June 1962

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June 11, 1962: Three prisoners manage to escape from Alcatraz
June 19, 1962: Escape from East Berlin to be made more difficult

The following events occurred in June 1962:

June 1, 1962 (Friday)[edit]

  • The Soviet Union raised the price of consumer goods by more than 25 percent in order to cover higher operating expenses for the U.S.S.R.'s collective farm program. Butter was up 25%, and pork and beef by 30%.[1] In protest, workers walked off of the job at the Novocherkassk Electric Locomotive Factory and the strike soon turned into an uprising.[2]
  • Died: Josef Ospelt, 81, first Prime Minister of Liechtenstein
  • Died: Adolf Eichmann, 56, German SS officer, war criminal and a major organiser of the Holocaust, was hanged in Ramlah, Israel, after his conviction for war crimes.

June 2, 1962 (Saturday)[edit]

  • The day after price rises took effect in the Soviet Union, protests in the city of Novocherkassk were brutally suppressed in what is remembered as the Novocherkassk massacre. Strikers marched to the center of town, where they were joined by other protesters. After word spread that some of the strike leaders had been arrested, the local Communist party headquarters was invaded, after which the group marched into the police station[2] and at 1:10 pm, after firing a warning volley of shots, one of the units of soldiers fired into the crowd.[3] It was revealed thirty years later that 23 people were killed, and 116 arrested. Of those arrested, seven were convicted of sedition and executed, while others received prison terms ranging from 10 to 15 years.[4] The news was kept out of the Soviet press. Months later, unofficial reports in the West referred to "hundreds" of deaths[5] and in 1976, Alexander Solzhenitsyn's book The Gulag Archipelago reported more than 70 deaths.[6] The Soviet government finally confirmed the killings on June 3, 1989 in an article in Komsomolskaya Pravda.[7]
  • 1962 World Cup: Playing in the Group 3 round robin games at Viña del Mar, Chile, the national soccer football teams of Brazil and Czechoslovakia had a 0-0 tie.[8] Finishing first and second in Group 3, both would advance to the knockout stage of 16 teams, and would meet again in the 1962 FIFA World Cup Final.
  • El Porteñazo, a military rebellion in Venezuela, was launched.
  • Born:
    • Paula Newby-Fraser, Zimbabwean triathlete; eight time gold medalist in women's Ironman World Championship (1986, 1988–89, 1991–94, 1996); in Salisbury, Southern Rhodesia (now Harare, Zimbabwe)
    • Carolyn Hennesy, American TV actress and author, in Los Angeles
  • Died: Vita Sackville-West, 70, English poet, novelist and landscape gardener

June 3, 1962 (Sunday)[edit]

June 4, 1962 (Monday)[edit]

  • The first atomic energy was generated in Canada as the Nuclear Power Demonstration went online at Rolphton, Ontario.[12]
  • Plans to detonate an American nuclear weapon, 40 miles above the Earth, were halted one minute and 40 seconds before the scheduled explosion. Failure of the tracking system in the Thor missile led to the decision to blow the warhead apart without an atomic blast.[13]
  • In the Bolivian legislative election, a new National Congress was elected for one-third of the seats.
  • The 1962 Isle of Man TT races were held at the Snaefell Mountain Course.
  • Born: Hakainde Hichilema, Zambian politician, in Monze West
  • Died:
    • Clem McCarthy, 79, American sportscaster
    • William Beebe, 84, American ornithologist
    • Bela Lapusnyik, 26, Hungarian intelligence officer, four weeks after defecting to Austria. Lapusnyik had provided secrets to Western investigators until June 1, when he suddenly became ill, apparently from poisoning.[14]

June 5, 1962 (Tuesday)[edit]

June 6, 1962 (Wednesday)[edit]

June 7, 1962 (Thursday)[edit]

  • President Kennedy announced in a press conference that he would seek "an across-the-board reduction in personal and corporate income taxes", commenting that "Our tax structure, as presently weighted, exerts too heavy a drain on a prospering economy."[25] At the time, earnings of more than $200,000 were in a 91% federal tax bracket. In 1965, the top rate would drop to 70% . By 1988, the highest rate would be 28% for income over $31,050. The current high rate is 40% on income over $378,250.[26] On the same day, he presented a Congressional gold medal to the mother of Thomas Anthony Dooley III at a White House ceremony.[27]
  • Born: Thierry Hazard, French singer, in Compiègne (as Thierry Gesteau)
  • Died:

June 8, 1962 (Friday)[edit]

June 9, 1962 (Saturday)[edit]

  • South Korea's military leader Park Chung Hee ordered a surprise currency reform, freezing all bank accounts and ordering that the South Korean hwan be exchanged by the end of Monday in favor of the new South Korean won, at the rate of 10 hwan for each new won.[31] On June 16, a decree was issued to take individual bank account money, above a set limit, for a required purchase of stock in the government-owned Korean Industrial Development Corporation, and Park would later be forced to rescind both emergency measures under pressure from the United States.[32]
  • Spain's dictator Francisco Franco announced a two-year suspension of the constitutional right of Spanish citizens to live elsewhere in the country. Franco limited the privilege to supporters of his government, in response to strikes that had halted activity in the nation.[33]
  • As part of its immigration reform, Canada granted amnesty to Chinese persons who had entered the nation illegally prior to July 1, 1960.[34]
  • The 1962 Giro d'Italia cycle race was won by Franco Balmamion.
  • The Roman Catholic Diocese of Veracruz was established in Mexico.
  • The frigate USS McCloy (FF-1038) was launched at Westwego, Louisiana.
  • Died: Polly Adler, 62, Russian-born American bordello operator

June 10, 1962 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Cuban Missile Crisis: Operation Anadyr, to place Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba, was approved unanimously by the Presidium of the Soviet Union on the recommendation of Defense Minister Rodion Malinovsky and Prime Minister Nikita Khrushchev. Under the plan, 24 medium-range nuclear missiles and 16 intermediate-range missiles would be placed in Cuba, and a total of 50,874 Soviet military personnel would be placed on the island to defend against an invasion.[35]
  • In the elections for President of Peru, Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre obtained more votes (557,047) than the other two major candidates, Fernando Belaúnde Terry (544,180) and former president Manuel A. Odría (480,798), while another 108,593 votes were split among four minor candidates. However, the Constitution required that a candidate receive at least one-third of the popular vote to win, and Haya had 32.95% of the 1,690,618 ballots cast, falling 6,493 votes short.[36] Before the Congress of Peru could meet to decide the election, the government would be overthrown on July 18 and the results annulled. A new election would be held on June 6, 1963, with Belaúnde winning the presidency.[37]
  • The first popular vote in Cambodia took place, as citizens went to the polls to approve the Sangkum candidates for Parliament. Although there were no choices, an author notes that the election "did get people used to the mechanics of voting, which would be of significant value in 1966".[38]
  • Soviet athlete Igor Ter-Ovanesyan set a new world long jump record of 8.31 metres (27'3"), breaking the record set by Ralph Boston.[39]
  • Born:
  • Died: Trygve Gulbranssen, 68, Norwegian novelist, businessman and journalist

June 11, 1962 (Monday)[edit]

June 12, 1962 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • The European Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters entered into effect, after having been opened for signing on April 20, 1959.[44]
  • Three days before his high school graduation, 18-year-old George Lucas survived a near-fatal car crash caused by a fellow student. Lucas would abandon a dream to become a race car driver, and went on to become a successful filmmaker.[45]
  • The mother of 15-year-old William Jefferson Blythe filed a petition to change her son's name, at his request, to that of her recently divorced husband. Afterward, Blythe would be known as Bill Clinton and would become President of the United States under that name in 1993.[46]
  • The Canaima National Park was established in Venezuela.
  • Sir Dawda Jawara became the first prime minister of The Gambia.
  • Khan Habibullah Khan became Interior Minister of Pakistan.
  • Born:
  • Died: John Ireland, 82, English composer

June 13, 1962 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Lee Harvey Oswald arrived back in the United States on the Dutch cruise ship S.S. Maasdam, after more than two years away in Russia. Oswald, who would be accused of killing U.S. President Kennedy less than 18 months later, brought with him his wife and daughter. The family was greeted on arrival in New York by Mr. Spas T. Rankin of the Travelers Aid Society of New York.[47]
  • Rookie baseball pitcher Bo Belinsky, having spent the previous night partying with celebrities including Eddie Fisher, Dean Martin, Keely Smith and Henry Fonda, was arrested and charged with assaulting a nightclub attendant.[48]
  • Born: Ally Sheedy, American film actress (Wargames, The Breakfast Club), in New York City

June 14, 1962 (Thursday)[edit]

June 15, 1962 (Friday)[edit]

June 16, 1962 (Saturday)[edit]

June 17, 1962 (Sunday)[edit]

June 18, 1962 (Monday)[edit]

June 19, 1962 (Tuesday)[edit]

June 20, 1962 (Wednesday)[edit]

General DeWitt

June 21, 1962 (Thursday)[edit]

June 22, 1962 (Friday)[edit]

  • Air France Flight 117, a Boeing 707 jet, crashed into terrain during bad weather while attempting to land on the island of Guadeloupe, West Indies, killing all 113 on board.[76] It was the airline's second fatal accident in 3 weeks, and the third fatal 707 crash of the year.
  • Incarcerated in the Atlanta federal prison for narcotics trafficking, Joseph Valachi escaped being murdered on orders of his cellmate and former Cosa Nostra boss, Vito Genovese, by committing a murder of his own. Valachi's victim was John Joseph Saupp, who resembled another Atlanta inmate, Mafioso Joseph di Palermo. Saupp would die two days later; Valachi, placed in solitary confinement, would reveal critical information about the Mafia in Congressional hearings, and his memoirs would become a bestselling publication, The Valachi Papers and later a film.[77]
  • The 12th Berlin International Film Festival opened.
  • Born: Clyde Drexler, American NBA player and Hall of Famer, in New Orleans
  • Died: Francis H. Case, 65, U.S. Senator and former Congressman who had represented South Dakota since 1937

June 23, 1962 (Saturday)[edit]

  • The United States secretly sent word to the People's Republic of China that it would disassociate itself from any further plans by Nationalist China (on the island of Taiwan) to invade and retake the mainland from the Communists. Although the U.S. and Communist China did not have diplomatic relations at the time, both had ambassadors in Poland.[78] In Warsaw, U.S. Ambassador John Moors Cabot spoke with China's Wang Ping-nan to communicate the decision, made on June 20. At the same time, the U.S. reiterated that it would defend Taiwan in the event of a Communist invasion.[79]
  • Don Newcombe, former Brooklyn Dodgers all-star pitcher, became the first Major League Baseball player to appear in a Japanese professional baseball game. The 36-year-old African-American debuted as a first baseman for the Chunichi Dragons of Nagoya, in a 5-4 win at Hiroshima over the Hiroshima Carp.[80] Larry Doby, who had been the second African-American in Major League Baseball, would join Newcombe on the Dragons as the second American to play Japanese baseball.[81]
  • Born: Shriti Vadera, Baroness Vadera, Ugandan-born British investment banker and politician, in Uganda

June 24, 1962 (Sunday)[edit]

June 25, 1962 (Monday)[edit]

  • Engel v. Vitale: The United States Supreme Court ruled, 6-1, that mandatory prayers in public schools were unconstitutional.[84] The suit had been filed after the school board of New Hyde Park, New York had ordered each class to start the school day with the prayer, "Almighty God, we acknowledge our dependence upon Thee, and we beg Thy blessings upon us, our parents, our teachers, and our Country", under the recommendation of the state Board of Regents. The decision affected an estimated 39,000,000 public school students.[85]
  • FRELIMO, the Frente de Libertação de Moçambique, was founded in Tanzania by a merger of the National Democratic Union of Mozambique, the National Union for the Independence of Mozambique, and the National African Union of Mozambique, with Eduardo Mondlane as its first president. Mozambique would gain independence from Portugal on June 25, 1975, under the leadership of FRELIMO leader Samora Machel, on the 13th anniversary of the organization's founding.[86]
  • Actress Sophia Loren and her husband, producer Carlo Ponti, were ordered to stand trial on bigamy charges.[87]
  • İsmet İnönü of CHP formed the new government of Turkey (27th government, coalition partners; YTP and CKMP).
  • In the case of MANual Enterprises v. Day, the United States Supreme Court ruled that photographs of nude men were not obscene, decriminalizing nude male pornographic magazines, and applying the same standard, for erotic magazines aimed at heterosexual readers, to homosexual readers.[88]

June 26, 1962 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • The Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urundi, scheduled to become independent in five days, was split into two nations, by a 93-0 vote of the United Nations General Assembly. On July 1, the Republic of Rwanda and the Kingdom of Burundi were created.[89]
  • U.S. Representative Roy A. Taylor of North Carolina became the first member of Congress to propose a constitutional amendment to overcome the Supreme Court's ruling banning prayer in public schools. Miller's suggested 24th Amendment stated "Notwithstanding the 1st or 14th Article of Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, prayers may be offered and the Bible may be read in connection with the program of any public school in the United States."[90] In all, 56 Representatives and Senarors offered amendments, none of which were approved for submission for ratification.[91]
  • A two-day steel strike began in Italy, in support of increased wages and a 5-day working week.
  • Born: George Windsor, Earl of St Andrews, in London, grandson of a cousin of Queen Elizabeth II; at the time of his birth, he was tenth in line of succession to the British throne

June 27, 1962 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • After IBM rejected the idea of 32-year-old employee H. Ross Perot, to sell computer programs along with its equipment, Perot quit and invested $1,000 of his savings to create Electronic Data Systems (EDS). When Medicare was created in 1965, EDS contracted with two states to process the claims, turning the company into a multibillion-dollar corporation and making a billionaire of Perot.[92]
  • Born:
  • Died: Maria Dermoût, 74, Dutch East Indies-born Dutch novelist

June 28, 1962 (Thursday)[edit]

June 29, 1962 (Friday)[edit]

June 30, 1962 (Saturday)[edit]


  1. ^ "Nik Hikes Prices To Pay Farmers", Miami News, June 2, 1962, p2
  2. ^ a b David Mandel, Perestroika and the Soviet People: Rebirth of the Labour Movement (Black Rose Books, 1991) pp7-8
  3. ^ Samuel H. Baron, Bloody Saturday in the Soviet Union: Novocherkassk, 1962 (Stanford University Press, 2001) p74
  4. ^ Christopher Shulgan, The Soviet Ambassador: The Making of the Radical Behind Perestroika (Random House Digital, 2011) p76
  5. ^ "US Confirms Reports of Russ Riots", Milwaukee Sentinel, October 9, 1962, p2
  6. ^ "Gulag book tells of riot", Montreal Gazette, November 15, 1976, p13
  7. ^ "Soviet Paper Lists Secret '62 Killings", New York Times, June 3, 1989
  8. ^ "AGIGANTADA Checoeslovaquia Igualo con los BRASILEROS" ("Czechoslovakia grows gigantic, equals the Brazilians"), El Tiempo (Bogota), June 3, 1962, p13
  9. ^ "130 Killed in Flames of Worst Air Disaster", Miami News, June 2, 1962, p1; Ann Uhry Abrams, Explosion at Orly: The Disaster That Transformed Atlanta (Avion Press, 2002)
  10. ^ Claude Arpi, Tibet: The Lost Frontier (Lancer Publishers, 2008) p292
  11. ^ Richard F. Staar, Communist Regimes in Eastern Europe (Hoover Press, 1982) p8
  12. ^ Canada Enters the Nuclear Age: A Technical History of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited as Seen from Its Research Laboratories (McGill-Queens University Press, 1997) p18
  13. ^ "Atomic Missile Blown Up In Pacific Testing", Miami News, June 4, 1962, p1
  14. ^ Boris Volodarsky, The KGB's Poison Factory: From Lenin to Litvinenko (MBI Publishing, 2010) pp118-119
  15. ^ "Amazing Fantasy #15"
  16. ^ Bill Smith and Larry Ten Harmsel, Meijer: Stories of His Life (Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2009) p124
  17. ^ "Nixon Comes Back Strong", Miami News, June 6, 1962, p1
  18. ^ "Crash Kills Georgia Republican Leader", Miami News, June 2, 1962, p1
  19. ^ "Plane Debris Found- One Body Barilko's", Montreal Gazette, June 7, 1962, p1
  20. ^ Fitzpatrick, Todd (1999-06-07). "Bashin' Bill". The Sporting News. Archived from the original on 2005-01-17. Retrieved 2007-08-01.
  21. ^ "Millennium Moment: Fifty Mission Cap". University of Western Ontario Gazette. 1999-05-28. Archived from the original on 2007-09-12. Retrieved 2007-08-01.
  22. ^ Gregory A. Daddis, No Sure Victory: Measuring U.S. Army Effectiveness and Progress in the Vietnam War (Oxford University Press, 2011) p43
  23. ^ Gordon Thompson, Please Please Me: Sixties British Pop, Inside Out (Oxford University Press, 2008) p62
  24. ^ Jean Maddern Pitrone, F.W. Woolworth and the American Five and Dime (McFarland, 2003) p161; "Woolco Stores To Close", Oxnard (CA) Press-Courier, September 25, 1982, p1
  25. ^ Irving Bernstein, Promises Kept: John F. Kennedy's New Frontier (Oxford University Press, 1993) p148
  26. ^ "Income Tax Rates 1916-2012"
  27. ^ "Dr. Dooley's Mother Accepts Son's Honor", Milwaukee Journal, June 7, 1962, p1
  28. ^ "31 mai 1961 : assassinat à Alger du commissaire Gavoury". LDH Toulon (in French). Ligue des Droits de l'Homme. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2010.
  29. ^ "Something Gave: Studio Boots Elusive MM", Miami News, June 9, 1962, p3
  30. ^ Christophe Jaffrelot, A History Of Pakistan And Its Origins (Anthem Press, 2004) pp71-72
  31. ^ Mark Clifford, Troubled Tiger: Businessmen, Bureaucrats, and Generals in South Korea (M.E. Sharpe, 1998) p62
  32. ^ Byung-Kook Kim and Ezra F. Vogel, eds., The Park Chung Hee Era: The Transformation of South Korea (Harvard University Press, 2011) pp75–76
  33. ^ "Stay Put! Franco Orders Spanish", Miami News, June 9, 1962, p1
  34. ^ James P. Lynch and Rita J. Simon, Immigration the World Over: Statutes, Policies, and Practices (Rowman & Littlefield, 2003) p57
  35. ^ Kenneth Michael Absher, Mind-Sets and Missiles: A First Hand Account of the Cuban Missile Crisis (Strategic Studies Institute, 2009) p26
  36. ^ Daniel M. Masterson, Militarism and Politics in Latin America: Peru from Sánchez Cerro to Sendero Luminoso (Greenwood Publishing Group, 1991) p181
  37. ^ Josep H. Colomer, Political Institutions: Democracy and Social Choice (Oxford University Press, 2001) pp109-110
  38. ^ Justin J. Corfield, The History of Cambodia (ABC-CLIO, 2009) p58
  39. ^ "Russian Sets Mark", Miami News, June 9, 1962, p3C
  40. ^ "Escape Tried at Alcatraz", Milwaukee Journal, June 12, 1962, p1
  41. ^ Tina Westbrook, Letters from Alcatraz: Forty Years Later (Trafford Publishing, 2010) pp5-6
  42. ^ Michael O'Brien, John F. Kennedy: A Biography (Macmillan, 2005) p615; "Laos Princes Reach Accord On Coalition", Pittsburgh Press, June 11, 1962, p1
  43. ^ Michael Meagher, Larry D. Gragg, John F. Kennedy: A Biography (ABC-CLIO, Jul 31, 2011) pp117-118
  44. ^ Dennis Campbell, ed., Mergers and Acquisitions in North America, Latin America, Asia and the Pacific: Selected Issues and Jurisdictions (Kluwer Law International, 2011) p353
  45. ^ "George Lucas, California Car Culture, and "The Crash" in '62", by Richard Ravalli
  46. ^ Roger Morris, Partners in Power: The Clintons and Their America (Regnery Publishing, 1999) p52
  47. ^ Jim Marrs, Crossfire: The Plot That Killed Kennedy (Basic Books, 1989) p128
  48. ^ Mark McGuire and Michael Sean Gormley, Moments in the Sun: Baseball's Briefly Famous (McFarland, 1999) p17
  49. ^ Steptoe and Son, Museum of Broadcast Communication
  50. ^ "Boston Strangler", in The Encyclopedia of Serial Killers (Michael Newton, ed.) (Infobase Publishing, 2006) p25
  51. ^ Lodewijk Woltjer, Europe's Quest for the Universe: ESO and the VLT, ESA and Other Projects (EDP Sciences, 2006) p161
  52. ^ Rodney P. Carlisle and J. Geoffrey Golson, eds., America in Revolt During the 1960s and 1970s (ABC-CLIO, 2007) p176
  53. ^ Kenton J. Clymer, The United States and Cambodia, 1870-1969: From Curiosity to Confrontation (RoutledgeCurzon, 2004) p92
  54. ^ Arlene R. Quaratiello, Rachel Carson: A Biography (Greenwood Publishing, 2004) p105
  55. ^ Jurgen Herbst, Women Pioneers of Public Education: How Culture Came to the Wild West (Macmillan, 2008) p152
  56. ^ Leo McKinstry, Geoff Boycott: A Cricketing Hero (HarperCollins UK, 2010)
  57. ^ Gérard Chaliand, The Art of War in World History: From Antiquity to the Nuclear Age (University of California Press, 1994) p1019
  58. ^ "Korean Cabinet Quits In Fiscal Dispute", Pittsburgh Press, June 17, 1962, p9
  59. ^ "Brazil Takes World Title, Beats Czechoslovakia 3-1", Montreal Gazette, June 18, 1962, p20
  60. ^ Phillip C. Naylor, Historical Dictionary Of Algeria (Scarecrow Press, 2006) p372
  61. ^ "Bricklayers Arms". Kent Rail. Retrieved 2009-08-22.
  62. ^ "Jack Nicklaus Takes U.S. Open", Montreal Gazette, June 18, 1962, p17
  63. ^ Mark De Rond and Iain Morley, Serendipity: Fortune and the Prepared Mind (Cambridge University Press,2010) p77
  64. ^ Eric M. Schlegel, Restless Universe: Understanding X-Ray Astronomy in the Age of Chandra and Newton (Oxford University Press, 2002) p19
  65. ^ "Dief Loses His Grip On Canada", Miami News, June 19, 1962, p2A; Allan Levine, Scrum Wars: The Prime Ministers and the Media (Dundurn Press, 1996) p228
  66. ^ "Prime Minister Named in Korea", Milwaukee Journal, June 18, 1962, p4
  67. ^ Gordon L. Rottman and Chris Taylor, The Berlin Wall and the Intra-German Border 1961-89 (Osprey Publishing, 2008) pp33-34
  68. ^ "Mason City has first movie premiere for 'Music Man', Mason City (IA) Globe-Gazette, June 20, 1962, p33
  69. ^ "Plenty of Music Is on Schedule For City in Iowa", Albuquerque (NM) Journal, June 18, 1962, p20
  70. ^ David Evanier, All the Things You Are: The Life of Tony Bennett (John Wiley & Sons, 2011) pp133-134
  71. ^ David Lea and Colette Milward, A Political Chronology of The Americas (Europa Publications, 2001) p126
  72. ^ "Nuclear Shot Fails Again", Milwaukee Journal, June 20, 1962, p2
  73. ^ Malka Hillel Shulewitz, The Forgotten Millions: The Modern Jewish Exodus from Arab Lands (Continuum International, 2001) p109
  74. ^ Alvin L. Young, The History, Use, Disposition and Environmental Fate of Agent Orange (Springer, 2009) pp193–194
  75. ^ Tacuara salió a la calle, Página/12, May 15, 2005 (in Spanish)
  76. ^ "ANOTHER 707 JET CRASHES, 103 FEARED LOST ON ISLE"", Miami News, June 22, 1962, p1
  77. ^ Peter Maas, The Valachi Papers (HarperCollins, 1968, 2003) pp1-8
  78. ^ John W. Garver, The Sino-American Alliance: Nationalist China and American Cold War Strategy in Asia (M.E. Sharpe, 1997) p9
  79. ^ "Reds Reportedly Warned By U.S.", Lewiston (ID) Morning Tribune , June 27, 1962, p1
  80. ^ "Newk In First Game", Daytona Beach (FL) Sunday News-Journal, June 24, 1962, p1-B
  81. ^ "Larry Doby to Play Baseball in Japan", Reading (PA) Eagle, June 24, 1962, p31
  82. ^ "Yankees Tip Tigers, 9-7 In 22 Historic Innings", Windsor (ON) Star, June 25, 1962, p19
  83. ^ Baseball-Almanac.com
  84. ^ "PRAYER RULED OUT IN SCHOOL", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 26, 1962, p1
  85. ^ Nat Hentoff, "The First Freedom: The Tumultuous History of Free Speech in America", (Random House Digital, 2012)
  86. ^ Emmanuel Gyimah-Boadi, Democratic Reform in Africa: The Quality of Progress (Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2004) p184
  87. ^ "Sophia Indicted on Bigamy Charges"", Miami News, June 25, 1962, p1
  88. ^ James T. Sears, Behind the Mask of the Mattachine: The Hal Call Chronicles And the Early Movement for Homosexual Emancipation (Harrington Park Press, 2006) p462-463
  89. ^ "Two Nations Get Freedom— Rwanda and Burundi", Milwaukee Journal, June 28, 1962, p17
  90. ^ "School Prayer Bill Offered In House— Would Amend Constitution", Miami News, June 26, 1962, p1
  91. ^ Edward Keynes and Randall K. Miller, The Court Vs. Congress: Prayer, Busing, and Abortion (Duke University Press, 1989) p193
  92. ^ Clyde V. Prestowitz, Three Billion New Capitalists: The Great Shift of Wealth And Power to the East (Basic Books, 2006) pp82-83
  93. ^ "4 Lutheran Churches Merge at Ceremony", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 29, 1962, p1
  94. ^ "$3.5 Million Libel Suit Won"", Miami News, June 29, 1962, p5A
  95. ^ "Test of Pay-Television In Hartford Meets With Enthusiastic Reception", The Evening Sun (Baltimore), June 30, 1962, p1
  96. ^ Megan Mullen, The Rise of Cable Programming in the United States: Revolution Or Evolution? (University of Texas Press, 2003) pp53–54; "Pay Television Gets Major Test Tonight", Ocala (FL) Star-Banner, June 29, 1962, p3
  97. ^ Sophie Gilliat-Ray, Muslims in Britain: An Introduction (Cambridge University Press, 2010) p47
  98. ^ David E. Sumner, The Magazine Century: American Magazines Since 1900 (Peter Lang, 2010) p87