June 1961

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1961
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
01 02 03
04 05 06 07 08 09 10
11 12 13 14 15 16 17
18 19 20 21 22 23 24
25 26 27 28 29 30
June 23, 1961: USAF Major White becomes first to pilot fly a plane "a mile per second" (3,600 mph)
June 29, 1961: Thor-Able II rocket puts 3 satellites and 298 pieces of space junk into orbit
June 3, 1961: Soviet Premier Khrushchev tries to intimidate U.S. President Kennedy

The following events occurred in June 1961:

June 1, 1961 (Thursday)[edit]

June 2, 1961 (Friday)[edit]

  • SS Canberra, with room for 2,198 passengers and, at 45,270 gross tons, the largest British ocean liner to be built after World War II, departed Southampton on its maiden voyage, bound for Australia.[7]
  • J. Millard Tawes, Governor of Maryland, dedicated a granite and bronze monument in the grounds of the State House at Annapolis to the memory of the USS Maryland, nicknamed the "Fighting Mary", and her crew.
  • Born: Liam Cunningham, Irish actor, in Dublin
  • Died:

June 3, 1961 (Saturday)[edit]

  • Vienna summit: U.S. President John F. Kennedy and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev began a two-day summit at Vienna, considered a neutral site. The two world leaders opened discussions with a 75-minute meeting at the U.S. Embassy in Austria.[8] Although described in the press as a "cordial",[9] the first meeting between the young American president and the old Soviet leader was hostile, and Kennedy later described it to New York Times reporter James Reston as "the worst thing in my life", as Khrushchev lectured him and demanded that Western troops leave Berlin.[10]
  • Clarence Earl Gideon, a 50-year-old drifter, was arrested in Panama City, Florida after being accused of burglary of the Bay Harbor Poolroom. Unable to afford an attorney, convicted and sentenced to five years in prison, Gideon filed his own petition for review in the United States Supreme Court. The Court's ruling in the landmark case of Gideon v. Wainwright established that state courts would be required to provide counsel for any criminal defendant unable to afford an attorney.[11]
  • Stirling Moss won the 1961 Silver City Trophy at Brands Hatch.
  • Died: "G. I. Joe", 18, British war pigeon who was credited with saving the lives of 1,000 soldiers of the British 56th Infantry. On October 18, 1943, the division had taken control of the village of Calvi Vecchia in Italy, shortly before the RAF was preparing to make an air strike there. The pigeon flew 20 miles to the airfield just as seven RAF bombers were preparing to depart, and the mission was aborted in time.[12]

June 4, 1961 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Berlin Crisis of 1961: On the second day of the Vienna summit, Premier Khrushchev informed President Kennedy that the Soviet Union would, in December, sign a separate peace treaty with East Germany whereby "all commitments stemming from Germany's surrender will become invalid", including the stationing of occupation forces in the city. In that Berlin was entirely within East Germany, all American, British and French access to the city, including the corridors across East Germany between West Germany and Berlin. Khrushchev added that "it is up to the U.S. to decide whether there will be war or peace", that the Soviet decision to sign the treaty was "firm and irrevocable", and that the treaty would be signed in December. As noted in the memorandum made at the time, and released in 1998, "The President concluded the conversation by observing that it would be a cold winter."[13]
  • Died: Former Dominican Army General Juan Tomas Diaz, 52, who masterminded the assassination of Dominican Republic dictator Rafael Trujillo five days earlier, died in a gunbattle with security agents.[14]

June 5, 1961 (Monday)[edit]

  • In separate 5-4 rulings, the United States Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the McCarran Act, requiring the Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) to register the names of all of its members with the U.S. Justice Department (Communist Party v. Subversive Activities Control Board), and the Smith Act, which made active Communist Party membership a federal crime "if the individual is aware of the party's subversive goals" (Scales v. United States)[15]
  • Tony Castellitto, seen as a rival to Anthony Provenzano's leadership of the Teamsters Union Local 560 that served New York City, vanished after getting into a car with Provenzano's aide, Salvatore "Sally Bugs" Briguglio. "Tony Pro" was the chief suspect after Teamsters' Boss Jimmy Hoffa disappeared under similar circumstances on July 30, 1975. Provenzano was convicted in 1978 for Castellitto's murder, though Hoffa's killers were never found.[16]
  • Muhammad Shamte Hamadi became Chief Minister of Zanzibar.
  • Born: Mary Kay Bergman, American voice actress (South Park), in Los Angeles (committed suicide, 1999)

June 6, 1961 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • The decennial census was taken in West Germany, and the final tally was that 56,174,826 persons lived there.[17]
  • South Korea's military leaders enacted the "Law Concerning Extraordinary Measures for National Reconstruction", replacing the legislative and executive branch with the "Supreme Council of National Reconstruction", consisting of 32 officers and chaired by Major General Park Chung Hee.[18]
  • Air Congo was formed.[19]
  • CUSO (Canadian University Service Overseas) was founded.[20]
  • In the United Kingdom, the commercial television franchise for north and west Wales was awarded to Teledu Cymru, the Wales Television Association, and would go on the air on September 14, 1962. It failed in less than three years.[21]
  • Died: Carl Jung, 85, Swiss psychiatrist, died ten days after completing his work on the book Man and His Symbols.[22]

June 7, 1961 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • The Sony Corporation made its first public stock offering in the United States, with two million shares offered at $1.75 a share on Wall Street. Within two hours, all shares had been sold.[23]
Japanese beetle
  • California's war against the Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) began with the discovery, by and entomologist, of one of the pests feeding on a flower on the grounds of the California State Capitol in Sacramento. It was soon discovered that an infestation was imminent. For the next four years, the state worked on preventing the beetles from becoming established, with the risk of hundreds of millions of dollars being lost if even 5% of California's fruit crops were destroyed. After four years, the beetle was declared eradicated.[24]
  • United States Navy ships USS Ulysses (ARB-9) and USS Diomedes (ARB-11) were transferred to West German ownership were renamed the Odin and the Wotan, respectively.
  • Died: Harald Gram, 72, Norwegian politician

June 8, 1961 (Thursday)[edit]

  • The results of the 1961 population census of Great Britain were delivered to Parliament, and showed the total population of the island to be 51,294,604 based on 43,430,972 in England, 5,223,000 in Scotland, and 2,640,632 in Wales.[25]
  • The Milwaukee Braves became the first team in Major League Baseball history to hit four consecutive home runs in one inning, as Eddie Mathews, Hank Aaron, Joe Adcock and Frank Thomas scored four roundtrippers in four at bats in the 7th against pitcher Jim Maloney of the Cincinnati Reds. The Reds (and Maloney) won anyway, 10-8.[26] The feat was duplicated twice in the next three years, on July 31, 1963 (Indians v. Angels) and May 2, 1964 (Twins v. A's); then not again for 40 years until September 18, 2006 (Dodgers v. Padres) and, most recently, on April 22, 2007 (Red Sox v. Yankees).[27]
  • The first public demonstration of a jet pack was made by Bell Laboratories test pilot Harold Graham, who flew the Bell Rocket Belt at Fort Eustis, Virginia before a crowd of several hundred military officers and their guests.[28]
  • Ramón Mercader, who had served a 20-year prison sentence in Mexico for the August 20, 1940, assassination of Leon Trotsky, was awarded the honors of Hero of the Soviet Union and the Order of Lenin. The ceremony took place at the Kremlin in Moscow, and the medals were bestowed by Leonid Brezhnev.[29]
  • Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, the uncle of Queen Elizabeth II, married Katharine Worsley at York Minster.[30] On the same day in London, Prince Vsevolod Ivanovich of Russia married Valli Knust, niece of German silent film star Valli Valli.
  • A mob of 4,000 farmers seized control of the French town of Morlaix at dawn, blocking the roads in and around the 13,000 population town with tractors and trucks, occupying the city hall, and defying the town's 100 member police force. The Breton farmers were angry at the limits on the revenue they could receive from their products. The French Interior Ministry sent 130 riot police to disperse the group.[31]
  • Plans for the establishment of Bangladesh Agricultural University were finalized.
  • Died: Olav Bjaaland, 88, Norwegian ski champion and Antarctic explorer

June 9, 1961 (Friday)[edit]

June 10, 1961 (Saturday)[edit]

  • The Korean Central Intelligence Agency (KCIA), South Korea's secret police force, was created under the leadership of Colonel Kim Jong Pil, "explicitly designed to spy on its own citizens". Within three years, it had gone from having 3,000 employees on its payroll to 370,000 officials, agents and informers throughout the nation and abroad.[37]
  • George York and James Latham, two U.S. Army privates who had gone AWOL from Fort Hood, Texas, were arrested in a roadblock west of Salt Lake City, bringing to an end a two-week killing spree. They had strangled two women in Florida, shot an elderly man in Tennessee, beat two men to death the next day in Illinois, and shot a man in Kansas and a woman in Colorado before being caught.[38] The two men were hanged on June 22, 1965, in Kansas.[39]
  • The Soviet news agency TASS and the East German press service ADN released copies of two memoranda given by Soviet Premier Khrushchev to U.S. President Kennedy earlier in the week, confirming that the Soviets wanted all but "symbolic" troops to be withdrawn from West Berlin.[40]
  • Born:
    • Floris Nicolas Ali, Baron von Pallandt (d. 2006), first child of singing stars, Nina and Frederik
    • Maxi Priest, Jamaican reggae singer, in Lewisham, London

June 11, 1961 (Sunday)[edit]

June 12, 1961 (Monday)[edit]

  • "Night of Fire": In the Italian province of South Tyrol, inhabited by a substantial German language speaking population, 37 electricity pylons were blown up by political protesters seeking autonomy for the region. Autonomy would be recognized in 1972 and expanded in 2001.[45]
  • Born:

June 13, 1961 (Tuesday)[edit]

June 14, 1961 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • American singer Patsy Cline and her brother, Sam, were involved in a head-on car collision on Old Hickory Boulevard in Nashville. The impact threw Cline into the windshield, nearly killing her.
The President's convertible
  • A custom-built 1961 Lincoln Continental convertible was delivered to the White House for use of President Kennedy.[47] Kennedy would be assassinated in the car on November 22, 1963.
  • The British government unveiled new "panda" crossings with push button controls for pedestrians. The new crossings were set to appear on British roads the following year.[48]
  • Born: Boy George, British singer, as George O'Dowd in Bexley
  • Died: Eddie Polo, 86, Austrian-American dramatist

June 15, 1961 (Thursday)[edit]

Ulbricht says no wall will be built in Berlin
  • At 11:00 am, Walter Ulbricht, State Council Chairman of East Germany, opened a rare press conference in East Berlin for Western journalists, restating the Communist demand that Berlin should be a "Free City". Reporter Annamarie Doherr of the Frankfurter Rundschau asked Ulbricht whether a boundary would be erected at the Brandenburg Gate. Ulbricht responded with the first reference to "die Mauer" (The Wall), "I understand by your question that there are men in West Germany who wish that we would mobilize the construction workers of the GDR in order to build a wall," and added, "No one has the intention of erecting a wall! ("Niemand hat die Absicht, eine Mauer zu errichten!"). Construction of the Berlin Wall would begin on August 13.[49]
  • Forty-five men, Freedom Riders who had been arrested on June 2 in Jackson, Mississippi, for protesting segregation, were transferred from the crowded local jail to the Mississippi State Penitentiary in Parchman. Later that morning, two of the men, Felix Singer and Terry Sullivan, both white men from Chicago, were tortured with an electric cattle prod, in one of the first publicized uses of an electrified non-lethal weapon as a law enforcement device to control human beings. The 10,000 volt devices continued to be used throughout the 1960s.[50] The story of the brutality at Parchman was reported worldwide after another of the protestors was released two weeks later.[51]
  • Taunggyi University at the city of Taunggyi in Burma (now Myanmar), as Taunggyi College.
  • In Ethiopia, Emperor Haile Selassie inaugurated a new 226 meter-long highway bridge over the river Abay near Bahir Dar.
  • The Canadian Mathematical Bulletin received Joachim Lambek's paper "How to Program an Infinite Abacus", representing an important development in theoretical computer science.
  • Born: Anga Díaz, Cuban percussionist, in Pinar del Río Province (d. 2006)

June 16, 1961 (Friday)[edit]

Nureyev
  • The dance troupe of Russia's Kirov Ballet was at Le Bourget Airport and waiting to board a flight to London, when the star, dancer Rudolf Nureyev, was pulled aside by KGB agents and told that he was to take a 12:25 pm flight back to Moscow. Sensing that he would never be allowed to leave the Soviet Union again, Nureyev broke away from the escorts and ran over to two French airport policemen (who had been alerted by Nureyev's friend Clara Bichkova), shouting in English, "Protect me!" France granted the defecting Nureyev asylum.[52]
  • English motorcycle racer Ralph Rensen, 28, became the third rider in less than a week to be killed while competing in the Isle of Man TT series of races during the month. The previous Saturday, Michael Brookes was fatally injured during practice, and on Monday, Marie Lambert was killed while riding in a sidecar during a race.[53]
  • Died: Marcel Junod, 57, Swiss physician and humanitarian

June 17, 1961 (Saturday)[edit]

  • The first President's Daily Brief, a top secret intelligence bulletin intended only for the view of the President of the United States, was published and delivered to John F. Kennedy under the title President's Intelligence Checklist. After the failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion, Kennedy had discarded the Central Intelligence Bulletin, which was limited to CIA findings. The daily briefing, compiled by a panel of representatives from all American government intelligence agencies, was renamed the National Intelligence Daily, then the Senior Executive Intelligence Brief, before being becoming the "PDB".[54]
  • The first jet airplane manufactured in India, the HF-24 Marut, was flown for the first time, by Captain Suranjan Das.[55]
  • Died: Jeff Chandler, 42, American film star, succumbed to complications from orthopaedic surgery. Chandler had injured his back on April 15 while filming Merrill's Marauders and was operated on on May 13. Arterial damage caused by the operation led to a massive hemorrhage, requiring additional surgery on May 18. Chandler died from blood poisoning 30 days later.[56] His physicians were sued for malpractice, a lawsuit settled months later for $233,358.[57]

June 18, 1961 (Sunday)[edit]

June 19, 1961 (Monday)[edit]

  • With the exchange of diplomatic notes between Sir William Luce, the British Political Resident in the Persian Gulf, and Sheikh Abdullah III Al-Salim Al-Sabah, the Anglo-Kuwaiti Treaty of January 23, 1899, was termianated, the British protectorate over Kuwait (which provided for control of Kuwait's foreign affairs) came to an end, and Kuwait became an independent nation. Less than a week later, the existence of the State of Kuwait would be threatened by Iraq.[63]
  • By a 5-4 margin, the United States Supreme Court rendered the landmark decision of Mapp v. Ohio, holding that the admission, in a state criminal trial, of evidence obtained in an illegal search was a violation of the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Dollree Mapp had been arrested at her home in Shaker Heights, Ohio, on May 23, 1957, based on materials found without a warrant or probable cause. The decision resulted in the prospective exclusion of improperly obtained evidence from trials in the United States thereafter.[64]

June 20, 1961 (Tuesday)[edit]

June 21, 1961 (Wednesday)[edit]

June 22, 1961 (Thursday)[edit]

June 23, 1961 (Friday)[edit]

  • USAF Major Robert M. White became the first person to fly an airplane faster than one mile per second (3,600 miles per hour) and the first to pass Mach 5. White was piloting an X-15 over California after taking off from Edwards Air Force Base, and attained a maximum speed of 3,690 mph.[72] White, who on March 7 had been first to reach Mach 4 first person to travel faster than Mach 4, would become the first to reach Mach 6, on November 9.[73]
  • The Antarctic Treaty came into effect, after being ratified simultaneously by Australia, Argentina and Chile. Those nations and nine others had signed the treaty on December 1, 1959.[74]
  • Born: Ian Duncan, Kenyan rally driver, in Limuru

June 24, 1961 (Saturday)[edit]

June 25, 1961 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Iraqi president Abdul Karim Kassem announced at a press conference his nation's intention to annex the tiny, but oil rich, kingdom of Kuwait, which had become an independent nation the previous week. Kassem told reporters that the takeover would be peaceful and that the Emir of Kuwait would be permitted to become the administrator of Iraq's new province. The basis of Iraq's claim was that both Iraq and Kuwait had both been part of the Ottoman Empire province of Basra, which had been partitioned in 1918.[78] British troops moved into the area to defend against the chance of an Iraqi invasion, and Kassem rescinded his position on July 8.[79]
  • The Bill Evans Trio completed a two-week booking at The Village Vanguard in New York, with a live performance that was recorded for later release. This was the last time the trio would play together; virtuoso bassist Scott LaFaro's was killed in an auto accident 10 days later.[80]
  • White supremacist George Lincoln Rockwell, accompanied by 20 of his followers in the American Nazi Party, appeared for "the first and last event to which [he] was invited as a speaker".[81] Rockwell had been invited as a guest of black supremacist Elijah Muhammad to address a Chicago rally of the Nation of Islam, more commonly known as the Black Muslims. Malcolm X appeared as a speaker later in the program. The common link for both groups was a belief in separation of races.
  • Died:
    • Miriam 'Ma' Ferguson, 86, American politician who was Governor of Texas from 1925 to 1927 and again from 1933 to 1935. Ferguson was only the second woman in history to be inaugurated as Governor of an American state
    • Douglas McCurdy, 74, Canadian aviator and Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia

June 26, 1961 (Monday)[edit]

  • After having gone into hiding in South Africa to avoid arrest, African National Congress leader Nelson Mandela issued the manifesto "The Struggle Is My Life", signaling that the ANC leaders had not fled the country, and changing tactics from passive resistance to armed struggle.[82] A militant wing of the ANC, Umkhonto we Sizwe ("Spear of the Nation") was founded as part of the new direction.[83]
  • Ernest Hemingway was released from hospitalization for the last time, after spending two months at the psychiatric hospital at the Mayo Clinic for suicidal behavior. The renowned author would shoot himself six days later.[84]
  • Died: Hélène Dutrieu, 83, Belgian aviator who set several records in the early days of airplane flying.

June 27, 1961 (Tuesday)[edit]

June 28, 1961 (Wednesday)[edit]

June 29, 1961 (Thursday)[edit]

  • The "first in-orbit break-up event in space history"[87] took place at 06:08:10 UTC, when the upper stage of an American Thor-Able rocket exploded into 298 fragments at an orbital altitude of roughly 600 miles.The launch marked the first three-satellite payload[88] lifted into space: the Transit 4A navigational satellite, which was the first nuclear-powered device in orbit, with energy supplied by the Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) system, powered by the isotope plutonium-238;[89] the Injun I "the first university-built satellite", designed to gather information on the Earths' radiation belts;[90] and the second Galactic Radiation and Background satellite (GRAB 2), which measured stellar radiation, but also served as a spy satellite.[91]
  • You Bet Your Life, a thirty-minute game show hosted by comedian Groucho Marx, was broadcast for the last time on television, at 10:00 pm. After starting on CBS Radio in 1947, it had an eleven-season run on NBC from 1950 onward.[92]

June 30, 1961 (Friday)[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Stereophonic sound", in The Guide to United States Popular Culture (Popular Press, 2001) p768
  2. ^ R. Duane Ireland, et al., Understanding Business Strategy: Concepts and Cases (Cengage Learning, 2005) p222
  3. ^ Guy Arnold, Guide to African Political and Economic Development (Taylor & Francis, 2001) p168
  4. ^ Robert Jütte, Contraception: A History (Polity, 2008) p210
  5. ^ Ellen Hopkins, The Golden Knights: The U.S. Army Parachute Team (Capstone Press, 2001) p18
  6. ^ Patrick Heenan and Monique Lamontagne, The South America Handbook (Taylor & Francis, 2002) p218
  7. ^ Peter Plowman, Australian Cruise Ships (Rosenberg Publishing, 2007) p15
  8. ^ Foreign Relations of the United States, 1961-1963: Soviet Union (Government Printing Office, 1998) pp171-172
  9. ^ "Kennedy, Khrushchev Have Cordial Meeting", Milwaukee Journal, June 3, 1961, p1
  10. ^ John F. Stacks, Scotty: James B. Reston and the Rise and Fall of American Journalism (University of Nebraska Press, 2006) pp4-5
  11. ^ G. S. Prentzas, Gideon v. Wainwright: The Right to Free Legal Counsel (Infobase Publishing, 2007) p19
  12. ^ "Pigeon & Battle Hero — GI Joe Is Dead", Miami News, June 6, 1961, p1
  13. ^ Foreign Relations of the United States, 1961-1963: Soviet Union (Government Printing Office, 1998) pp217-220
  14. ^ "CHIEF TRUJILLO ASSASSIN IS SLAIN IN GUN BATTLE", Miami News, June 5, 1961, p1
  15. ^ Michal R. Belknap, The Supreme Court under Earl Warren, 1953-1969 (University of South Carolina Press, 2005) p71-72; "Supreme Court Rocks U.S. Reds- Party Must Register Members", Milwaukee Sentinel, June 5, 1961, p2
  16. ^ Eric Konigsberg, Blood Relation (HarperCollins, 2006) pp27-28
  17. ^ The Europa Year Book (Europa Publications, 1984) p499
  18. ^ Jürgen Kleiner, Korea, a Century of Change (World Scientific, 2001) p134
  19. ^ Ben R. Guttery, Encyclopedia of African Airlines (McFarland, 1998) p38
  20. ^ CUSO-VSO.org website
  21. ^ Catherine Johnson and Robert Turnock, eds., ITV Cultures: Independent Television over Fifty Years (McGraw-Hill International, 2005) pp 96-97
  22. ^ Frederick L. Coolidge, Dream Interpretation as a Psychotherapeutic Technique (Radcliffe Publishing, 2006) p59
  23. ^ John Nathan, Sony (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2001) p66
  24. ^ Arthur V. Evans and James N. Hogue, Introduction to California Beetles (University of California Press, 2004) p125
  25. ^ "Tight Little Island Is Filling Up", Miami News, June 8, 1961, p4A
  26. ^ "Braves Blast 6 Home Runs but Still Lose 10-8 Clash", St. Joseph (MO) Gazette, June 9, 1961
  27. ^ "The Fans Speak Out", Baseball Digest (September 2008) p9
  28. ^ Mac Montandon, Jet Pack Dreams (Da Capo Press, 2008); "Portable Army Rocket Propels Man 150 Feet in 14-Second Test Flight", New York Times, June 9, 1961, p1; "Just Like Superman Is Army Test Flight With Body Rockets", Schenectady (NY) Gazette, June 9, 1961, p1
  29. ^ Bertrand M. Patenaude, Trotsky: Downfall of a Revolutionary (HarperCollins, 2009) p295
  30. ^ Sandra Choron and Harry Choron, Planet Wedding: A Nuptial-Pedia (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2010) p84
  31. ^ "4,000 Irate Farmers Seize Town", Miami News, June 8, 1961, p1
  32. ^ Signs of Change: Transformations of Christian Traditions and Their Representation in the Arts, 1000-2000 (Rodopi, 2004) p295
  33. ^ Omus Sours and Mark Bishop, The Face of Death (Trafford Publishing, 2003) pp 74-79
  34. ^ "Killer executed in U.S." The Sun (Vancouver), December 14, 1983, pA19
  35. ^ "Thanos executed in Maryland- State puts inmate to death for first time in 33 years", The Free Lance-Star (Fredericksburg VA), May 17, 1994, pC8
  36. ^ "Lisbon Reproved by U.N. on Angola", New York Times, June 10, 1961, p1
  37. ^ Mark Clifford, Troubled Tiger: Businessmen, Bureaucrats, and Generals in South Korea (M.E. Sharpe, 1998) p80
  38. ^ "7 Killings In 6 States A Joke To Teen Boys", Miami News, June 12, 1961, p1
  39. ^ Michael Newton, The Encyclopedia of Serial Killers (Infobase Publishing, 2006) p297; "Two Hanged in Kansas After Slaying 7 Persons", New York Times, June 23, 1965
  40. ^ "Russian Note Demands German Peace Treaty", Miami News, June 11, 1961, p1
  41. ^ "Gendebien And Hill Share Famous Le Mans Victory", Ottawa Citizen, June 12, 1961, p13
  42. ^ North Carolina Division of Tourism
  43. ^ "Norm's Homer Unique", Miami News, June 12, 1961, p7
  44. ^ Patrick Harrigan, The Detroit Tigers: club and community, 1945-1995 (University of Toronto Press, 1997) p115
  45. ^ "The South-Tyrol Autonomy in Italy", by Oskar Peterlini, in One Country, Two Systems, Three Legal Orders: Perspectives of Evolution (Springer 2009) p149, 152; "Dynamite Blasts Rock South Tyrol", The Age (Melbourne), June 13, 1961, p11
  46. ^ James T. Andrews, Red Cosmos: K.E. Tsiolkovskii, Grandfather of Soviet Rocketry (Texas A&M University Press, 2009) p98
  47. ^ "Luxury On Wheels — That's New Car For The President", Miami News, June 14, 1961, p1
  48. ^ "1961: Panda replaces zebra at road crossing". BBC News. June 14, 1961. 
  49. ^ Hope M. Harrison, Driving the Soviets up the wall: Soviet-East German relations, 1953-1961 (Princeton University Press, 2003) pp179-180
  50. ^ Darius Rejali, Torture and Democracy (Princeton University Press, 2009) p228; Raymond Arsenault, Freedom Riders: 1961 and the Struggle for Racial Justice (Oxford University Press US, 2006) p325
  51. ^ "N.Y. Youth Charges 'Terrible Treatment' of Freedom Riders, Milwaukee Journal, June 26, 1961, p1; "Freedom Rider Alleges Brutal Gaol Treatment", The Age (Melbourne), June 28, 1961, p11
  52. ^ Julie Kavanagh, Nureyev: The Life (Random House, 2008) pp133-137; "Red Dancer Asks Asylum in France", Spokane Spokesman-Review, June 17, 1961, p1
  53. ^ "Hailwood Wins Senior T.T. Race at 100 M.P.H.", Glasgow Herald, June 17, 1961, p7
  54. ^ Glenn P. Hastedt, Spies, Wiretaps, and Secret Operations: An Encyclopedia of American Espionage (ABC-CLIO, 2010) p219
  55. ^ "It's a milestone for a magnificent fighter", The Hindu, June 18, 2011
  56. ^ "Film Star Chandler Is Dead", Miami News, June 18, 1961, p1
  57. ^ "Jeff Chandler Heirs Settle for $233,358", Los Angeles Times, February 21, 1962, pA-1
  58. ^ "Train Crash Kills 23", Reading (PA) Eagle", June 19, 1961, p1
  59. ^ "Garandabal, Our Lady of", in The HarperCollins Encyclopedia of Catholicism (Richard P. McBrien, ed.) (HarperCollins, 1995) p553-554
  60. ^ John Dunning, On the Air: The Encyclopedia of Old-time Radio (Oxford University Press US, 1998) p302
  61. ^ The Age (Melbourne), June 21, 1961, p18
  62. ^ "Sardinia Vote Hailed: Christian Democrats Gain Regional Council Seats", New York Times, June 21, 1961, p11
  63. ^ Alan Rush, Al-Sabah: history & genealogy of Kuwait's ruling family, 1752-1987 (Garnet & Ithaca Press, 1987) p6; "Independence for Kuwait— UK protection withdrawn", The Guardian (Manchester), June 20, 1961
  64. ^ Priscilla H. Machado Zotti, Injustice for All: Mapp vs. Ohio and the Fourth Amendment (Peter Lang Publishing, 2005) p154; The Papers of Justice Tom C. Clark, University of Texas
  65. ^ David M. Crowe, A History of the Gypsies of Eastern Europe and Russia (Palgrave Macmillan, 1996) p93
  66. ^ "EICHMANN SPEAKS— 'THEY ORDERED ME'", Miami News, June 20, 1961, p1
  67. ^ "President Hails Desalting Plant; He Flips Switch to Dedicate Water Project in Texas", New York Times, June 22, 1961; "Introduction to Desalinazation Technologies"
  68. ^ Gunter Endres, The Illustrated Directory of Modern Commercial Aircraft (Zenith Imprint, 2001) p273; "Lost in Time: Aviation Traders Carvairs", by David Parker Brown, AirlineReporter.com, November 24th, 2010
  69. ^ "Welcome to Syiah Kuala University"
  70. ^ Qiang Zhai, China and the Vietnam Wars, 1950-1975 (University of North Carolina Press, 2000) p103; "Laos to Get New Rule by Coalition— Three Factions to Run Nation", Spokane Spokesman-Review, June 22, 1961, p1
  71. ^ Y. G.-M. Lulat, A History of African Higher Education from Antiquity to the Present: A Critical Synthesis (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2005) p144
  72. ^ "X-15 Sets Record of Mile a Second", New York Times, June 24, 1961, p1; "Rocket Plane Travels Faster Than Mile Per Second", Reading (PA) Eagle, June 24, 1961, p1
  73. ^ "Breaking the Sound Barrier: From Mach 1 to Mach 10"
  74. ^ Donald Rothwell, The Polar Regions and the Development of International Law (Cambridge University Press, 1996) pp70-71
  75. ^ Rosa A. Eberly, Citizen Critics: Literary Public Spheres (University of Illinois Press, 2000) pp65-66
  76. ^ "Court Voids Ban on 'Tropic' Book", New York Times, June 23, 1964, p25
  77. ^ "George Vanderbilt, 47, Is Killed In Plunge From Hotel on Coast", New York Times, June 25, 1961, p1
  78. ^ "Iraq Threatens to Annex Kuwait", St. Petersburg Times, June 26, 1961, p1
  79. ^ Frank Brenchley, Britain and the Middle East: an economic history, 1945-87 (I.B.Tauris, 1989) pp 136-138
  80. ^ Peter Pettinger, Bill Evans: How My Heart Sings (Yale University Press, 2002) p110
  81. ^ Mattias Gardell, In the Name of Elijah Muhammad: Louis Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam (Duke University Press, 1996) p274
  82. ^ Meche Okwesili, Good Over Evil (Trafford Publishing, 2003) p249-250
  83. ^ Ward Churchill and Mike Ryan, Pacifism as Pathology (AK Press, 2007) p138
  84. ^ Julien Bogousslavsky, et al., Neurological Disorders in Famous Artists, Part 3 (Karger Publishers, 2010) p186
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