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Temporal range: Upper Permian[1] to recent
Scapania vegetative.jpg
A leafy liverwort, Scapania sp.
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Marchantiophyta
Class: Jungermanniopsida
Order: Jungermanniales
H. Klinggr, 1858[2]

See text.

Jungermanniales is the largest order of liverworts. They are distinctive among the liverworts for having thin leaf-like flaps on either side of the stem. Most other liverworts are thalloid, with no leaves.

Families of Jungermanniales[edit]

An updated classification by Söderström et al. 2016[3]

Plants of Radula complanata bearing sporophytes.


  1. ^ Oostendorp, Cora (1987). The Bryophytes of the Palaeozoic and the Mesozoic. Bryophytorum Bibliotheca. 34. Berlin & Stuttgart: J. Cramer. p. 18. ISBN 3-443-62006-X.
  2. ^ Klinggräff, Hugo von (1858). Die höheren Cryptogamen Preussens. Königsberg: Wilhelm Koch. p. 10.
  3. ^ Söderström; et al. (2016). "World checklist of hornworts and liverworts". PhytoKeys. 59 (59): 1–826. doi:10.3897/phytokeys.59.6261. PMC 4758082. PMID 26929706.

External links[edit]