June 2019 Gulf of Oman incident
|Part of the 2019 Iran–United States escalation in tensions|
Kokuka Courageous after the fire, with damage shown on the left and the alleged unexploded limpet mine still attached on the right
|Date||June 13, 2019|
|Location||Gulf of Oman, Indian Ocean|
|Target||Merchant ships operated by companies based in: |
|Non-fatal injuries||1 crew member wounded|
|Property damage||2 merchant ships damaged|
|Suspects||Iran (alleged by the United States, and supported by Saudi Arabia, Israel, and the United Kingdom; denied by Iran)|
On June 13, 2019, two oil tankers were attacked near the Strait of Hormuz while they transited the Gulf of Oman. The Japanese Kokuka Courageous and Norwegian Front Altair were attacked, allegedly with limpet mines or flying objects, sustaining fire damage. American and Iranian military personnel responded and rescued crew members. The attacks took place a month after the similar May 2019 Gulf of Oman incident and on the same day the Supreme Leader of Iran Ali Khamenei met with Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe in Iran. Abe was acting as an intermediary between American President Donald Trump and Iranian supreme leader, Ali Khamenei.
Amid heightened tension between Iran and the United States, the United States blamed Iran for the attacks. Saudi Arabia and the United Kingdom supported the United States' accusation. Germany has stated that there is "strong evidence" that Iran was responsible for the attacks, while Japan has asked for more proof of Iran's culpability. Iran denied the accusation, blaming the United States for spreading disinformation and warmongering. In response to the incident, the United States announced on June 17 the deployment of 1,000 additional troops to the Middle East.
The incident occurred when tensions were high among Iran, the United States, and Saudi Arabia. On May 8, 2018, the United States withdrew from the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action with Iran, reinstating sanctions against their nuclear program and starting a "maximum-pressure campaign" on Iran. In response, Iran threatened to close the Strait of Hormuz to international shipping, which could have a marked effect on the global oil market. The strait is a choke-point through which some 17.2 million barrels are transported each day, nearly 20 percent of global oil consumption. Iran's oil production has hit a historic low as a result of sanctions; yet Saudi Arabia maintained supplies, leaving prices reasonably stable. According to the BBC, U.S. sanctions against Iran "have led to a sharp downturn in Iran's economy, pushing the value of its currency to record lows, quadrupling its annual inflation rate, driving away foreign investors, and triggering protests." U.S. President Donald Trump offered to hold talks with Iran regarding their nuclear program and said he was willing to make a deal to remove sanctions and help fix their economy. However, he did not rule out the possibility of a military conflict with Iran. Iran stated that the United States must first return to the nuclear deal before starting any new negotiations.
During the Iran–Iraq War, Iraq started a "Tanker War" in the Persian Gulf in 1981. Iran started to fight back in 1984 when Iraq ramped up its attacks on Iranian tankers. In 1987 the U.S. launched Operation Earnest Will to protect Kuwaiti tankers against Iranian attacks. On May 5, 2019, National Security Advisor John R. Bolton announced that the U.S. was deploying the USS Abraham Lincoln carrier strike group and four B-52 bombers to the Middle East to "send a clear and unmistakable message" to Iran following intelligence reports of an Iranian plot to attack U.S. forces in the region. On May 10, 2019, The Pentagon announced the deployment of USS Arlington and a battery of Patriot missiles to join their military forces in the Gulf of Oman region.
The June 2019 Gulf of Oman incident occurred approximately one month after the May 2019 Gulf of Oman incident, after which an international investigation concluded that four oil tankers from Norway, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates had been targeted through a sophisticated operation placing limpet mines perpetrated by a "state actor". U.S. intelligence blamed the attacks on Iran, which increased tensions.
The two oil tankers damaged in this incident were Front Altair, owned by a Norwegian company, and the Japan-based Kokuka Courageous. The tankers were carrying petroleum products from Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates. Front Altair was carrying naphtha from Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC), and was traveling from Ruwais in the United Arab Emirates to Taiwan. Kokuka Courageous was carrying methanol from Jubail, Saudi Arabia and Mesaieed, Qatar, and was headed to Singapore.
The incident occurred during a two day diplomatic visit by Japan's Prime Minister Shinzō Abe to Iran. Abe was carrying a note from Donald Trump to the Supreme Leader of Iran Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, who rejected exchanging messages with Trump, stating "I do not see Trump as worthy of any message exchange, and I do not have any reply for him, now or in future". According to the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, the targeted ships were carrying "Japan-related" cargo.
On June 13, 2019, Front Altair and Kokuka Courageous were both transiting the Gulf of Oman heading southeast in international waters. According to the U.S. Navy, a distress call from Front Altair was received at 03:12 GMT (06:12 local time) following an explosion. Eight minutes later, a U.S. MQ-9 Reaper drone arrived at the site of Front Altair, observing the ship on fire. According to a U.S. official, Iranian vessels were observed by the American drone to approach the two merchant ships. According to the U.S. military, at 03:45 GMT (06:45 local time), a modified SA-7 surface to air missile was fired at the American drone, missing its target. Subsequent to the incident with the drone, an explosion occurred on Kokuka Courageous. According to the U.S. Navy, a distress call from Kokuka Courageous was received at 04:00 GMT (07:00 local time). CPC Corporation, which was contracting Front Altair, reported that it may have been hit by a torpedo at around 04:00 GMT on June 13. The hull of Kokuka Courageous was reportedly breached above the waterline on the starboard side.
Both ships caught fire,[dubious ] but Frontline and Kokuka Sangyo (affiliated to Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Company), the respective owners of the two vessels, reported that all crew members from both ships had successfully evacuated. Iranian News Agency (IRNA) initially reported that Front Altair had sunk, but the statement was later denied by a Frontline spokesman. Other reports suggested that the attacks may have involved limpet mines. Iran reported that they had rescued all 44 crew members of both vessels and taken them to Iran. However, the U.S. Navy responded to assist both vessels after the attack and reported having rescued some of the crew. U.S. officials said that the guided missile destroyer USS Bainbridge rescued 21 crew members from a tugboat that had rescued them from the burning Kokuka Courageous tanker.
A Dutch vessel en route to Dubai rescued 21 people, mostly Filipinos, from Kokuka Courageous. This was confirmed by the Dutch shipping company Acta Marine. The 23 crew of Front Altair were first rescued by a nearby South Korean vessel, Hyundai Dubai. The South Korean Hyundai Merchant Marine Company confirmed the rescue and said the vessel later handed over the rescued crew members to an Iranian rescue boat. According to US intelligence reports, shortly after the crews were evacuated, Iranian military boats surrounded the rescue ships and told them to hand over the mariners into their custody. One of the civilian rescue ships eventually complied with this request. The crew of 23 people of the Frontline's Front Altair was transferred to an Iranian navy vessel and disembarked at a local Iranian port, later being transferred to Bandar Abbas. Neither oil tanker was sunk in the attack, despite significant damage. The U.S. Navy later sent another destroyer, USS Mason, to the location of the incident.
On June 15, the crew of Front Altair arrived in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, on an Iran Air flight from Bandar Abbas, Iran. Robert Hvide Macleod, CEO of Frontline Management said "Everyone has been very well cared for in Iran, and everyone is in good shape".
Kokuka Courageous's 21 crew members were returned to the vessel by the U.S. Navy's Fifth Fleet after being rescued.
Front Altair was towed to the port of Khorfakkan in the United Arab Emirates. Both Kokuka Courageous and Front Altair will have their cargoes unloaded and will be assessed for damages by a specialist team.
On June 20, 2019 Iran shot down an American surveillance drone in the Gulf of Oman.
U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo said on the day of the incident that Iran was responsible for the attack. He based this assessment on "intelligence, the weapons used, the expertise needed" and "recent similar Iranian attacks on shipping". The New York Times reported that experts believe that Iran would carry out such an attack to hit back at the United States while maintaining enough ambiguity to avoid a direct counterattack. The Iranian government, in response, denied any and all responsibility and criticized the accusation. Acting U.S. Secretary of Defense Patrick Shanahan remarked that the U.S. wanted to "build international consensus to this international problem", partly by declassifying and releasing intelligence.
On June 13, the U.S. military released a video which it said shows members of the Iranian Revolutionary Guard removing an unexploded mine from the side of Kokuka Courageous at 4.10pm local time. The patrol boat shown in the video matched the model and dimensions of patrol boats used by the Navy of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, with an identical chevron pattern, center console, and anti-aircraft gun. Iran called the U.S. accusations that it attacked the ships baseless.
On June 14, the head of the company that owns Kokuka Courageous, Yutaka Katada, stated that the crew members "are saying that they were hit by a flying object. They saw it with their own eyes." Then, "some crew witnessed a second shot". He said he believed the incident could not have been a torpedo attack, because the ship was hit above the waterline, and that he was more likely to believe a penetrating bullet hit it than a mine. He clarified this was "just an assumption or a guess."
Also on June 14, the Tasnim News Agency reported that Hormozgan Province's port director stated that early investigations indicated that the fires broke out due to technical reasons and that there is no proof that an external object hit either ship.
Iran's United Nations mission issued a statement wherein it called on the United States and its regional allies to "put an end to mischievous plots and false flag operations in the region." Analyst François Heisbourg stated "There's a lot of suspicion in Europe about American motives. The maritime milieu is especially susceptible to manipulation – remember the Gulf of Tonkin." Analyst Anthony Cordesman raised "the possibility that ISIS (Daesh) carried out the attack as trigger to turn two enemies – the United States and Iran – against each other. Or you're watching Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates create an incident that they could then use to increase the pressure on Iran."
On June 17, the Pentagon released new images which, according to it, were taken from an MH-60R Navy surveillance helicopter of the aftermath of alleged Iranian attack on tankers in the Gulf of Oman. They again allegedly showed IRGC members removing an unexploded limpet mine.
After news of the incident, the Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif tweeted "Suspicious doesn't begin to describe what likely transpired this morning." He described the attacks as a move by "the B-team"[c] to sabotage diplomacy. Iran's United Nations mission issued a statement wherein it called on the United States and its regional allies to "put an end to mischievous plots and false flag operations in the region." Iranian parliament speaker Ali Larijani said that the United States may have carried out false flag operations against the oil tankers.
Iran's mission to the United Nations responded to the U.S. accusation by saying that the Iranian government "categorically rejects" the U.S. claim that it was responsible for the attacks and condemned it "in the strongest possible terms".
U.S. officials have blamed the attacks on Iran, with United States Secretary of State Mike Pompeo stating that the U.S. "would defend its forces and interests in the region". Saudi Arabia's Minister of State for Foreign Affairs Adel Al-Jubeir agreed with Pompeo, saying "Iran has a history of doing this." During an interview with Fox News, Trump further asserted the blame on Iran, calling the country "a nation of terror".
Senator and presidential candidate Bernie Sanders called for the incident to be "fully investigated" while adding that a war with Iran "would be an unmitigated disaster for the United States, Iran, the region and the world.” Fellow senator and presidential candidate Elizabeth Warren echoed Sanders saying she was “very concerned about a slide towards war with Iran”.
On June 17, Maariv reported that diplomatic sources at the United Nations Headquarters revealed to the newspaper an American plan to carry out a tactical assault against Iran - namely, aerial bombardment of an Iranian facility related to its nuclear program. That evening, the U.S. Department of Defense announced the deployment of 1,000 additional troops to the Middle East as a defensive response to the incident.
The United Kingdom Foreign and Commonwealth Office stated that they share the U.S. government's assessment that Iran is to blame for two attacks on oil tankers in the Gulf of Oman, with British Foreign Secretary Jeremy Hunt calling Iran's alleged actions "deeply unwise".
The office released another statement that "It is almost certain that a branch of the Iranian military - the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps - attacked the two tankers on 13 June. No other state or non-state actor could plausibly have been responsible." Hunt said "our starting point is obviously to believe our U.S. allies" and the UK "will be making our own assessment soberly and carefully". He accused Iran of orchestrating the May 2019 Gulf of Oman incident, stating "The Emirati-led investigation of the 12 May attack on four oil tankers near the port of Fujairah concluded that it was conducted by a sophisticated state actor. We are confident that Iran bears responsibility for that attack."
The position on the June incident was challenged on Twitter by opposition leader Jeremy Corbyn, who questioned the existence of "credible evidence" and cautioned against fueling a war with rhetoric, an objection Hunt called "pathetic and predictable", before rhetorically questioning Corbyn's patriotism.
Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia Mohammad Bin Salman Al Saud blamed Iran for the attacks. Saudi Arabian Energy Minister Khalid al-Falih urged a "swift and decisive response" to the incident. Saudi Minister of Foreign Affairs Adel al-Jubeir expressed support for the U.S. position, saying that "Iran has a history of doing this".
The German government urged "a spiral of escalation must be avoided". Responding to the video released by the US Central Command, German Foreign Minister Heiko Maas remarked that "to make a final assessment, this is not enough for me". Later, Chancellor Angela Merkel stated there was "strong evidence" that Iran was behind the attacks, adding "we must do everything to solve the conflict with Iran in a peaceful way".
The Italian Foreign Minister Enzo Moavero said: "We do think that there is room for finding a way for peace and stability in the world". Meanwhile, Jean Asselborn, Luxembourg's Foreign Minister, said: "I believe that the main task of foreign ministers is to avoid war... you really shouldn't make the mistake of believing that you can solve a problem in the Middle East with weapons". Pekka Haavisto, his Finnish counterpart stated there should be "a proper investigation [to put] all the facts on the table and then we can look what really has happened, who is behind this".
General Secretary of the Communist Party and Chinese President Xi Jinping told his Iranian counterpart Hassan Rouhani during a SCO meeting that China would promote ties with Iran regardless of developments from the incident. State councillor and Chinese foreign minister Wang Yi asked for all parties involved to "not open a Pandora's box". Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Sergei Ryabkov warned "against hasty conclusions, against attempts to lay the blame at the door of those we don't like".
On June 14, 2019 Norwegian Foreign Minister Ine Marie Eriksen Søreide while expressing concern said "On the Norwegian side, we await the final results of the investigation" and "We encourage all actors to show restraint and avoid actions that contribute to further escalation" The Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs believes the attacks increase the tension in the area. The Norwegian Maritime Directorate has gone out to warn five Norwegian ships that are in the Gulf of Oman.
On June 15, 2019, Prime Minister of Japan Shinzō Abe "resolutely denounced" the attacks on both ships, though he did not point to any one country. His statement came following a telephone call with U.S. President Donald Trump. After reviewing the video evidence, a source close to Abe said "These are not definite proof that it's Iran" behind the attacks, and "even if it's the United States that makes the assertion, we cannot simply say we believe it".
The United Nations Security Council met on June 13 in a closed door meeting with a briefing by US acting Ambassador regarding Washington's assessment that Iran was responsible for the suspected attack on two tankers in the strategic sea lane.
Paulo d'Amico, the chairman of the International Association of Independent Tanker Owners, expressed concerns for the safety of other vessels in the region and their crews. As a result of the incident, shipping through the Strait has slowed, due to concerns of further damage.
The Arab League Secretary-General Ahmed Aboul Gheit called on the United Nations Security Council to take action against those responsible and maintain maritime security. After meeting with UN Secretary-General António Guterres at UN headquarters in New York on June 14, Aboul Gheit also stated “We believe that responsibilities need to be clearly defined... The facts will be revealed, I am sure, it’s only a matter of time.” Amid U.S. accusations of Iran's involvement in the attack, Abuol Gheit said "My call to my Iranian – and I call them Iranian brothers: Be careful and reverse course because you’re pushing everybody towards a confrontation that no one would be safe if it happens."
Following a month-long decrease, the price of oil initially increased by 4% after the incident, then settled to an increase of 2%. The increase in oil prices has been attributed to uncertainty regarding the supply of oil, due to reduced shipping in the Strait of Hormuz as a result of this incident. On June 17, the price of oil returned to its previous decreasing trend, falling by 1.7%.
The price of insurance for cargo ships has also risen in response to the event, which could increase oil prices. Bloomberg reported that the war risk insurance premium for the Persian Gulf – which had already increased following the May incidents - jumped from USD 50,000 to USD 185,000 for supertankers.
- Action of June 5, 1984
- Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict
- List of shipwrecks in 2019
- May 2019 Gulf of Oman incident
- Operation Earnest Will
- Tanker War
- Kirkpatrick, David D.; Pérez-Peña, Richard; Reed, Stanley (June 13, 2019). "Tankers Are Attacked in Mideast, and U.S. Says Video Shows Iran Was Involved". Retrieved June 14, 2019 – via NYTimes.com.
- "Iran tried to shoot down US Reaper drone that arrived on scene of oil tanker attacks: officials". FoxNews. June 15, 2019. Retrieved June 16, 2019.
- "Gulf of Oman tankers attacked: Live updates". www.cnn.com. June 13, 2019. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
- Washington, Reuters (June 14, 2019). "Saudi Arabia agrees Iran was behind tanker attacks, says Adel al-Jubeir". Reuters. Al-Arabiya. Reuters - Al-Arabiya. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
- "Saudis, UK agree that Iran behind attacks, Iran denies involvement". The Jerusalem Post. June 14, 2019.
- "U.S. blames Iran for tanker attacks in Gulf of Oman, Iran rejects assertion". Reuters. June 14, 2019. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
- Gambrell, Jon (June 13, 2019). "Tankers targeted near Strait of Hormuz amid Iran-US tensions". AP News. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
- Pérez-Peña, Richard; Reed, Stanley; Kirkpatrick, David D. (June 13, 2019). "Tankers Attacked Again in Gulf of Oman, Raising Fears of Wider Conflict". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
- "Germany says there is 'strong evidence' Iran behind tanker attacks". DW. June 18, 2019. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
- "Japan demands more proof from U.S. that Iran attacked tankers". Japan Today. June 16, 2019. Retrieved June 16, 2019.
- Rebecca Morin (June 17, 2019). "Pentagon sending 1,000 U.S. troops to Middle East after oil tanker attacks". USA Today. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
- "Trump Withdraws U.S. From 'One-Sided' Iran Nuclear Deal". The New York Times. May 8, 2018. Retrieved May 8, 2018.
- "Maximum Pressure Campaign on the Regime in Iran". United States Department of State. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
- Goldenberg, Ilan. "Maximum Pressure on Iran Means Maximum Risk of War". Foreign Policy. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
- Dehghan, Saeed Kamali (July 5, 2018). "Iran threatens to block Strait of Hormuz over US oil sanctions". The Guardian. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
- "Factbox: Strait of Hormuz – the world's most important oil artery". Reuters. June 13, 2019. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
- "Iran's Oil Production Has Hit Historic Lows As Saudis Take Market Share". Radio Farda. June 4, 2019.
- "Iran oil: US to end sanctions exemptions for major importers". BBC News. April 22, 2019.
- Toosi, Nahal (May 9, 2019). "Trump to Iran: Call me, maybe". Politico.
- Sanger, David E.; Wong, Edward; Erlanger, Steven; Schmitt, Eric (May 8, 2019). "U.S. Issues New Sanctions as Iran Warns It Will Step Back From Nuclear Deal". The New York Times. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
- "The First Tanker War". www.historytoday.com. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
- "The Tanker War". U.S. Naval Institute. May 1, 1988. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
- Symonds, Craig (October 23, 2006). Decision at Sea: Five Naval Battles that Shaped American History. Oxford University Press. p. 279. ISBN 978-0195312119.
- Gambrell, Jon (June 14, 2019). "Oil tanker attacks echo Persian Gulf's 1980s 'Tanker War'". Associated Press. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
- "Bolton: U.S. sending Navy strike group to Iran to send "clear message"". Axios. May 6, 2019.
- "Israel passed White House intelligence on possible Iran plot". Axios. May 6, 2019.
- "USS Arlington, Marines to Join U.S. Carrier in Middle East". USNI News. May 10, 2019. Retrieved June 24, 2019.
- Yee, Vivian (June 7, 2019). "UAE tanker attacks blamed on 'state actor'". BBC. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
- "Iran news: Details of tanker "sabotage" murky as Trump warns Iran and U.S. casts first blame". CBS News. May 14, 2019. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
- "The Latest: US officials believe threat from Iran not over". ABC News. June 13, 2019.
- "US blames Iran for attacks on tankers in Gulf of Oman". Middle East Eye. June 13, 2019.
- "Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe meets Iranian leadership, tries to ease tensions with United States". South China Morning Post. June 13, 2019. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
- "Oil tankers on fire after 'torpedo' attack in Gulf of Oman". Sky News. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
- Capaccio, Anthony (June 17, 2019). "Pentagon Shares New Photos, Timeline of Gulf Oil Tanker Attacks". Bloomberg. Retrieved June 20, 2019.
- "Statement from US Central Command on attacks against U.S. observation aircraft". U.S. Central Command. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
- "Iranians fired missile at US drone prior to tanker attack, US official says". CNN. June 14, 2019. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
- "What we know about Gulf of Oman tanker 'attacks'". BBC. June 13, 2019. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
- Jaganathan, Jessica (June 13, 2019). "Bernhard Shulte says its tanker Kokuka Courageous damaged after 'suspected attack'". Reuters. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
- "Frontline spokesman denies IRNA report that Front Altair has sunk". Reuters. June 13, 2019.
- "Crews rescued after Gulf tanker explosions". June 13, 2019. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
- "U.S. official says "highly likely" Iran behind new tanker attacks in Gulf of Oman". www.cbsnews.com. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
- "Bainbridge Answers Distress Call". U.S. Central Command. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
- "Nederlands schip redt opvarenden". Telegraaf (in Dutch). June 13, 2019. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
- "The Latest: South Korea firm confirms rescue of oil tanker crew after reported attack". WNDU. June 13, 2019.
- "Tanker crew detained by Iran after first being rescued by another vessel: US officials". Fox News. June 14, 2019.
- "U.S. intel says Iran tried to pick up crews from tankers attacked in Gulf of Oman". www.cbsnews.com. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
- "Front Altair's crew unharmed and now in Iran: shipping firm". Reuters. June 13, 2019. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
- TV, Press (June 13, 2019). "Video shows crewmembers of a tanker hit by suspicious blast in Sea of Oman who were saved by Iranian rescue teams and transferred to Jask port. #SeaofOmanpic.twitter.com/XE2Nd5cynF". @PressTV. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
- "US destroyer USS Mason en route to the scene of attacks in Gulf". Al Arabiya. June 14, 2019. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
- "Blast-hit Kokuka tanker being towed toward UAE: operator". Reuters. June 14, 2019. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
- Gambrell, Jon; Abuelgasim, Fay (June 15, 2019). "Crew members of targeted Norwegian-owned tanker now in Dubai". AP NEWS. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
- "Angrepet i Omanbukta: Mannskapet på Front Altair har landet i Dubai (The attack in the Gulf of Oman: The crew of Front Altair have landed in Dubai)". VG (in Norwegian). Retrieved June 16, 2019.
- "Blast-hit tankers to be assessed off UAE coast". Reuters. June 16, 2019.
- Wong, Edward (June 13, 2019). "Pompeo Says Intelligence Points to Iran in Tanker Attack in Gulf of Oman". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. OCLC 1645522. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
- Kirkpatrick, David D. (June 14, 2019). "Why Tanker Blasts in the Gulf of Oman Have Put the World on Edge". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. OCLC 1645522. Archived from the original on June 17, 2019. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
- Wintour, Patrick; Julian, Borger (June 13, 2019). "Mike Pompeo blames Iran for oil tanker attacks in Gulf of Oman". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. OCLC 60623878. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
- "US looks to build 'international consensus' around tanker attacks it blamed on Iran". ABC News. June 14, 2019. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
- "US says video shows Iran removing unexploded mine". BBC. June 14, 2019. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
- "US releases video it says shows Iran's military recovering mine". The Sydney Morning Herald. June 14, 2019. ISSN 0312-6315. OCLC 226369741. Archived from the original on June 14, 2019.
- David Botti; Natalie Reneau; Christiaan Triebert; Nilo Tabrizy; Malachy Browne (June 14, 2019). Did Iran Attack Ships in the Gulf? What the Evidence Shows. The New York Times. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
- "Gulf of Oman tanker attacks: US says video shows Iran removing mine". BBC. June 14, 2019. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
The small white patrol craft in the video is typical of the type used by Iran's IRGC (Revolutionary Guards) Navy in the Gulf.
- "Iran issues denial after US says video shows involvement in tanker attacks". The Straits Times. June 14, 2019. OCLC 8572659. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
- "Iran denies tanker attacks as tensions soar". Agence France Presse. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
- Denyer, Simon. "Japanese ship owner contradicts US account of how tanker was attacked". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved June 17, 2019.
- Dooley, Ben. "'Flying Object' Struck Tanker in Gulf of Oman, Operator Says, Not a Mine". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. OCLC 1645522. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
- Denyer, Simon; Morello, Carol (June 14, 2019). "Japanese ship owner contradicts U.S. account of how tanker was attacked". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. OCLC 2269358. Archived from the original on June 14, 2019.
- "Early Investigations into Oil Tankers Incidents Show Fire Started for Technical Problems". Fars News Agency. June 14, 2019. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
- Trump blames Iran for the tanker attacks. But let's be skeptical of his administration's pro-war bluster.
- Awford, Jenny. "'MISCHIEVOUS PLOT': Iran accuses the US of LYING about the 'suspicious' attack on American-linked oil tanker and denies ordering 'torpedo' assault". The Sun. ISSN 0307-2681. OCLC 723661694. Archived from the original on June 14, 2019.
- Associated Press of Pakistan, APP (Global) (June 14, 2019). "At UN, Iran denies US claims of its involvement in tanker attacks". Associated Press of Pakistan. Retrieved June 26, 2019.
- Erlanger, Steven (June 14, 2019). "Distrusting Both Iran and U.S., Europe Urges 'Maximum Restraint'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. OCLC 1645522. Archived from the original on June 14, 2019.
- 'Japan dismisses US claim that Iran attacked tankers'
- "U.S. military releases new images from oil tanker attacks". Reuters. June 18, 2019. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
- "Iran's Zarif: B-Team Moving to Sabotage Diplomacy - Politics news". Tasnim News Agency. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
- "Iran hints US could be behind 'suspicious' tanker attacks". France 24. June 16, 2019.
- "Iran will not wage war against any nation: Iranian president". Reuters. June 18, 2019. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
- "Tankers struck near Strait of Hormuz; US blames Iran". Associated Press. June 13, 2019.
- Jonathan R. Cohen (July 16, 2019). "Letter dated 27 June 2019 from the Chargé d'affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General". undocs.org.
- News, A. B. C. "Two tankers attacked in Gulf of Oman, US not ruling out Iran is responsible". ABC News. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
- "Saudi Arabia agrees Iran was behind tanker attacks: Saudi minister". Reuters. June 13, 2019. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
- "'Iran did do it': Trump addresses tanker attacks, points to US military video of removing mine". USA Today. June 14, 2019. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
- Sanders Warns Trump That War With Iran Would Be a 'Disaster'
- Warren worried about ‘slide towards war with Iran’, says Trump needs to ‘come to Congress’ before taking military action
- Shamir, Shlomo (June 17, 2019). "U.N. officials: U.S. planning a 'tactical assault' in Iran". Maariv Online. Retrieved June 17, 2019.
- "Gulf of Oman attacks: UK statement". British Foreign & Commonwealth Office and The Rt Hon Jeremy Hunt MP. June 14, 2019.
- Milliken, David (June 14, 2019). "UK warns Iran over 'deeply unwise' attacks on oil tankers". Reuters. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
- "The Latest: Arab League chief tells Iranians to 'be careful'". Associated Press. June 14, 2019.
- "Corbyn challenges UK's Iran accusations". BBC. June 15, 2019. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
- "Saudi crown prince lashes out at arch-rival Iran over tanker attacks". Alarby.
- "Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince MBS blames Iran for tanker attacks". Al Jazeera.
- "Saudi Arabia strongly backs 'swift response' after Gulf of Oman incident". RT.
- Keinon, Herb (June 16, 2019). "Netanyahu - World needs to back US in Gulf of Oman inicident". The Jerusalem Post. ISSN 0021-597X.
- "Germany: U.S video not enough to attribute blame over oil tanker attacks". Reuters. June 14, 2019. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
- Merkel Sees ‘Strong Evidence’ Iran Attacked Gulf Oil Tankers
- Gulf of Oman: Unconvinced EU foreign ministers call for independent investigation after US claim Iran is behind tanker attack
- "Xi says China will promote steady ties with Iran". Reuters. June 14, 2019. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
- "Don't open 'Pandora's Box' in Middle East, China warns". Reuters. June 18, 2019. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
- "Russia says don't use tanker attacks to pressure Iran: RIA". Reuters. June 13, 2019. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
- "Abe denounces attacks on tankers near Strait of Hormuz". Japan Today. June 15, 2019. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
- "U.S. to raise Mideast tanker attacks in U.N. Security Council: diplomats". Reuters. June 13, 2019. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
- SBS World News, Middle East (June 14, 2019). "US warns UN of 'clear threat' from Iran after oil tanker attacks". SBS News. Retrieved June 26, 2019.
- "Attacks On Tankers In Gulf Of Oman Send Oil Prices Up, Sharply". NPR.org. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
- "U.S. calls attacks on commercial shipping 'unacceptable'". Reuters. June 13, 2019.
- Easton, Collin (June 12, 2019). "Oil prices rise 2% after tanker attacks near Iran". Reuters. Retrieved June 22, 2019.
- Kelly, Stephanie (June 17, 2019). "Oil prices fall 1% as economic worries outweigh tanker tensions". Reuters. Retrieved June 17, 2019.
- Longley, Alex; Tobben, Sheela; Koh, Ann (June 15, 2019). "War Risk Insurance Spirals Higher for Middle East Tankers". Bloomberg. Retrieved June 17, 2019.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to June 2019 Gulf of Oman incident.|