|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives|
from Michigan's 3rd district
|Assumed office |
January 3, 2011
|Preceded by||Vern Ehlers|
|Member of the Michigan House of Representatives|
from the 72nd district
January 14, 2009 – January 12, 2011
|Preceded by||Glenn Steil|
|Succeeded by||Ken Yonker|
|Born||April 18, 1980|
Grand Rapids, Michigan, U.S.
|Political party||Libertarian (2020–present)|
Republican (until 2019)
|Education||University of Michigan (BA, JD)|
Justin Amash (//; born April 18, 1980) is an American lawyer and politician who has served as the U.S. Representative for Michigan's 3rd congressional district since 2011. Originally a member of the Republican Party, Amash became an independent in July 2019 before joining the Libertarian Party in April 2020, becoming the first Libertarian Party member to serve in Congress. In July 2020, Amash announced that he would not run for reelection to Congress.
A native of Grand Rapids, Michigan, Amash was born to Arab Christian parents who had immigrated to the United States. After high school, he studied economics at the University of Michigan, then earned a law degree at the University of Michigan Law School and briefly worked as a corporate lawyer before entering politics.
Amash represented the 72nd district in the Michigan House of Representatives for one term before being elected to Congress in 2010. From January 2011 to January 2019, Amash missed only one of 5,374 roll call votes although he has been criticized for his high number of present votes. Amash chaired the Liberty Caucus and is the first and only Libertarian to hold a seat in Congress. Amash received national attention when he became the first Republican congressman to call for the impeachment of Donald Trump, a position he maintained after leaving the party.
After months of speculation that he would enter the presidential race, in April 2020 Amash announced the formation of an exploratory committee to seek the Libertarian presidential nomination, but the next month he announced that he would not run.
Early life and education
Justin Amash was born on April 18, 1980, in Grand Rapids, Michigan. His parents were both Arab Christians who had immigrated to the United States. His father, Attallah Amash, is a Palestinian Christian who immigrated to the United States in 1956 at age 16 through the sponsorship of an American pastor and his family. His mother Mimi is a Syrian Christian who met his father through family friends in Damascus, Syria, and the two married in 1974. Attallah's family had resided in Khirbat Lid until they were expelled during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War and Khirbat Lid was incorporated into the State of Israel.
Amash was raised in Kentwood, Michigan. He first attended Kelloggsville Christian School in Kentwood, then attended Grand Rapids Christian High School, from which he graduated in 1998 as class valedictorian. He then attended the University of Michigan, graduating in 2002 with a Bachelor of Arts in economics with high honors. He stayed at the university to attend the University of Michigan Law School, graduating with a Juris Doctor in 2005.
After graduating from law school, Amash spent less than a year as an attorney at the Grand Rapids law firm Varnum. He then became a consultant to Michigan Industrial Tools Inc. (also known as Tekton Inc.), a company his father founded and owned. He worked for his family's business for a year before being elected to the Michigan House of Representatives in 2008. Amash's two brothers also have positions at Michigan Industrial Tools.
Michigan House of Representatives
Glenn D. Steil Jr., the incumbent state representative for Michigan's 72nd House District, was unable to run for reelection in the 2008 election due to term limits. Amash ran in the Republican primary and defeated four other candidates before defeating Democratic nominee Albert Abbasse in the general election.
During his initial tenure in the State House, Amash sponsored five resolutions and twelve bills, but none of them passed. While in the State House, he began using his Twitter and Facebook pages to report his floor votes and explain his reasoning and had a government transparency page on his website that would allow people to view the members and salaries of his staff.
U.S. House of Representatives
On February 9, 2010, Amash announced that he would run for the Republican nomination for Michigan's third congressional district and the next day incumbent Representative Vern Ehlers announced that he would not seek reelection. During the primary campaign he was endorsed by Betsy and Dick DeVos, the Club for Growth, Representative Ron Paul, and FreedomWorks PAC. In the Republican primary he defeated four other candidates and shortly before the general election he was named as one of Time magazine's "40 under 40 – Rising Stars of U.S. Politics". During the campaign he advocated politics supported by the Tea Party movement and defeated Democratic nominee Patrick Miles Jr. in the general election.
The House Republican Steering Committee removed Amash from the House Budget Committee on December 3, 2012, as part of a larger party leadership-caucus shift. He joined Representatives Tim Huelskamp and David Schweikert in a letter to Speaker of the House John Boehner, demanding to know why they had lost their committee positions. A spokesperson for Republican Congressman Lynn Westmoreland of Georgia said that Amash, Huelskamp, and Schweikert had been removed for "their inability to work with other members." Politico said that the three were "the first members pulled off committees as punishment for political or personality reasons in nearly two decades".:p.2
Following the retirement of Senator Carl Levin it was speculated that Amash would run in the 2014 Senate election and Senator Mike Lee encouraged him to run, but Amash chose to run for reelection to the House.
Amash was endorsed by the fiscally conservative Club for Growth PAC, which spent over $500,000 supporting Amash in his Republican primary against former East Grand Rapids School Trustee Brian Ellis, who was endorsed by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and spent more than $1 million of his own money on the race.
After Amash defeated Ellis in the August primary, with 57% of the vote to Ellis's 43%, Amash was highly critical of Ellis and former Congressman Pete Hoekstra, who had backed Ellis. Of Hoekstra, Amash said, "You are a disgrace. And I'm glad we could hand you one more loss before you fade into total obscurity and irrelevance." Amash took exception to one of Ellis's television ads that quoted California Republican Congressman Devin Nunes calling Amash "Al Qaeda's best friend in Congress"; he demanded an apology from Ellis for running what he called a "disgusting, despicable smear campaign." As Conor Friedersdorf of The Atlantic notes, "Amash voted against the reauthorization of the Patriot Act, favored a measure to repeal indefinite detention, and opposed reauthorization of the FISA Amendments Act." In the general election, Amash won reelection against Democratic nominee Bob Goodrich.
In 2011, Amash endorsed Representative Ron Paul's campaign for the Republican presidential nomination. In 2015, he endorsed Senator Rand Paul's campaign for the Republican presidential nomination and later endorsed Senator Ted Cruz after Paul dropped out.
On July 8, 2019, days after announcing that he was leaving the Republican Party, Amash formally submitted his resignation to Republican Leader Kevin McCarthy and House Republican Conference Leader Liz Cheney. In the process, he resigned his seat on the Committee on Oversight and Reform. If he had not resigned, he would have been automatically removed and replaced with another member upon his departure from the House Republican Conference. House rules state that standing committee memberships "shall be contingent on continuing membership in the party caucus or conference" which assigned the legislator to that committee.
In April 2020, Amash switched parties to the Libertarian Party; in the process, Amash became the first Libertarian member to serve in either house of Congress. That same month, he announced the formation of an exploratory committee to seek the Libertarian presidential nomination, but in May 2020, he announced he would not run due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In July 2020, Amash implied that he would not seek reelection to the House, saying that he would "miss" representing his constituency in Congress.
Amash has described himself as a libertarian, dissenting from both Republican and Democratic leaderships more frequently than the vast majority of Republican members of Congress. Amash is regarded as one of the most libertarian members of Congress, receiving high scores from right-leaning interest groups such as the Club for Growth, Heritage Action for America, and Americans for Prosperity, and praise from limited-government think tanks and nonprofit organizations. He was a founding member of the House Freedom Caucus, a group of conservative Republicans in the House. In June 2019, Amash left the caucus. On July 4, 2019, he announced that he was leaving the Republican Party to become an independent. He officially announced his membership in the Libertarian Party in late April 2020.
Before leaving the GOP, Amash gained a reputation as a gadfly within the Republican Party; his staunchly libertarian and sometimes contrarian views resulted at times in disagreements with party leadership and other members of the Michigan congressional delegation.
Amash has called economists F. A. Hayek and Frédéric Bastiat his "biggest heroes" and political inspirations, and has described himself as "Hayekian libertarian". When The New York Times asked him to explain his approach to voting on legislation, he replied, "I follow a set of principles. I follow the Constitution. And that's what I base my votes on. Limited government, economic freedom, and individual liberty."
Amash opposes abortion and federal funding for abortion. He describes himself as "100 percent pro-life" and in 2017 voted in favor of federal legislation to ban most abortions after 20 weeks of pregnancy.
Amash voted "present", rather than "yes" or "no", on the 2011 Full Year Continuing Appropriations Act, which provided for the cessation of federal funding to Planned Parenthood. Although he supports eliminating federal funding for Planned Parenthood, he abstained from defunding legislation, arguing that "legislation that names a specific private organization to defund (rather than all organizations that engage in a particular activity) is improper" and an "arguably unconstitutional" bill of attainder.
In May 2012, Amash was one of seven Republicans to vote against the Prenatal Non-Discrimination Act, which would have made it a crime for a doctor to perform an abortion on a woman who wants to end a pregnancy based on the gender of the fetus. He criticized the bill as ineffective and virtually impossible to enforce, and said Congress "should not criminalize thought", while maintaining that he believes "all abortion should be illegal".
On February 26, 2020, he was one of four representatives who voted against the "Justice for Victims of Lynching Act", which recognized lynching as a federal hate crime, stating that it would expand the use of the death penalty and that the acts criminalized by the bill are already illegal under federal law.
Drug policy and police
On March 17, 2010, Amash was the only member of the Michigan House of Representatives to vote against making benzylpiperazine a schedule 1 drug, saying that penalties for nonviolent crimes shouldn't be increased.
Amash and Representative Ted Lieu (D-CA) introduced a bill to block the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) from financing its Cannabis Eradication Program through civil asset forfeiture. Amash took aim at civil asset forfeiture in a statement, saying the practice allows "innocent people to have their property taken without sufficient due process".
In June 2020, Amash and Pressley introduced the Ending Qualified Immunity Act which would remove from law enforcement officers, and other officials, the protection of qualified immunity that routinely protects them from civil lawsuits.
Amash opposes government bailouts and tax increases.
In 2011, Amash introduced H.J. Res. 81, a Constitutional amendment proposal that would require a balanced budget over the business cycle with a ten-year transition to balance. That same year, he was one of four House Republicans who joined 161 Democrats to oppose an alternative balanced budget resolution without a federal spending cap, that would have required annual balance, that would have put the President's budget in the Constitution, and that could have created a perverse incentive for military conflict to avoid balance.
Energy and environment
Amash has criticized the Environmental Protection Agency, arguing that many environmental regulations are too strict. He voted for the Energy Tax Prevention Act of 2011, which would have amended the Clean Air Act of 1963 to prohibit the EPA from regulating specified greenhouse gases as air pollutants. In a 2017 debate, Amash "exaggerated uncertainty around the basics of climate science"—specifically, the scientific consensus that carbon emissions cause climate change. But in a 2020 interview, Amash said that climate change is a real and "very important" issue, that he believes climate change is being driven at least in part by human activity and that "action with respect to climate change" should be taken. Amash opposes regulations to combat climate change, arguing that we should instead "use clean technologies and to invent new technologies that will keep our environment clean." He opposed Obama's decision to sign the Paris Agreement to combat climate change, voted against legislation to block Trump's decision to withdraw the United States from the Paris Agreement, and voted for legislation "expressing the sense of Congress that a carbon tax would be detrimental to the United States economy." He opposes government subsidies for nuclear energy or any other form of energy production.
Amash was the only representative from Michigan to oppose federal aid in response to the Flint water crisis, arguing that "the U.S. Constitution does not authorize the federal government to intervene in an intrastate matter like this one." He contended that "the State of Michigan should provide comprehensive assistance to the people of Flint" instead.
Amash opposes political gerrymandering, saying in 2018 that he strongly supported adopting "an independent process for drawing districts" based on geographic considerations, so that districts would be "as compact and contiguous as possible." Amash was the only Republican member of Michigan's congressional delegation who did not join a federal lawsuit challenging the state's political boundaries.
On May 4, 2017, Amash voted in favor of repealing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Obamacare) and to pass a revised version of the American Health Care Act. Amash initially opposed the American Health Care Act, describing it as "Swampcare", tweeting that "It didn't take long for the swamp to drain @realDonaldTrump" and criticizing House leadership for attempting to "ram it through." Nevertheless, Amash voted for the updated AHCA plan before the Congressional Budget Office could determine its impact or cost.
Amash has pointed to structural problems in how Congress operates. He believes that many members have put "party above principles," in both the Democratic and Republican parties. He notes that many in Congress lack an understanding of parliamentary procedure, allowing leadership to dictate what legislation is passed. Amash notes that campaign finance poses significant challenges, but states, "I don’t know how to resolve it because I’m a big believer in free speech."
In November 2011, he was one of nine representatives who voted against a House resolution that affirmed In God We Trust as the official motto of the United States and was the only Republican to do so. On February 13, 2013, he voted against the Federal Disaster Assistance Nonprofit Fairness Act of 2013, which would make all places of religious worship eligible for FEMA grants, stating that bill "skews the law away from fairness by making religious buildings automatically eligible for reconstruction aid when other entities aren’t".
While running for the House of Representatives in 2010, Amash supported the Defense of Marriage Act, but in 2013 he advocated repealing it, saying that the "real threat to traditional marriage & religious liberty is government, not gay couples who love each other & want to spend lives together". He supported the result of Obergefell v. Hodges (in which the Supreme Court held that same-sex couples cannot be deprived of the fundamental right to marry) on the grounds that government-issued marriage licenses should not be "necessary to validate the intimate relationships of consenting adults."
Security and surveillance
In 2013, Amash and 15 other members of Congress filed an amicus brief in Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court supporting the release of the Court's unpublished opinions regarding the "meaning, scope, and constitutionality" of Section 215 of the Patriot Act. On June 12, 2013, he called for Director of National Intelligence James Clapper to resign due to him stating that the NSA did not collect data at a Senate committee hearing in March.
In 2013, Amash was one of two Republicans to vote in favor of closing Guantanamo Bay and transferring its detainees. The amendment by Representative Adam Smith would have eliminated all funding for the detention facility by December 31, 2014, removed all limitations on the transfer of detainees, removed a ban on the transfer of detainees to the United States and removed statutes that had banned the use of taxpayer funds for the construction of facilities in the United States for those detainees. It failed on a 174-249 vote.
In 2016, Amash was one of three Republicans to vote in favor of an amendment to close Guantánamo Bay and potentially allow federal officials to transfer detainees to facilities in the United States. It failed on a 163-259 vote.
Amash opposed President Donald Trump's 2017 executive order to ban citizens of seven majority-Muslim countries from entering the United States. Amash said: "Like President Obama's executive actions on immigration, President Trump's executive order overreaches and undermines our constitutional system."
Amash proposed an amendment to the reauthorization bill of Section 702 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act. The Amash amendment would have required the government in criminal cases to seek a warrant based on probable cause before searching surveillance data for information about Americans. While the Amash amendment received bipartisan support as well as support from civil liberties groups including the American Civil Liberties Union, the amendment ultimately failed by a vote of 183 to 233.
Suicide prevention hotline
In July 2018, Amash was the only member of the U.S. House to vote against creating a three-digit national suicide prevention hotline. He argued that Congress lacked the constitutional power to pass the legislation, saying it was a "good idea" but lacked a "constitutional basis". Freelance journalist Jim Higdon asked Amash how the Constitution prohibits "preventing suicide by hotline"; Amash responded, "The correct question under our Constitution is: What is the authority for the legislation? We live under a Constitution that grants Congress limited, enumerated powers."
In 2017, Amash was one of two dozen Republicans to vote against an amendment to the National Defense Authorization Act that would have prohibited taxpayer funds from being used by the Department of Defense to provide gender transition support to military members. He said, “Those who serve in our Armed Forces deserve the best medical care...With respect to transgender persons, we should focus on the best science, not the political or philosophical opinions of partisans”.
In 2019, Amash voted "present" on a resolution objecting to Trump's restrictions on transgender individuals in the military.
In May 2020, Amash announced he would support and protect transgender Americans, saying, “I think that people can take the term ‘sex’ that's in federal law and interpret it to mean things beyond what it traditionally meant...I would protect transgender Americans under the protections that exist for sex".
At a January 2013 town hall event, Amash responded to a question about immigration reform, "I don't think you can just grab people and deport them...I think we need to have a system that is sympathetic to people, looks at their situations and allows as many people to stay here as possible." On March 21, 2013, he and five other representatives signed a letter to U.S. Senator Rand Paul supporting immigration reform in the form of a "three-pronged stool" of border security, expanding legal immigration and "addressing" immigrants who came here "knowingly and illegally". In August he explained his support for immigration reform, saying improving the legal immigration system to make it more accessible would lead to fewer illegal border crossings. He announced his support for a path to legal status for the estimated 11 million undocumented immigrants in the U.S. He also supported an eventual path to citizenship once the undocumented obtained legal status.
In July 2017, Amash was the only Republican to vote against Kate's law, a bill that increased maximum penalties for criminals who entered the U.S. illegally more than once. He later said he was concerned the bill did not have adequate 5th amendment due process protections for undocumented immigrants to challenge their removal orders.
In July 2018, House Republicans introduced a resolution supporting the officers and personnel of Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). Amash was the only Republican in the chamber to vote against the resolution. He tweeted, "The House voted today on an inane resolution regarding ICE. The resolution makes several dubious claims and denounces calls to abolish ICE. I wouldn't abolish ICE without an alternative, but there's no reason to treat a federal agency as though it's beyond reproach and reform."
In December 2018, Amash was one of eight House Republicans to vote against a stopgap government funding bill that included $5.7 billion in border wall funding. He tweeted, "This massive, wasteful spending bill—stuffed with unrelated items—passed 217–185. It's amazing how some wall funding causes my fellow Republicans to embrace big government."
In February 2019, Amash was the only House Republican to co-sponsor a resolution to block Trump's declaration of a national emergency to redirect funds to build a wall on the U.S.-Mexico border without a congressional appropriation for such a project. He wrote, "A national emergency declaration for a non-emergency is void", and "[Trump] is attempting to circumvent our constitutional system." On February 25, Amash was one of 13 House Republicans to vote to block Trump's declaration.
He believes only Congress has the power to declare war, and has criticized multiple military actions taken by Presidents Obama and Trump. In July 2011, he sponsored an amendment to the Department of Defense Appropriations Act that would have prevented funding for operations against Gaddafi's government and Amash later stated that President Obama's actions during the Libyan Civil War were unconstitutional without authorization from Congress. He criticized President Obama's intervention in Syria against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant for proceeding without a Congressional declaration of war.
In 2011, Amash was one of six members of Congress who voted against House Resolution 268 reaffirming U.S. commitment to a negotiated settlement of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict through direct Israeli–Palestinian negotiation, which passed with 407 members in support. In 2014 he was one of eight members of Congress who voted against a $225 million package to restock Israel's Iron Dome missile defenses, which passed with 398 members in support. He supports a two-state solution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.
Amash joined 104 Democrats and 16 Republicans in voting against the 2012 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA), which specified the budget and expenditures of the Department of Defense, calling it "one of the most anti-liberty pieces of legislation of our lifetime". Amash co-sponsored an amendment to the NDAA that would ban indefinite military detention and military trials so that all terror suspects arrested in the United States would be tried in civilian courts. He expressed concern that individuals charged with terrorism could be jailed for prolonged periods of time without ever being formally charged or brought to trial.
On March 14, 2016, Amash joined the unanimous vote in the House to approve a resolution declaring the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) to be committing genocide against religious minorities in the Middle East (it passed 383–0), but joined Representatives Tulsi Gabbard (D-HI) and Thomas Massie (R-KY) in voting against a separate measure creating an international tribunal to try those accused of participating in the alleged atrocities (it passed 392–3).
In 2017, Amash criticized U.S. involvement in Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, arguing that "Al Qaeda in Yemen has emerged as a de facto ally of the Saudi-led militaries with whom [Trump] administration aims to partner more closely."
In July 2017, Amash was one of only three House members to vote against the Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act, a bill that imposed new economic sanctions against Russia, Iran, and North Korea. The bill passed the House on a 419–3 vote, with Representatives Thomas Massie (R-KY) and John Duncan Jr. (R-TN) also voting no. Trump initially opposed the bill, saying that relations with Russia were already "at an all-time and dangerous low", but ultimately signed it.
In January 2019, Amash voted against legislation that would prevent the President from unilaterally withdrawing from or altering NATO, although he subsequently said that he supports U.S. NATO membership, pointing to his 2017 vote to affirm NATO's Article 5.
In 2019, Amash signed a letter led by Representative Ro Khanna and Senator Rand Paul to Trump arguing that it is "long past time to rein in the use of force that goes beyond congressional authorization" and that they hoped this would "serve as a model for ending hostilities in the future – in particular, as you and your administration seek a political solution to our involvement in Afghanistan."
In October 2019, Amash criticized Trump's proposed withdrawal of U.S. troops from Syria for having "green-lighted" the 2019 Turkish offensive into northeastern Syria against Kurdish forces.
In January 2020, Amash voted in favor of the "No War Against Iran Act", which sought to block funding for the use of US military force in or against Iran unless Congress preemptively signed off. This proposed act is more restrictive than the 1973 War Powers Act, which requires the president to notify Congress within 48 hours of committing armed forces to military action and forbids armed forces from remaining for more than 60 days without congressional authorization. It passed the U.S. House on a 228-175 vote. Amash also voted to repeal the 2002 authorization for use of military force (AUMF), which passed the U.S. House on a 236-166 vote.
Criticism of Donald Trump
In 2016, Amash joined the list of Republicans who opposed the Republican presidential nominee, Donald Trump. After Trump was elected president, the Huffington Post profiled him in an article titled "The One House Republican Who Can't Stop Criticizing Donald Trump"; Amash said, "I'm not here to represent a particular political party; I'm here to represent all of my constituents and to follow the Constitution."
After Representative John Lewis (D-GA) said that Trump was not a "legitimate president," Trump sent out a series of tweets on January 14, 2017, criticizing Lewis. Amash responded to Trump's tweets with one of his own: "Dude, just stop." Amash later explained, "The reason I did it is he wouldn't stop ... The way he feels so slighted about everything I think is not healthy for our country." Amash felt that Lewis' comments were "inappropriate" but said that Trump's response should have been "dignified and conciliatory to the extent possible" instead of "personal jabs, attacking his district".
In May 2017, Trump was accused of pressuring fired FBI director James Comey to end an investigation into former national security adviser Michael Flynn. Amash and Carlos Curbelo were the first Republican members of Congress to publicly state that the allegations, if proven true, merited impeachment.
In June 2018, the Huffington Post asked House Republicans, "If the president pardoned himself, would they support impeachment?" Amash was the only Republican who said "definitively he would support impeachment". In July 2018, Amash strongly criticized Trump's conduct at a meeting in Helsinki with Russian president Vladimir Putin, writing: "The impression it left on me, a strong supporter of the meeting, is that 'something is not right here.' The president went out of his way to appear subordinate. He spoke more like the head of a vassal state."
When Trump's former attorney Michael Cohen testified before the House Oversight Committee on February 27, 2019, Amash asked him, "What is the truth President Trump is most afraid of people knowing?" Democrat Krystal Ball wrote, "Amash showed how someone actually can exercise oversight responsibility and try to get to the truth, even if the truth might not be in his party's short-term best interest." CNN editor Chris Cillizza wrote, "The Michigan Republican did something on Wednesday that almost none of his GOP colleagues seemed willing to even try: Ask Cohen questions about his relationship with Trump that might actually shed some new light on not only their relationship but on the President of the United States."
Comments on the Mueller Report
In May 2019, Amash said that Trump "has engaged in impeachable conduct" based on the obstruction of justice findings of the Mueller Report, which, Amash said, "few members of Congress have read". Amash also said that Attorney General William Barr "deliberately misrepresented" the report's findings and that partisanship was making it difficult to maintain checks and balances in the American political system. Amash was the first Republican member of Congress to call for Trump's impeachment. In response, Trump called Amash a "loser", accused him of "getting his name out there through controversy", and stated that the Mueller report had concluded that there was no obstruction of justice. Ronna McDaniel, chairwoman of the Republican National Committee, accused Amash of "parroting the Democrats' talking points on Russia." She did not explicitly express support for a primary challenge against Amash, but tweeted, "voters in Amash's district strongly support this president." House Minority Leader Kevin McCarthy, a Republican, claimed that Amash "votes more with Nancy Pelosi than he ever does with me"; PolitiFact evaluated this as false. Republican Senator Mitt Romney described Amash's statement as "courageous", though he disagreed with Amash's conclusions. The New York Times reported that while many Republicans supported Trump in public, they criticized his actions in private. Shortly after making his remarks on impeachment, Amash received a standing ovation from the majority of attendees at a town hall meeting in his district. He told the crowd that Trump was setting a bad example for the nation's children.
Two days after Amash's comments, state representative James Lower announced that he will challenge Amash in the 2020 Republican primary, running as a self-described "pro-Trump conservative." Another challenger in the Republican primary is Army National Guard member Thomas Norton, who announced his candidacy in April. Three other Republicans are also seeking the nomination to oppose Amash.
Republican Party departure
On July 4, 2019, Amash announced in a Washington Post op-ed that he was "declaring his independence" from partisan politics and leaving the Republican Party to become an independent. Citing his extensive differences with both political parties, Amash wrote he felt partisan politics had become so overpowering that Congress no longer functioned as an independent legislative body: "We are fast approaching the point where Congress exists as little more than a formality to legitimize outcomes dictated by the president, the speaker of the House and the Senate majority leader." Amash thus became the only independent in the House of Representatives, and the first independent in the House since Bernie Sanders of Vermont (who left the House in 2007 after being elected to the Senate); and one of three independents in the United States Congress, along with Sanders and Senator Angus King of Maine.
On October 31, 2019, Amash was the only non-Democrat in the House to vote in favor of an impeachment inquiry against Trump in connection with the Trump-Ukraine scandal. On December 18, 2019, he voted in favor of both articles of impeachment against Trump, the only non-Democrat to vote in favor of either article. When Mitt Romney was the only Republican senator who voted to convict Trump in his Senate trial, Amash tweeted, "Thank you, @SenatorRomney, for upholding your oath to support and defend the Constitution. You will never regret putting your faith in God and doing right according to the law and your conscience."
2020 presidential exploratory committee
On April 28, 2020, Amash announced the formation of an exploratory committee to seek the Libertarian presidential nomination. On May 16, he withdrew his name from consideration for the Libertarian nomination, citing economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic that would make campaigning difficult, in addition to increased political polarization.
- None (July 8, 2019–present) (116th)
- Committee on Oversight and Government Reform (January 3, 2019–July 8, 2019) (116th)
- Subcommittee on Civil Rights and Civil Liberties (116th)
- Subcommittee on National Security (116th)
- Committee on Oversight and Government Reform (115th)
- Committee on Oversight and Government Reform (114th)
- Joint Economic Committee (114th)
- Committee on Oversight and Government Reform (113th)
- Joint Economic Committee (113th)
- Committee on Oversight and Government Reform (112th)
- Joint Economic Committee (112th)
- Committee on the Budget (112th)
- Freedom Caucus (Founding member); resigned from the caucus June 10, 2019.
- Liberty Caucus (Founder and Chairman)
- Second Amendment Caucus (Founding member)
- List of Arab and Middle-Eastern Americans in the United States Congress
- List of American politicians who switched parties in office
- List of United States Representatives who switched parties
- "Office of the Clerk of the US House of Representatives, Member Information". house.gov. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
- Bowden, John (July 16, 2020). "Amash confirms he won't seek reelection". The Hill. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
- Burke, Melissa Nann (July 16, 2020). "Amash not campaigning for re-election to his seat in Congress". The Detroit News. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
- "Justin Amash". govtrack.us. Archived from the original on January 28, 2018. Retrieved January 12, 2018.
- "Mich. lawmaker is guided by Constitution". Detroit Free Press. April 15, 2011. p. 5. Archived from the original on February 28, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- Welch, Matt (September 16, 2019). "Will Justin Amash Run for President as a Libertarian in 2020?". Reason. Archived from the original on October 25, 2019. Retrieved October 25, 2019.
- Villa, Lissandra (October 10, 2019). "In Donald Trump's America, Rep. Justin Amash Sets an Independent Course". Time. Retrieved October 25, 2019.
- McVicar, Brian (April 29, 2020). "Meet Justin Amash: Michigan congressman exploring presidential bid as Libertarian". MLive.com. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
- Kampeas, Ron (October 13, 2010). "Political Points: Hannity told me not to come". JTA.org. Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Archived from the original on October 17, 2010. Retrieved November 15, 2010.
- Mak, Tim. "Justin Amash casts himself in Ron Paul's mold". Politico. Archived from the original on April 1, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- Murphy, Tim (November–December 2013). "Will GOP Rebel Justin Amash Bring Down the NSA–and His Own Party?". Mother Jones.
- Harger, Jim (October 24, 2010). "Profile: 3rd Congressional district candidate Justin Amash". The Grand Rapids Press. Archived from the original on February 28, 2020. Retrieved May 21, 2019 – via MLive.com.
- McVicar, Brian (April 29, 2020). "Meet Justin Amash: Michigan congressman exploring presidential bid as Libertarian". MLive. Advance Publications. Retrieved July 19, 2020.
- "Fotten Amash". The Grand Rapids Press. MLive. Retrieved July 19, 2020.
- "Justin Amash Got A Big Raise From His Dad Just Before Loaning His Campaign Money". Huffington Post. July 2, 2014. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
- Newlin, Eliza. "Rep. Justin Amash (R-MI, 3rd District)". National Journal. Retrieved March 2, 2012.
- Amash, Justin. "Justin Amash Full Biography". amash.house.gov. House of Representatives. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- Gunn, Steve (November 4, 2018). "GOP congressman Amash is challenged by Democrat Albro". Ionia Sentinel-Standard. Gannett Co., Inc. Retrieved April 30, 2020 – via sentinel-standard.com.
- "Justin Amash sponsored legislation 2009–2010". Legislature.mi.gov.
- "U.S. House Seats". Detroit Free Press. October 15, 2010. p. 14. Archived from the original on February 28, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Transparency shouldn't be so remarkable". The Times Herald. March 1, 2000. p. 17. Archived from the original on February 28, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- "3rd Congressional District's Vern Ehlers won't seek re-election". The Herald-Palladium. February 11, 2010. p. A1. Archived from the original on February 28, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- "FreedomWorks PAC Endorses Justin Amash, Candidate in Michigan's Third Congressional District". Business Wire. July 29, 2010. Retrieved March 12, 2012.
- Connolly, Michael. "Club for Growth PAC Endorses Justin Amash in Michigan-03". Archived from the original on March 8, 2014. Retrieved March 12, 2012.
- "Ron Paul Endorses Justin Amash for Congress". eon.businesswire.com. June 21, 2010. Archived from the original on October 17, 2010.
- "GOP hopeful snags DeVos support in U.S. House race". Detroit Free Press. February 13, 2010. p. 11. Archived from the original on February 28, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- "40 under 40 – Rising Stars of U.S. Politics – Justin Amash". Time Magazine. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
- "GOP House rep from Michigan is booted oof budget panel". Detroit Free Press. December 4, 2012. p. A6. Archived from the original on February 29, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- Wing, Nick, "Tim Huelskamp: John Boehner Guilty Of 'Petty, Vindictive Politics' In Committee Ousters", The Huffington Post, December 12, 2012.
- Weiner, Rachel (December 5, 2012). "Conservatives bite back over House GOP purge". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 2, 2013.
- Wallace, Gregory (December 8, 2012). "Booted from plum committee seats, three GOP reps want answers". Political Ticker (blog). CNN. Retrieved December 8, 2012.
- Allen, Jonathan (December 13, 2012). "The a—hole factor". Politico. Archived from the original on January 1, 2015. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
- "'Obstinate' Factor Continues to Roil GOP". Roll Call. December 12, 2012. Retrieved April 30, 2014.
- Alberta, Tim (September 17, 2013). "Justin Amash Will Not Run for Senate in Michigan". National Journal. Archived from the original on November 1, 2013. Retrieved January 16, 2014.
- Doherty, Brian (October 12, 2013). "Justin Amash Targeted by Michigan GOP Business Establishment for Lacking Party Discipline". Reason. Archived from the original on January 24, 2014. Retrieved January 16, 2014.
- "Are interesting Republicans electable?". The Akron Beacon Journal. April 21, 2014. p. A011. Archived from the original on February 29, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Justin Amash (MI-03) profile". PAC Candidates. Club for Growth PAC. Archived from the original on February 8, 2014. Retrieved January 16, 2014.
- Livingston, Abby (July 31, 2014). "Club For Growth Back on TV for Justin Amash". Roll Call. Archived from the original on August 3, 2014. Retrieved August 4, 2014.
- "Congressional Races – Michigan District 03 Race – Summary Data". Open Secrets. The Center for Responsive Politics. Retrieved August 8, 2014.
- Blake, Aaron (August 6, 2014). "Justin Amash's absolutely amazing victory speech". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on July 24, 2015. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
- Friedersdorf, Conor (August 6, 2014). "Why Justin Amash's Primary Victory Matters" (online staff comment). The Atlantic. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
Representative Justin Amash, a Michigan Republican, is one of the most important civil libertarians in the House of Representatives. He isn't just a staunch opponent of the NSA's mass surveillance of Americans – he actually has a sophisticated understanding of surveillance policy (unlike the vast majority of his congressional colleagues) as well as a record of bringing forth actual reform proposals./Amash voted against the reauthorization of the Patriot Act, favored a measure to repeal indefinite detention, and opposed reauthorization of the FISA Amendments Act. Little wonder that an ACLU staffer told Mother Jones that he's 'a game changer.'
- "2014 Michigan Election results". Michigan Department of State. Retrieved April 1, 2017.
- Zezima, Katie (May 4, 2015). "Justin Amash endorses Rand Paul for president". The Washington Post.
- Jim Harger (September 19, 2011). "U.S. Rep. Justin Amash endorses Ron Paul's bid for the GOP presidential nomination". MLive.
- Jesser Byrnes (February 23, 2016). "Rep. Amash endorses Cruz". The Hill. Archived from the original on December 14, 2016. Retrieved January 1, 2017.
- Zanona, Melanie; Bresnahan, John. "Justin Amash resigns from House committee after dumping GOP". Politico. Retrieved November 7, 2019.
- "Free For Coffee? These Lawmakers Have No Committee Seats". Bloomberg Government. Retrieved November 7, 2019.
- Welch, Matt (April 29, 2020). "Justin Amash Becomes the First Libertarian Member of Congress". reason.com. Retrieved April 29, 2020.
- Byrd, Haley (April 29, 2020). "Justin Amash announces presidential exploratory committee". CNN. Retrieved April 29, 2020.
- Weigel, David (May 17, 2020). "Rep. Justin Amash says he won't run for president". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 17, 2020.
- Marans, Daniel; Fuller, Matt (January 11, 2018). "House Reauthorizes Controversial Surveillance Law". Huffington Post.
- Welch, Matt; McDaniel, Mark (July 28, 2017). "Rep. Justin Amash: The Two-Party System Needs to Die". Reason.com.
- Glasser, Susan B. "The End of the Libertarian Dream?". Politico Magazine. No. March/April 2017. Archived from the original on January 12, 2018. Retrieved January 12, 2018.
- Andrew Desiderio (May 18, 2019). "Michigan GOP congressman says Trump's conduct impeachable". Politico.
- Shabad, Rebecca (May 20, 2019). "Amash's impeachment call comes with a political price. How high?". NBC News.
Amash, 39, who identifies as a libertarian Republican, is considered among the most conservative members of the House. ... Conservative groups like the Club for Growth, Heritage Action for America and Americans for Prosperity have awarded him lifetime ratings of more than 85 percent.
- Phillips, Amber (May 20, 2019). "Why Justin Amash's impeachment comments probably won't change Nancy Pelosi's mind". The Washington Post.
Amash is one of the most conservative lawmakers in Congress, which gives him street cred when he calls for impeaching a Republican president. But Amash is also a different strain of conservative; he leans libertarian.
- McMillin, Zane (July 8, 2013). "Rep. Justin Amash 'most liberal Republican,' GOP strategist Karl Rove says". MLive Media Group. Archived from the original on February 28, 2020. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
- Bialik, Carl; Bycoffe, Aaron (September 25, 2015). "The Hard-Line Republicans Who Pushed John Boehner Out". FiveThirtyEight. Archived from the original on June 4, 2019. Retrieved September 28, 2015.
- Andrews, Wilson; Bloch, Matthew; Park, Haeyoun (March 24, 2017). "Who Stopped the Republican Health Bill?". New York Times. Archived from the original on July 5, 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
15 were hard-line conservatives who wanted a complete repeal of the Affordable Care Act. They are all members of the House Freedom Caucus, who are among the most conservative members of the House ... Justin Amash, MI-3
- Byrd, Haley; Sullivan, Kate (June 11, 2019). "Justin Amash leaves the conservative Freedom Caucus". CNN.
- Amash, Justin (July 4, 2019). "Justin Amash: Our politics is in a partisan death spiral. That's why I'm leaving the GOP". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on July 4, 2019. Retrieved July 4, 2019.
- Welch, Matt (April 29, 2020). "Justin Amash Becomes the First Libertarian Member of Congress". Reason.com. Retrieved April 30, 2020.
- Mak, Tim (December 8, 2011). "Amash casts himself in Paul's mold". Politico. Archived from the original on June 26, 2019.
With an unconventional approach to politics, Amash has chosen personal preferences over fealty to the Capitol Hill 'community' – alienating and isolating him from House leadership, his state's delegation and special interest groups ... As a congressman and earlier as a state representative, he made a name for himself as a contrarian who bucks party leadership based on inviolable personal beliefs.
- Thrush, Glenn (May 20, 2019). "Impeachment Appeal Pushes Justin Amash From G.O.P. Gadfly to Insurgent". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 22, 2019.
Amash ... has made a political career of going it alone. ... a libertarian with a contrarian streak.
- "Time Magazine names Justin Amash one of its 40 Rising Stars". Time. October 14, 2010. Archived from the original on May 21, 2019. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
- Weigel, David (July 31, 2018). "The new 'Dr. No': Rep. Justin Amash, marooned in Congress". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 5, 2018.
- Steinhauer, Jennifer (April 14, 2011). "Justin Amash, Republican Freshman, Bucks His Party". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 28, 2017. Retrieved February 27, 2017.
- "Justin Amash on the Issues". Ontheissues.org. Archived from the original on December 9, 2012. Retrieved May 27, 2016.
- Contorno, Steve (July 7, 2014). "Justin Amash says pro-life group rates him the top Michigan conservative". Politifact. Archived from the original on July 9, 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
- "House Vote 549 – Bans Most Abortions After 20 Weeks of Pregnancy". ProPublica. October 3, 2017. Archived from the original on May 26, 2019. Retrieved May 23, 2019.
- Jesse Walker, Justin Amash: A Politician with Presence Archived August 4, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, Reason (May 24, 2011).
- Kiely, Eugene (March 14, 2014). "Misleading Abortion Attack in Michigan". FactCheck.org. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- "Final Vote Results For Roll Call 299". House.gov. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
- Jenna Portnoy (June 26, 2020). "D.C. statehood approved by U.S. House for first time in history". Washington Post. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
- "Justin Amash Co-Sponsors Bill With the 'Squad' Prohibiting Federal Executions". July 28, 2019. Archived from the original on February 29, 2020. Retrieved February 29, 2020.
- "Amash votes against anti-lynching bill". February 28, 2020. Archived from the original on February 29, 2020. Retrieved February 29, 2020.
- "Why Libertarian-Leaning Reps. Massie and Amash Voted Against the House's Anti-Lynching Bill". February 27, 2020. Archived from the original on February 29, 2020. Retrieved February 29, 2020.
- "How They Voted". Battle Creek Enquirer. March 21, 2010. p. 11. Archived from the original on February 28, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Stop Civil Asset Forfeiture Funding for Marijuana Suppression Act of 2015" (PDF). house.gov. September 16, 2015. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
- Krietz, Andrew (September 16, 2015). "Rep. Justin Amash co-sponsors pot civil asset forfeiture reform". mlive.com. Archived from the original on December 20, 2019. Retrieved December 20, 2019.
- Steven Nelson (September 23, 2015). "Congressmen Want to Save Pot Plants From DEA Sickle". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on March 23, 2016. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
- "Text – H.R.1227 – 115th Congress (2017–2018): Ending Federal Marijuana Prohibition Act of 2017". Congress.gov. March 16, 2017. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
Bonnie Kristian (June 5, 2020). "How the Supreme Court could change policing in an instant". The Week. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
Though the text of the bill has yet to be released as of this writing, so the exact provisions remain unknown, Rep. Justin Amash (L-Mich.) is partnering with Rep. Ayanna Pressley (D-Mass.) to introduce the 'End Qualified Immunity Act.' 'Qualified immunity was created by the Supreme Court in contravention of the text of the [Civil Rights Act of 1871] and the intent of Congress,' Amash argued in a letter urging colleagues to support his bill. 'It is time for us to correct their mistake [ ... and] ensure that those whose rights are violated by the police aren't forced to suffer the added injustice of being denied their day in court.'
Nick Sibilla (June 11, 2020). "Court Rejects Qualified Immunity For Cops Who Shot A "Motionless" Black Man 22 Times". Forbes magazine. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
That proposal comes on the heels of the End Qualified Immunity Act, sponsored by Reps. Justin Amash (L-MI) and Ayanna Pressley (D-MA), which would end qualified immunity for all local and state government officials, not just police officers and prison guards.
- "H.J. Res. 81 – 112th Congress (2011–2012): Proposing a balanced budget amendment to the Constitution of the United States". congress.gov. October 24, 2011. Archived from the original on February 26, 2014. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
- "H.J. Res. 2 – 112th Congress (2011–2012): Proposing a balanced budget amendment to the Constitution of the United States". Congress.gov. January 5, 2011. Archived from the original on October 5, 2019. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
- "Balanced-budget amendment comes up short in House vote". The Hill. November 19, 2011. Archived from the original on October 30, 2017. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
- "Climate change dominates U.S. Rep. Justin Amash's 8th town hall". MLive.com. April 13, 2017. Archived from the original on June 14, 2019.
- "H.R.910 – 112th Congress (2011–2012): Energy Tax Prevention Act of 2011". JustCongress.gov. Archived from the original on December 19, 2016. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
- Waldman, Scott (April 17, 2017). "Climate change dogging Republicans at town halls". E&E News. Archived from the original on April 26, 2017.
- Gillespie, Nick (May 1, 2020). "Justin Amash Wants To Be the First Libertarian President". Reason. Retrieved May 1, 2020.
- Haley Byrd, Where Justin Amash stands on key issues, CNN (May 10, 2020).
- Bowman, Jennifer (June 2, 2017). "Justin Amash says the U.S. wasn't 'validly' in Paris climate agreement". Battle Creek Enquirer.
- "Tracking Congress In The Age Of Trump: Amash". fivethirtyeight.com. April 30, 2020. Archived from the original on April 30, 2020.
- "Justin Amash stood alone opposing Flint water federal aid bid". MLive.com. Advance Local Media. April 3, 2019. Archived from the original on April 30, 2020. Retrieved April 30, 2020.
- Oosting, Jonathan (October 3, 2018). "Amash: Partisan redistricting an 'ugly' process". The Detroit News. Archived from the original on October 24, 2018. Retrieved October 30, 2018.
- Oosting, Jonathan (February 4, 2019). "Supreme Court rejects GOP delay bid in gerrymandering lawsuit". The Detroit News. Archived from the original on February 4, 2019. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- "How the House voted to pass the GOP health-care bill". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 4, 2017. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
- Amash, Justin (March 31, 2017). "Didn't vote for #Swampcare because it's just another version of #Obamacare ..." Twitter. Archived from the original on November 5, 2018. Retrieved May 4, 2017. Accessible if registered.
- Kamisar, Ben, "Freedom Caucus member fires back: The swamp drained Trump" Archived April 26, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, The Hill, March 30, 2017; retrieved May 9, 2017.
- Shelbourne, Mallory (March 8, 2017). "Amash: GOP wants to 'ram' ObamaCare plan through Congress". The Hill. Archived from the original on March 11, 2017. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
- Kliff, Sarah. "Congress is voting Thursday on a bill to replace Obamacare. The CBO still hasn't scored it". Vox. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
- "Who Broke Congress? (with Rep. Justin Amash)". libertarianism.org. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
- "Who Broke Congress? (with Rep. Justin Amash)". libertarianism.org. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
- "Who Broke Congress? (with Rep. Justin Amash)". libertarianism.org. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
- "Mich. Rep defends vote against 'In God We Trust'". Lansing State Journal. November 3, 2011. p. 1. Archived from the original on February 28, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Paying for Acts of God - FEMA Funds for Houses of Worship". libertymagazine.org. Retrieved April 30, 2020.
- Bendery, Jennifer (March 29, 2013). "Justin Amash Backs DOMA Repeal On Twitter". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on April 11, 2018. Retrieved February 18, 2020.
- Steigerwald, Lucy (July 29, 2019). "Justin Amash and the Libertarian Future". The New Republic. Retrieved April 30, 2020.
- Jones, J (July 1, 2015). "The Supreme Court's Gay Marriage Decision was Completely Avoidable". theadvocates.org. Advocates for Self-Government. Retrieved April 30, 2020.
- Salles, Alice (July 7, 2015). "Marriage Equality Means an End to Licensing". Panam Post. Retrieved April 30, 2020 – via panampost.com.
- Fung, Brian (July 25, 2013). "Justin Amash almost beat the NSA. Next time, he might do it". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
- "How a Palestinian-American won a GOP primary". aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on August 21, 2014. Retrieved March 2, 2015.
- "S. 990 (112th): PATRIOT Sunsets Extension Act of 2011 – House Vote #376". May 26, 2011. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
- "H.R. 5949 (112th): FISA Amendments Act Reauthorization Act of 2012 – House Vote #569". September 12, 2012. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
- "Final Vote Results for Roll Call 224" (XML). Clerk.house.gov. Archived from the original on February 11, 2017. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
- "Brief of Amici Curiae U.S. Representatives Amash, et al" (PDF). June 28, 2013. p. 2.
- "I Am No Traitor, Leaker Says". National Post. June 13, 2013. p. 11. Archived from the original on February 29, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- "US House defence bill blocks Obama's plan to close Guantánamo Bay prison". The Guardian. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
- "Final Vote Results for Roll Call 237". House.gov. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
- Hennessey, Susan (June 13, 2013). "Rep. Smith's proposed NDAA amendments on Guantanamo and Indefinite Detention". LawFare. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
- Douglas, Anna. "Sanford breaks Republican ranks, votes to close Guantánamo prison". McClatchy DC. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
- Blake, Aaron (January 31, 2017). "Whip Count: Here's where Republicans stand on Trump's controversial travel ban". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on February 11, 2017. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
- "Amendment in the Nature of a Substitute to Rules Committee Print 115-53 Offered by Mr. Amash of Michigan" (PDF). house.gov. US House of Representatives. Retrieved April 30, 2020.
- Savage, Charlie (January 10, 2018). "Surveillance and Privacy Debate Reaches Pivotal Moment in Congress". The New York Times. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
- "House rejects Amash measure on warrantless surveillance". Detroit News. January 11, 2018. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
- "House votes to renew a surveillance law that collects Americans' emails". USA Today. January 11, 2018. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
- "Final Vote Results for Roll Call 14". clerk.house.gov. US House of Representatives. January 11, 2018. Retrieved September 16, 2019.
- Burr, Thomas (July 24, 2018). "House passes Rep. Stewart's bill to create a national suicide prevention hotline". The Salt Lake Tribune. Archived from the original on July 24, 2018. Retrieved July 25, 2018.
- "Here's Why Rep. Justin Amash Was the Lone Vote Against a Suicide Prevention Bill". Reason.com. July 24, 2018. Retrieved January 4, 2020.
- Wilson, Megan R. "GOP divided over care for transgender troops". The Hill. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
- Debonis, Mike. "House rejects controversial transgender, climate-change amendments to defense bill". Washington Post. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
- Johnson, Chris. "House votes to rebuke Trump's trans military ban". Washington Blade. Retrieved March 28, 2019.
- Ennis, Dawn (May 1, 2020). "As President, Justin Amash Says 'I Would Protect Transgender Americans'". Forbes. Retrieved May 1, 2020.
- "Justin Amash Wants To Be the First Libertarian President". Reason. May 1, 2020.
- Aupperlee, Aaron (January 17, 2019). "U.S. Rep. Justin Amash reveals 3-legged stool of immigration reform in letter supporting Sen. Rand Paul". Michigan Live. Retrieved January 20, 2019.
- "Rep. Justin Amash (R-MI) is One of 28 House Republicans to Support Immigration Reform, Citizenship". America's Voice. Retrieved October 22, 2013.
- "Justin Amash discusses Immigration Reform". CSPAN. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
- Gibbons, Lauren (July 26, 2019). "Why U.S. Rep. Justin Amash voted against Kate's Law and sanctuary city penalties". Michigan Live. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
- Marcos, Cristina (June 29, 2017). "House passes 'Kate's Law' and bill targeting sanctuary cities". The Hill. Retrieved July 29, 2017.
- "Michigan Republican Congressman Votes No On Supporting ICE". WBCKFM.com. Retrieved August 5, 2018.
- "The 8 House Republicans who voted against Trump's border wall". The Hill. December 21, 2018. Retrieved February 9, 2019.
- Brufke, Julie Grace (February 22, 2019). "House conservative co-sponsors bill to block Trump's emergency declaration". The Hill. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- Lee, Jasmine C.; Migliozzi, Blacki (February 26, 2019). "Who Voted to Block Trump's National Emergency Declaration". The New York Times. Retrieved March 1, 2019.
- Peterson, Kristina; Barnes, Julian E. (January 29, 2015). "GOP Split Over Expected Obama Request for More Defense Outlays". Wall Street Journal.
- "House vote 8". The Santa Fe New Mexican. July 11, 2011. p. A010. Archived from the original on February 28, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- Friedersdorf, Conor (August 29, 2013). "President Obama Faces Mounting Pressure to Stay Out of Syria" (online article). The Atlantic. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
President Obama faces increasing pressure from lawmakers, foreign-policy experts, constitutional scholars, and anti-war activists to refrain from striking Syria. Opponents of war worry that an insular group of hawkish Washington, D.C., elites will succeed in prompting an intervention the consequences of which they cannot anticipate, despite widespread public opposition to U.S. involvement. The concerns of Syria anti-interventionists vary, but all agree that the president should not unilaterally decide to attack tyrant Bashar al-Assad's regime, even granting that recent chemical weapons attacks on civilians were atrocious.
- "The U.S. Congress Votes Database: Vote 524, H RES [House Resolution] 268". The Washington Post. July 7, 2011. Archived from the original (online database entry) on July 22, 2015. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
- Klapper, Bradley (August 1, 2011). "Senate Approves Additional Iron Dome Funding For Israel" (online article). The Huffington Post. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
- "House Vote No. 291 In 2012". govtrack.us. Retrieved July 16, 2012.
- Sullum, Jacob (November 29, 2011). "Is the President's Indefinite Detention Power Limited to Foreigners?". Reason.com. Retrieved August 25, 2019.
- "How Smith-Amash NDAA Amendment Bans Indefinite Detention (Fact Sheet)". Human Rights First. November 5, 2012. Archived from the original on December 2, 2012. Retrieved November 20, 2012.
- Shaw, Adam; Pergram, Chad (March 16, 2016). "House declares ISIS committing genocide against Christians, other minorities". Fox News. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
- Carden, James (April 5, 2017). "America's Support for Saudi Arabia's War on Yemen Must End". The Nation.
- "Final Vote Results for Roll Call 413". Office of the Clerk of the House. U.S. House of Representatives. July 25, 2017.
- "Meet the 5 Lawmakers Who Voted Against the Russia Sanctions Bill". IVN.us. August 3, 2017. Archived from the original on August 6, 2017. Retrieved August 5, 2017.
- Amash, Justin (January 23, 2019). "Yesterday, the House voted on an extreme, misguided measure regarding NATO. This bill doesn't simply instruct @POTUS he can't withdraw without congressional approval; rather, it includes a blanket rejection of *any* proposal *ever* to Congress to alter this alliance. I voted no".
- Amash, Justin (January 23, 2019). "I didn't say it binds Congress into perpetuity; I said it contains a *current* statement of policy that "reject[s] any efforts" to substantially change this alliance anytime. I support NATO (see http://clerk.house.gov/evs/2017/roll328.xml …), but this bill includes reckless policy I can't support". External link in
- Everett, Burgess (April 3, 2019). "Rand Paul, Ocasio-Cortez praise Trump for Syria withdrawal". Politico. Archived from the original on April 3, 2019. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
- Bolton, Alexander (April 3, 2019). "Rand Paul teams up with Ocasio-Cortez, Omar to press Trump on Syria withdrawal". The Hill. Archived from the original on April 3, 2019. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
- Amash, Justin (October 13, 2019). "President Trump long ago could (and should) have withdrawn from Syria and worked to keep out Turkey. Instead, he pulled back a few troops (no withdrawal) and green lighted Turkey's attack. His sudden concern about endless wars is just cover for his having facilitated a disaster".
- Amash, Justin (October 7, 2019). "1. We shouldn't have any U.S. forces in Syria without congressional approval. 2. We shouldn't tell Turkey it's okay to invade Syria. President Trump is keeping troops in Syria; just moving some. And despite Trump's Twitter warnings, Turkey would not invade without his go-ahead".
- Amash, Justin (October 7, 2019). "U.S. forces should not even be in Syria without congressional approval. Regardless, Turkey would not take this action without the express consent of the White House. It's disingenuous for President Trump to suggest it's all about "ISIS fighters" when the target is Kurdish forces".
- Kennedy, Merrit (January 30, 2020). "House Votes 'No War Against Iran,' In Rebuke To Trump". NPR. Retrieved January 30, 2020.
- "Final Vote Results for Roll Call Vote- 33". House.gov. Retrieved May 2, 2020.
- "Final Vote Results for Roll Call vote- 34". House.gov. Retrieved May 2, 2020.
- Britzky, Haley; Barr, Luke; Dunn, Andrew (April 29, 2016). "Republicans who vow to never back Trump". The Hill. Archived from the original on May 5, 2016. Retrieved May 5, 2016.
- Andrews, Natalie (February 20, 2017). "Justin Amash Emerges as Leading Critic of Fellow Republican Donald Trump". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 21, 2017.
- Watson, Kathryn. "Trump aide calls for primary challenge against Freedom Caucus member". CBS News. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
- Fuller, Matt (December 27, 2016). "The One House Republican Who Can't Stop Criticizing Donald Trump". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on March 12, 2018. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
- Gibbons, Lauren (January 16, 2017). "Michigan Congressman Justin Amash to Donald Trump: 'Dude, just stop'". MLive.com. Grand Rapids, Michigan: MLive Media Group. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
- Center, Patrick (January 19, 2017). "U.S. Rep. Amash's Twitter advice to President-elect Trump: 'Dude, just stop!'". wgvunews.org. Retrieved May 31, 2019.
- "White House aide calls for primary challenge against Rep. Amash". WXMI. April 1, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
- Smilowitz, Elliot (May 17, 2017). "First Republican raises impeachment for Trump". The Hill.
- Seitz-Wald, Alex (May 31, 2017). "Republican Carlos Curbelo Wants You to Know He Called for Impeachment First". NBC News.
- Vicens, A. J. (May 17, 2017). "Two GOP Congressmen Suggest Trump May Have Committed Impeachable Offense". Mother Jones. Archived from the original on January 28, 2018. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
- Reilly, Ryan; Delaney, Arthur; Fuller, Matt (June 7, 2018). "What Will House Republicans Do If Trump Pardons Himself? We Asked Them". Huffington Post. Retrieved June 9, 2018.
- "GOP lawmaker: Trump 'went out of his way to appear subordinate' at Putin press conference". The Hill. July 19, 2018. Retrieved July 19, 2018.
- "Justin Amash is the unlikely GOP hero of Cohen hearing". The Hill. February 28, 2019. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
- "The winners and losers of Michael Cohen's House hearing". CNN. February 28, 2019. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
- Watkins, Eli (May 18, 2019). "GOP congressman: Trump 'has engaged in impeachable conduct'". CNN. Archived from the original on May 19, 2019. Retrieved May 18, 2019.
- Clark, Bill (May 18, 2019). "GOP Rep. Justin Amash says Trump committed 'impeachable conduct'". NBC News. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
- "Trump has 'engaged in impeachable conduct': GOP lawmaker". ABC News. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
- "First Republican lawmaker says Trump engaged in impeachable conduct". Reuters.com. May 19, 2019. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
- "McCarthy falsely says Amash votes more with Pelosi than him". PolitiFact.com. Retrieved June 5, 2019.
- Beavers, David. "Romney: GOP congressman's call for impeachment 'a courageous statement'". Politico. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
- Thrush, Glenn (May 18, 2019). "Breaking With Party, G.O.P. Lawmaker Says Trump's Conduct Reaches 'Threshold of Impeachment'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on May 20, 2019. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
- Friedersdorf, Conor (May 29, 2019). "Justin Amash and the Moral Minority". The Atlantic.
- Burke, Melissa Nann (May 20, 2019). "Amash gets primary challenger after Trump impeachment tweets". Detroit News. Archived from the original on June 20, 2019. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
- Mcvicar, Brian (May 23, 2019). "Former village president, National Guard member challenging Justin Amash". mlive.com. Archived from the original on June 8, 2019. Retrieved June 16, 2019.
- Gamble, Audra (August 6, 2019). "District Three candidate uses slur in press release". Ionia Sentinel-Standard. Ionia, Michigan. Archived from the original on August 7, 2019. Retrieved September 17, 2019.
Norton is one of five Republicans running in a primary to unseat Rep. Justin Amash, I-Cascade, who left the Republican party in July.
- Paxson, Heidi (July 4, 2019). "Rep. Justin Amash declares his independence from the Republican Party". NBC 25 News. Archived from the original on July 4, 2019. Retrieved July 4, 2019.
- Burman, Max (July 4, 2019). "Rep. Justin Amash announces he's leaving Republican Party". NBC News. Archived from the original on July 4, 2019. Retrieved July 4, 2019.
- Cassata, Donna (July 4, 2019). "Rep. Justin Amash, lone GOP critic of Trump, leaves Republican Party". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 5, 2019.
The only other independents in Congress, Sens. Bernie Sanders (Vt.) and Angus King (Maine), caucus with Democrats in the Senate.
- Justin Wise, Oct. 31, 2019, Amash rips GOP for 'excusing' Trump 'misbehavior' before backing impeachment resolution, The Hill
- Catie Edmondson, Oct. 31, 2019, Meet the Democrats Who Broke Ranks on Impeachment, The New York Times,  Archived November 1, 2019, at the Wayback Machine
- Berman, Russell (October 31, 2019). "Trump's First Impeachment Win". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on November 1, 2019. Retrieved November 2, 2019.
- Haberkorn, Jennifer; Wire, Sarah D.; Megerian, Chris; O'Toole, Molly (December 18, 2019). "U.S. House impeaches President Trump". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on December 18, 2019. Retrieved December 18, 2019.
- Rachael Bade, Freshman Democrats push for Amash as impeachment manager, Washington Post (December 15, 2019).
- Coleman, Ken (February 5, 2020). "Michigan-born Romney, Amash buck conventional politics and punish Trump". Michigan Advance. Archived from the original on March 17, 2020. Retrieved February 10, 2020.
- "Exploratory Committee". April 28, 2020.
- Weigel, David (May 16, 2020). "Rep. Justin Amash says he won't run for president". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 16, 2020.
- Burns, Alexander (May 16, 2020). "Justin Amash Abandons 2020 Campaign, Citing Pandemic and Polarization". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 16, 2020.
- "MI State House 072 R 2008". July 29, 2010. Archived from the original on February 28, 2020. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
- "MI State House 072 2008". January 5, 2018.
- "MI District 3 – R Primary 2010". April 3, 2019.
- "MI – District 03 2010". November 19, 2010.
- "MI – District 03 2012". November 26, 2012.
- "MI District 03 – R Primary 2014". August 27, 2014. Archived from the original on July 24, 2019. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
- "MI – District 03 2014". January 4, 2015. Archived from the original on March 18, 2016. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
- "MI – District 03 2016". November 28, 2016. Archived from the original on July 26, 2017. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
- "MI – District 03 2018". July 4, 2019.
- Byrd, Haley; Sullivan, Kate (June 10, 2019). "Justin Amash leaves the conservative Freedom Caucus". CNN. Retrieved July 4, 2019.
- "Committees and Caucuses". U.S. Representative Justin Amash. December 13, 2012. Archived from the original on July 3, 2017. Retrieved June 20, 2017.
- "Rep. Justin Amash among founders of pro-gun 'Second Amendment Caucus'". mLive. December 20, 2016. Archived from the original on October 7, 2017. Retrieved December 27, 2016.
- Congressman Justin Amash official U.S. House website
- Presidential Campaign Website
- Campaign website
- Justin Amash at Curlie
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Profile at Vote Smart
- Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
- Legislation sponsored at the Library of Congress
|Michigan House of Representatives|
| Member of the Michigan House of Representatives
from the 72nd district
|U.S. House of Representatives|
| Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Michigan's 3rd congressional district
|U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial)|
| United States Representatives by seniority