The beetle family Jurodidae was originally described from fossils, but in 1996, a single species from the Russian Far East, described as Sikhotealinia zhiltzovae, was found and later was recognized to be a living representative of this otherwise extinct family (a "living fossil"). Since then, this beetle, known from only a single specimen, has been the source of contention, as it is reported to possess three ocelli on its forehead, a condition otherwise unknown in the entire order Coleoptera, whether extinct or living - though it is common in other orders, and generally considered a groundplan character for neopteran insects. If true, this species may represent the most archaic of all living beetles. However, other authorities have challenged this interpretation, and have further suggested that this beetle does not even belong to the Archostemata. This may not be possible to resolve until additional specimens are collected, allowing for genetic analysis.
- Leschen, R.A.B.; Beutel, R.G. (2004). "Ocellar atavism in Coleoptera: plesiomorphy or apomorphy?". Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research. 42 (1): 63–69. doi:10.1046/j.0947-5745.2003.00241.x.
- Data related to Jurodidae at Wikispecies
- Most mysterious representative of beetles - Sikhotealinia zhiltzovae Lafer, 1996 Photos