfield Jamison, American psychiatrist and bipolar disorder specialist

June 23, 1946 (Sunday)[edit]

June 24, 1946 (Monday)[edit]

June 25, 1946 (Tuesday)[edit]

June 26, 1946 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Taking the Chinese Civil War into a new phase, President Chiang Kai-shek launched a nationwide military campaign against the Communist Chinese forces of Mao Zedong, with Chiang's Nationalist Army moving into central China to take back rural areas that were under Communist control. The Nationalists had superior weapons and more troops, and Chiang received American aid for a strategy that he hoped would defeat Mao's forces within six months. Within nine months, it was clear that the campaign was failing, and by the end of 1949, China's mainland was under control of the Communist forces.[54]
  • On the day the campaign started, Nationalist Chinese pilot Liu Shanben defected to the Communists and delivered a B-24 Liberator bomber to the opposition, and starting a wave of similar acts. Within three years, 54 pilots and 20 airplanes joined the Communist side.[55]
  • William Heirens, a 17-year-old student at the University of Chicago, was arrested for burglary, and soon charged with three murders tied to "The Lipstick Killer", including the January 7 murder of 6-year old Suzanne Degnan.[56]
  • Died: Alexander Duncan McRae, 71, Canadian multimillionaire

June 27, 1946 (Thursday)[edit]

June 28, 1946 (Friday)[edit]

  • Occupation of Japan: The first recorded birth, in Japan, of a baby born of a Japanese mother and one of the American soldiers occupying Japan, was announced on Japanese radio. The birth, the first of tens of thousands that would follow, came a little more than nine months after the first American occupation forces had arrived on the Honshu island.[60]
  • Born: Gilda Radner, American comedian and actress, in Detroit (d. 1989)
  • Died: Antoinette Perry, 58, American actress for whom the Tony Awards are named

June 29, 1946 (Saturday)[edit]

June 30, 1946 (Sunday)[edit]

  • After nearly five years of price and wage controls by the United States Office of Price Administration, the OPA's emergency wartime powers ended at midnight. Two days earlier, the U.S. Senate declined to extend the OPA's authority,[63] and a final appeal to the American public by President Truman failed.[64] Expiring at midnight also were the mandates of the Fair Employment Practice Committee (FEPC), which had acted against discrimination by race,[65] and the War Relocation Authority, which carried out racial discrimination, most notably in the internment of more than 100,000 Japanese Americans during World War II, was abolished.[66]
  • Polish people's referendum, 1946: In a national referendum, voters in Poland were presented with a yes-or-no choice on three issues: abolishing the Senate; supporting nationalization of industries and land, and conforming the border with the Soviet Union to reflect the loss of lands east of the Odra and Nysa rivers. Official results showed two-thirds approval of all three measures, placed Poland under Communist rule for the next 43 years, by the Polish Workers' Party.[67]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Discovery of Penicillin", American Chemical Society
  2. ^ "TRUMAN'S STRIKE BILL PASSED", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 1, 1946, p1
  3. ^ Frederick Logevall Embers of War, Random House 2012 p. 137
  4. ^ "New Republic Reported Formed", Spokane (WA) Daily Chronicle, June 1, 1946, p15
  5. ^ Guillermo A. O'Donnell, et al.,Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Southern Europe (Johns Hopkins University Press 1986) p63; "Monarchy Voted Out; Italian King Leaving", Milwaukee Journal, June 5, 1946, p1
  6. ^ "Communists Suffer Sharp Setback in French Election", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 3, 1946, p1; Herman Finer, Governments of Greater European Powers (Methuen, 1956) p322
  7. ^ "Cannot Segregate Negroes in Buses", Milwaukee Journal, June 3, 1946, p1
  8. ^ "Army Piecing Together Story of Fabulous Crown Gem Theft", Milwaukee Journal, June 9, 1946, p1
  9. ^ Oliver E. Byrd, Nutrition Sourcebook (Stanford University Press, 1955) pp285-286
  10. ^ Drummond, Rachael. "The Story behind Spicules." UCAR. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 March 2011
  11. ^ Cowan, Great Chicago fires: historic blazes that shaped a city (Lake Claremont Press, 2001) p63; "57 Perish, 200 Injured in Chicago Blaze", Milwaukee Journal, June 5, 1946, p1
  12. ^ "New Cage Loop Formed With 13 Cities Enrolled", Milwaukee Journal, June 7, 1946, p38; Basketball-Reference.com
  13. ^ "Vinson to Be Chief Justice", Chicago Tribune, June 7, 1946, p1
  14. ^ Albert Abramson, Zworykin, Pioneer of Television (University of Illinois Press, 1995) p193
  15. ^ Milwaukee Journal: "Baseball's First Union Strike Set for Friday", June 6, 1946, p40; "Pittsburgh Players Insist They Will Go on Strike Tonight", June 7, 1946, p1; "Pirates' 'No Strike' Decision Real Blow to Baseball Guild", Milwaukee Journal, June 8, 1946, p6
  16. ^ "London Victory Parade: Britain celebrates V-E holiday with pomp and fireworks", LIFE magazine, June 24, 1946, pp31-34
  17. ^ "Siam's King Found Dead Of Bullet-- Officials Call Killing Accident; Brother Rules With Regency", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 10, 1946, p1
  18. ^ Paul M. Handley, The King Never Smiles: A Biography of Thailand's Bhumibol Adulyadej (Yale University Press, 2006) pp76-77
  19. ^ "16 Dead, 20 Injured in Iowa Hotel Fire", Milwaukee Journal, June 10, 1946, p1
  20. ^ "Jack Johnson Dies in Motor Accident", Milwaukee Journal, June 11, 1946, pB-2
  21. ^ William F. Funk, et al., Federal Administrative Procedure Sourcebook (American Bar Association, 2000) p38
  22. ^ Louis Fisher, American Constitutional Law (Cambridge University Press, 1954) p292
  23. ^ "Bevin Rejects Plan to Move Jews to Zion", Milwaukee Journal, June 1, 1946, p1
  24. ^ Menahem Kaufman, An Ambiguous Partnership: Non-Zionists and Zionists in America, 1939-1948 (Wayne State University Press, 1991) p203
  25. ^ "Umberto Yields Throne, Flies To Exile In Lisbon", Miami Daily News, June 14, 1946, p1
  26. ^ "Destroy All Atomic Bombs, Share Secrets— Offer by U.S.", Los Angeles Times, June 15, 1946, p1
  27. ^ "Russia Calls On U.S. to Scrap All Atom Bombs", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 20, 1946, p1
  28. ^ Negotiating International Control (December 1945-1946), U.S. Department of Energy, Office of History & Heritage Resources
  29. ^ Joseph Preston Baratta, The Politics of World Federation: United Nations, UN reform, atomic control (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004) p178
  30. ^ "Blue Angels Striving for Perfection", by William B. Scott, Aviation Week, March 20, 2005
  31. ^ "Caddy Kicks Ball, Imposing Penalty Stroke on Byron", Reading (PA) Eagle, June 16, 1946, p13
  32. ^ "Mangrum Laughs At Lightning And Three-Stroke Deficit To Win", Miami News, June 17, 1946, p2-B
  33. ^ "Zion Terrorists Blast Bridges in New Clash", Milwaukee Journal, June 17, 1946, p1
  34. ^ Joseph Heller The Birth of Israel, 1945-1949: Ben-Gurion and His Critics (University Press of Florida, 2000)
  35. ^ "1946: First Mobile Telephone Call", AT&T website; Vinayshil Gautam and Sanjay Sinha, Understanding telecom management (Concept Publishing, 2004) pp 24-25
  36. ^ "TORNADO RIPS DETROIT AREA", Pittsburgh Press, June 18, 1946, p1
  37. ^ R.N. Sakshena, Goa: Into the Mainstream (Abhinav Publications, 2003) pp29-30
  38. ^ "Bidault Chosen President Of New French Government", St. Petersburg Times, June 20, 1946, p1
  39. ^ "Louis Wins By K.O.; Conn Retires", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 20, 1946, p1
  40. ^ "Russia Calls On U.S. to Scrap All Atom Bombs", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 20, 1946, p1
  41. ^ "Fear 100 Died in Mine Blast", Milwaukee Journal, June 19, 1946, p1; "83 Are Killed In Salt Mine", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, p2
  42. ^ "Big Four Agrees To Evacuate Italy", Pittsburgh Press, June 20, 1946, p1
  43. ^ "Vinson Confirmed As Chief Justice", Pittsburgh Press, June 21, 1946, p5
  44. ^ "Germans Could Have Split Atom in Year, Nazi Claims"
  45. ^ "Seven Killed, 41 Injured In Hotel Blast", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 22, 1946, p1
  46. ^ "Stop Negro Voter, Bilbo Demands", Pittsburgh Press, June 23, 1946, p4
  47. ^ "Bilbo Denied Seat", Los Angeles Times, January 5, 1947, p1
  48. ^ "Letters Flown by Jet Planes", Milwaukee Journal, June 23, 1946, p1
  49. ^ France, Germany and the new Europe, 1945 - 1967 by F. Roy Willis (Oxford University Press, 1965) pp 37-38
  50. ^ "8 SPOKANE BASEBALL PLAYERS DEAD IN CRASH OF THEIR BUS", Spokane Daily Chronicle, June 25, 1946, p1
  51. ^ "Indians Take Salem Series; Leave Today for Bremerton", Spokane Daily Chronicle, June 24, 1946, p13
  52. ^ Robert W. Oliver, George Woods and the World Bank (Lynne Rienner 1995) p39
  53. ^ Neil L. O'Brien, An American editor in early revolutionary China: John William Powell and the China Weekly/Monthly Review (Routledge, 2003) p33
  54. ^ Xiaobing Li, A History of the Modern Chinese Army (University Press of Kentucky, 2007) p73
  55. ^ Xiaoming Zhang, Red Wings Over the Yalu: China, the Soviet Union, and the Air War in Korea (Texas A&M University Press, 2004) p24
  56. ^ "Young Student Held In Degnan Kidnap Murder", St. Petersburg Times, June 28, 1946, p1; "Chicago Boy Admits Three Lurid Killings", St. Petersburg Times, July 28, 1946, p1 Robert D. Keppel and William J. Birnes, Signature Killers (Simon and Schuster, 1997) p41
  57. ^ David Miller, Submarine Disasters (Globe Pequot, 2006) p62; "46 Men Perish When Sub Sinks", The (Ottawa) Evening Citizen
  58. ^ "Canadian Citizenship Act and current issues -BP-445E". Government of Canada - Law and Government Division. 2002. Retrieved 2010-07-11. 
  59. ^ onathan V. Plaut, The Jews of Windsor, 1790-1990: a historical chronicle (Dundurn Press, 2007) p130
  60. ^ Paul R. Spickard, Mixed Blood: Intermarriage and Ethnic Identity in 20th-century America(University of Wisconsin Press, 1991) p125
  61. ^ "2,000 Arrested In Holy Land", Palm Beach Post, July 1, 1946, p1
  62. ^ Ami Pedahzur and Arie Perliger, Jewish terrorism in Israel (Columbia University Press, 2009) pp23-24
  63. ^ *"Efforts to Save OPA Blocked", Milwaukee Journal, June 29, 1946
  64. ^ "PRICE CONTROL ENDS TONIGHT, TRUMAN SAYS FIGHT NOT OVER", St. Petersburg Times, June 30, 1946, p1
  65. ^ Kari A. Frederickson, The Dixiecrat revolt and the end of the Solid South, 1932 - 1968 (University of North Carolina Press, 2001) p34
  66. ^ Jeffrey D. Schultz, Encyclopedia of Minorities in American Politics: African Americans and Asian Americans (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000) p268
  67. ^ "Polish Voters Favor One-House Parliament", St. Petersburg (FL) Times, July 5, 1946; Jaff Schatz, The Generation: The Rise and Fall of the Jewish Communists of Poland (University of California Press 1991) p205