|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives|
from Michigan's 3rd district
|Assumed office |
January 3, 2011
|Preceded by||Vern Ehlers|
|Member of the Michigan House of Representatives|
from the 72nd district
January 1, 2009 – January 1, 2011
|Preceded by||Glenn Steil|
|Succeeded by||Ken Yonker|
|Born||April 18, 1980|
Grand Rapids, Michigan, U.S.
|Education||University of Michigan (BA, JD)|
Justin A. Amash (//; born April 18, 1980) is an American attorney and Republican member of Congress. In January 2011, he began serving as the U.S. Representative for Michigan's 3rd congressional district. The district is based in Grand Rapids and was once represented by President Gerald Ford.
Amash was first elected to the House in the 2010 Congressional election. Previously he was a member of the Michigan House of Representatives representing the 72nd District, which is centered on the city of Kentwood and includes his home in Cascade Township as well as the townships of Caledonia and Gaines. At the age of 30, Amash assumed office as the second youngest sitting U.S. Representative (behind 29-year-old Aaron Schock of Illinois). As of January 2016, Amash is the seventh youngest U.S. Representative. He is Chairman of the House Liberty Caucus and associated with the Tea Party movement. Amash has been described and self-identifies as a libertarian Republican. He was described as a diligent member of Congress and a "stickler for rules" who has "never missed a vote" in Congress. Amash missed his first vote in March 2017, after six years as a U.S. Representative.
- 1 Early life and career
- 2 Michigan House of Representatives
- 3 U.S. House of Representatives
- 4 Political positions
- 4.1 Economic issues
- 4.2 Energy
- 4.3 Flint water crisis
- 4.4 Gerrymandering
- 4.5 Health care
- 4.6 Immigration
- 4.7 Security and surveillance
- 4.8 Social issues
- 4.9 Endorsements
- 4.10 Donald Trump
- 4.11 Marijuana legalization and forfeiture
- 4.12 Foreign affairs
- 5 Committee assignments
- 6 Caucus memberships
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Early life and career
His father, Attallah, is a business owner, whose family immigrated to the United States in 1956 through the sponsorship of a Christian pastor and his family. His mother, Mimi, is a Syrian immigrant to the United States.
Amash attended Kelloggsville Christian School in Kelloggsville and graduated as class valedictorian from Grand Rapids Christian High School. He graduated from the University of Michigan magna cum laude with a B.A. in economics and earned his J.D. at the University of Michigan Law School in 2005. Amash admires economists F. A. Hayek and Frédéric Bastiat.
After graduating from the University of Michigan, he became a consultant to his family's tool business. He worked as a corporate attorney for his family's business for a year, before being elected to the Michigan House of Representatives in 2008.
Michigan House of Representatives
Amash ran for the Michigan House of Representatives in 2008 in Michigan's 72nd House District. During this time, he donated to the campaigns of Congressman Ron Paul and John McCain. In the Republican primary, he won a five candidate election with 41% of the vote, defeating opponent Ken Yonker by 723 votes, a 6.3% margin. The incumbent, Glenn D. Steil, Jr., was barred from running by term limits. In the general election, Amash defeated Democrat Albert Abbasse 61%–36%.
During his initial tenure in the State House, Amash sponsored five resolutions and twelve bills, but none of them passed. While in the State House, Amash began using his Twitter and Facebook pages to report his floor votes and explain his reasoning. Amash was noted for his perfect attendance record, until he missed a vote on March 10, 2017.
U.S. House of Representatives
In its October 25, 2010, issue, Amash was named one of Time magazine's "40 under 40 – Rising Stars of U.S. Politics". At the age of 30, Amash was the youngest federal officeholder in the United States on Time's list.
On August 3, 2010, Amash won the five-way Republican primary for the seat vacated by retiring Republican Vern Ehlers with over 40% of the vote. He was endorsed by the Club for Growth, Ron Paul, and FreedomWorks PAC during his primary campaign.
Amash was endorsed by the fiscally conservative Club for Growth PAC, which spent over $500,000 supporting Amash in his Republican primary against former East Grand Rapids School Trustee Brian Ellis, who was endorsed by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and spent more than $1 million of his own money on the race.
After Amash defeated Ellis in the August primary, with 57.4% of the vote to Ellis' 42.6%, Amash was highly critical of Ellis and former Congressman Pete Hoekstra, who had backed Ellis. Of Hoekstra, Amash said, "You are a disgrace. And I'm glad we could hand you one more loss before you fade into total obscurity and irrelevance." Amash took exception to one of Ellis' television ads that quoted California Republican Congressman Devin Nunes calling Amash "Al Qaeda's best friend in Congress"; he demanded an apology from Ellis for running what he called a "disgusting, despicable smear campaign." As Friedersdorf of The Atlantic notes, "Amash voted against the reauthorization of the Patriot Act, favored a measure to repeal indefinite detention, and opposed reauthorization of the FISA Amendments Act."
In the general election, Amash defeated Democrat Bob Goodrich and Green Party candidate Tonya Duncan with 58% of the vote.
Amash supports free markets with limited government regulation. He advocates for economic freedom and believes that stimulus programs and government bailouts are ineffective ways to energize the economy. He supports adopting a flat tax in lieu of targeted tax breaks and subsidies. Amash opposes central economic planning, which he believes contributes to unemployment, inflation, and unstable business cycles.
He was one of four Republicans who joined 161 Democrats to oppose a Constitutional amendment that would require a yearly balanced budget, due to serious concerns[clarification needed] with that specific proposal. Earlier that year, Amash had introduced H.J.Res. 81, an alternative balanced budget amendment that addressed those concerns.
Amash supports decreased federal intervention in energy-related issues. He wants to eliminate government-sponsored subsidies for energy production and decrease overall regulation. He believes that no form of energy production should be specially favored or restricted. In addition, Amash supports minimizing federal environmental regulations. He voted in favor of the Energy Tax Prevention Act of 2011, which would have amended the Clean Air Act of 1963 to prohibit the Environmental Protection Agency from regulating specified greenhouse gasses as air pollutants.
Flint water crisis
Amash was the only representative from Michigan to oppose federal aid in response to the Flint water crisis, arguing that "the U.S. Constitution does not authorize the federal government to intervene in an intrastate matter like this one." Instead Amash contended that "the State of Michigan should provide comprehensive assistance to the people of Flint."
Amash has expressed opposition to political gerrymandering. He said in 2018, "I firmly believe there should be an independent process for drawing districts. They should be based on geographic considerations, and they should be as compact and contiguous as possible...I always felt the maps should be drawn in a way that is less political and more based on geographic considerations."
On May 4, 2017, Amash voted in favor of repealing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Obamacare) and to pass a revised version of the American Health Care Act. Amash initially opposed the American Health Care Act, describing it as "Swampcare", tweeting that "It didn't take long for the swamp to drain @realDonaldTrump" and criticizing House leadership for attempting to "ram it through." Nevertheless, Amash voted for the updated AHCA plan before the Congressional Budget Office could determine its impact or cost.
In July 2018 House Republicans introduced a resolution “supporting the officers and personnel” of Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). Amash was the only Republican in the chamber to vote against the resolution. He tweeted, “The House voted today on an inane resolution regarding ICE. The resolution makes several dubious claims and denounces calls to abolish ICE. I wouldn’t abolish ICE without an alternative, but there’s no reason to treat a federal agency as though it’s beyond reproach and reform.”
Security and surveillance
Amash opposed President Donald Trump's 2017 executive order to temporarily curtail Muslim immigration until better screening methods are devised. He stated: "Like Pres. Obama's executive actions on immigration, Pres. Trump's executive order overreaches and undermines our constitutional system."
Amash proposed an amendment to the reauthorization bill of Section 702 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act. The Amash amendment would have required the government in criminal cases to seek a warrant based on probable cause before searching surveillance data for information about Americans. While the Amash amendment received bipartisan support as well as support from civil liberties groups including the American Civil Liberties Union, the amendment ultimately failed by a vote of 183 to 233.
While Amash opposes government funding for abortion, he voted "present", rather than "yes" or "no" on the 2011 Full Year Continuing Appropriations Act, which provided for the cessation of federal funding to Planned Parenthood. He explained, "Legislation that names a specific private organization to defund (rather than all organizations that engage in a particular activity) is improper and arguably unconstitutional". When the New York Times asked him to explain his approach to voting on legislation, he replied, "I follow a set of principles, I follow the Constitution. And that's what I base my votes on. Limited government, economic freedom, and individual liberty."
He supported a repeal of the Defense of Marriage Act as per his Twitter account, stating that the "real threat" to traditional marriage and religious liberty is government, and not gay couples.
Suicide prevention hotline
In July 2018 Amash was the only member of the U.S. House to vote against creating a three-digit suicide prevention hotline. He wrote on Twitter, “It’s another good idea without a constitutional basis. I swear an oath to support and defend the Constitution, and I take that oath seriously. Constitutional limits are meaningless if we ignore them whenever we like the policy outcome.”
Amash endorsed Ron Paul for president in 2012. Paul's brother, David, was an assistant pastor in Amash's district and endorsed Amash, saying the Michigan congressman shares common ground with Paul. He has also endorsed Senator Rand Paul for president in the 2016 Republican presidential primaries. After Paul dropped out of the Republican primary race, Amash endorsed Senator Ted Cruz in his bid for the presidency.
In 2016 Amash made headlines by joining the list of Republicans who opposed the GOP nominee for President, Donald Trump. After Trump was elected president, the Huffington Post profiled him in an article with the following title, "The One House Republican Who Can't Stop Criticizing Donald Trump." Amash said, "I'm not here to represent a particular political party; I'm here to represent all of my constituents and to follow the Constitution."
On January 14, 2017, Trump sent out a series of tweets criticizing Rep. John Lewis (D-GA), one of the main leaders in the 1960s civil rights movement. Amash responded with a quick quip, "Dude, just stop."
On April 1, 2017, senior White House aide Dan Scavino tweeted that Amash was "a big liability" and urged followers to "defeat him in primary." Amash later referred to Trump as a "childish bully," saying that his attacks would be "constructive in the fifth grade. It may allow a child to get his way, but that's not how our government works."
In May 2017 Trump was accused of pressuring fired FBI director James Comey to end an investigation into former national security adviser Michael Flynn. Amash was reported as the first Republican congressman to publicly state that the allegations, if proven true, merited impeachment. This report is contested by the office of Rep. Carlos Curbelo (R-FL), who claims that he was the first to recognize that if true, the allegations merit impeachment.
In June 2018 the Huffington Post asked House Republicans, "If the president pardoned himself, would they support impeachment?" Amash was the only Republican who said "definitively he would support impeachment..." In July 2018 Amash strongly criticized Trump's press conference with Russian president Vladimir Putin. Amash tweeted, "The impression it left on me, a strong supporter of the meeting, is that 'something is not right here.' The president went out of his way to appear subordinate. He spoke more like the head of a vassal state."
Marijuana legalization and forfeiture
Amash and fellow U.S. Representative Ted W. Lieu (D-CA) introduced a bill to block the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) from financing its Cannabis Eradication Program through civil asset forfeitures.
According to a DEA performance budget submitted to Congress for the fiscal year (FY) 2014, the DEA received $18 million in FY 2013 funding for cannabis eradication from the Department of Justice's Asset Forfeiture Fund. Amash took aim at civil asset forfeiture in a statement, saying that the practice allows for "innocent people to have their property taken without sufficient due process".
He believes only Congress has the power to declare war, criticizing President Obama's military intervention against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, and intervention in Syria, for proceeding without a Congressional declaration of war.
In 2011, Amash was one of six members of Congress who voted "Nay" on House Resolution 268 reaffirming U.S. commitment to a negotiated settlement of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict through direct Israeli–Palestinian negotiation, which passed with 407 members in support.
In 2014, he was one of eight members of Congress who voted "Nay" on a $225 million package to restock Israel's Iron Dome missile defenses, which passed with 398 members in support. He supports a two-state solution to the Palestinian–Israeli conflict.
Amash joined 104 Democrats and 16 Republicans in voting against the 2012 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA), which specified the budget and expenditures of the Department of Defense, calling it "one of the most anti-liberty pieces of legislation of our lifetime". Amash co-sponsored an amendment to the NDAA that would ban indefinite military detention and military trials so that all terror suspects arrested in the United States would be tried in civilian courts. He expressed concern that individuals charged with terrorism could be jailed for prolonged periods of time without ever being formally charged or brought to trial.
On March 14, 2016, Amash joined the unanimous vote in the House to approve a resolution declaring the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) to be committing genocide against religious minorities in the Middle East (passed 383–0), but joined Representatives Tulsi Gabbard (D-HI) and Thomas Massie (R-KY) in voting "Nay" on a separate measure creating an international tribunal to try those accused of participating in the alleged atrocities (passed 392–3).
In 2017, Amash criticized U.S. involvement in Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, highlighting that "Al Qaeda in Yemen has emerged as a de facto ally of the Saudi-led militaries with whom [Trump] administration aims to partner more closely."
In July 2017, Amash joined Reps. Thomas Massie (R-KY), John Duncan Jr. (R-TN) and Sens. Rand Paul (R-KY) and Bernie Sanders (I-VT) in opposing a bill that would impose new economic sanctions against Russia, Iran, and North Korea. President Trump opposed the bill, pointing out that relations with Russia were already "at an all-time and dangerous low." He did, however, sign the bill though likely out of political pressure.
Note: This list is not complete.
- 115th Congress
- Committee on Oversight and Government Reform
- 114th Congress
- Committee on Oversight and Government Reform
- Joint Economic Committee
- 113th Congress
- Committee on Oversight and Government Reform
- Joint Economic Committee
- 112th Congress
- Committee on Oversight and Government Reform
- Joint Economic Committee
- Committee on the Budget
The House Republican Steering Committee removed Amash from the House Budget Committee in late 2012 as part of a larger party leadership-caucus shift. He joined Tim Huelskamp (R-Kansas) and David Schweikert (R-Arizona) in a letter to Speaker of the House John Boehner, demanding to know why they had lost their committee positions.
A spokesperson for Republican Congressman Lynn Westmoreland of Georgia said that Amash, Huelskamp, and Schweikert had been removed for "their inability to work with other members." Politico said that the three were "the first members pulled off committees as punishment for political or personality reasons in nearly two decades".:p.2
- Freedom Caucus (Founding Member)
- Liberty Caucus (Founder and Chairman)
- Second Amendment Caucus (Founding Member)
- "Rep. Justin Amash Endorses Sen. Ted Cruz – Christine Rousselle". TownHall.com. 2016-02-23. Retrieved 2016-05-27.
- "House Liberty Caucus Republicans Stand Strong Against Third Iraq War". Thenewamerican.com. 2014-09-13. Retrieved 2016-05-27.
- "House GOP's 'govern by crisis' model". CNN.com. 2015-10-04. Retrieved 2016-05-27.
- Rucker, Philip (2013-10-08). "Tea party favorite Amash draws GOP primary opponent" (online news blog). The Washington Post. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
- Linskey, Annie (2014-08-05). "Michigan Tea Party Congressman Amash Defeats Challenger" (news article). Bloomberg Business. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
- "Michigan GOP Rep. Bentivolio loses primary, while Tea Party-backed Amash survives" (news article). Fox News. 2014-08-06. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
- Krietz, Andrew (2014-08-07). "Vintage Justin Amash? Little fallout expected from Tea Party favorite's victory attacks" (news article). mlive.com. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
- Corie W. Stephens (2016-02-26). "Would Justin Amash run for president? – Rare". Rare.us. Retrieved 2016-05-27.
- Marans, Daniel (2018-01-11). "House Reauthorizes Controversial Surveillance Law | HuffPost". Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2018-01-19.
- Matt Welch & Mark McDaniel | July 28, 2017 (2017-07-28). "Rep. Justin Amash: The Two-Party System Needs to Die". Reason.com. Retrieved 2018-01-19.
- "'Lowercase "L" Libertarian' Congressman Justin Amash is Another Potential 2020 Candidate". The Jack News. 2017-08-05. Retrieved 2018-08-13.
- Glasser, Susan B. (2007-05-15). "The End of the Libertarian Dream? - POLITICO Magazine". Politico.com. Retrieved 2018-01-19.
- Ryan Lovelace (2016-02-23). "Cruz wins libertarian GOP congressman's endorsement". Washingtonexaminer.com. Retrieved 2018-01-19.
- Bonnie Kristian, "This 35-year-old Republican congressman could revolutionize the House. He should be speaker", theweek.com; retrieved February 21, 2017.
- Marcos, Christina (March 10, 2017). "Amash misses vote, ending perfect attendance streak". The Hill. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
- Ron Kampeas (October 13, 2010). "Political Points: Hannity told me not to come". JTA-Jewish & Israel News. Jewish Telegraphic Agency.
- Tim Mak. "Justin Amash casts himself in Ron Paul's mold". POLITICO.
- "Will GOP Rebel Justin Amash Bring Down the NSA – and His Own Party?". Mother Jones.
- Jim Harger (October 24, 2010). "Profile: 3rd Congressional district candidate Justin Amash". The Grand Rapids Press. M Live.
- "TIME Magazine names Justin Amash one of its 40 Rising Stars". Justin Amash for Congress. October 14, 2010. Archived from the original on October 28, 2010. Retrieved October 29, 2010.
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- Newlin, Eliza. "Rep. Justin Amash (R-MI, 3rd District)". National Journal. Retrieved March 2, 2012.
- Amash, Justin. "Justin Amash Full Biography". amash.house.gov. House of Representatives. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- "MI State House 072 – R Primary Race". Our Campaigns. August 5, 2008. Retrieved March 2, 2012.
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- Justin Amash sponsored legislation 2009–2010. Legislature.mi.gov.
- Missed Votes, Michiganvotes.org, June 19, 2008.
- TIME Magazine, "40 under 40 – Rising Stars of U.S. Politics – Justin Amash, time.com; accessed March 10, 2017.
- Connolly, Michael. "Club for Growth PAC Endorses Justin Amash in Michigan-03". Retrieved March 12, 2012.
- Ron Paul Endorses Justin Amash for Congress, eon.businesswire.com, June 21, 2010.
- "FreedomWorks PAC Endorses Justin Amash, Candidate in Michigan`s Third Congressional District". Business Wire. July 29, 2010. Retrieved March 12, 2012.
- "2010 Official Michigan General Election Results – 3rd District Representative in Congress 2 Year Term (1) Position". Michigan Department of State. Archived from the original on January 29, 2014. Retrieved March 2, 2012.
- "Official Michigan Generaral Candidate Listing". Miboecfr.nuctusa.com. Retrieved 2016-05-27.
- 2012 Election Results Map by State – Live Voting Updates, Politico.com, June 21, 2013.
- Alberta, Tim (September 17, 2013). "Justin Amash Will Not Run for Senate in Michigan". National Journal. Retrieved January 16, 2014.
- Doherty, Brian (October 12, 2013). "Justin Amash Targeted by Michigan GOP Business Establishment for Lacking Party Discipline". Reason. Retrieved January 16, 2014.
- "Justin Amash (MI-03) profile". PAC Candidates. Club for Growth PAC. Archived from the original on February 8, 2014. Retrieved January 16, 2014.
- Livingston, Abby (July 31, 2014). "Club For Growth Back on TV for Justin Amash". Roll Call. Retrieved August 4, 2014.
- "Congressional Races – Michigan District 03 Race – Summary Data". Open Secrets. The Center for Responsive Politics. Retrieved August 8, 2014.
- Blake, Aaron (2014-08-06). "Justin Amash's absolutely amazing victory speech" (major news org. online blog). The Washington Post. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
- Friedersdorf, Conor (2014-08-06). "Why Justin Amash's Primary Victory Matters" (online staff comment). The Atlantic. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
Representative Justin Amash, a Michigan Republican, is one of the most important civil libertarians in the House of Representatives. He isn't just a staunch opponent of the NSA's mass surveillance of Americans—he actually has a sophisticated understanding of surveillance policy (unlike the vast majority of his congressional colleagues) as well as a record of bringing forth actual reform proposals./Amash voted against the reauthorization of the Patriot Act, favored a measure to repeal indefinite detention, and opposed reauthorization of the FISA Amendments Act. Little wonder that an ACLU staffer told Mother Jones that he's 'a game changer.'
- "2014 Michigan Election results". Michigan Department of State. Retrieved April 1, 2017.
- "2016 Michigan Election results". Michigan Department of State. Retrieved April 1, 2017.
- "Justin Amash". govtrack.us. Retrieved March 8, 2016.
- Mak, Tim (December 8, 2011). "Justin Amash casts himself in Ron Paul's mold". Politico. Retrieved March 2, 2012.
- "Balanced-budget amendment comes up short in House vote". TheHill. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
- "H.J.Res.81 – 112th Congress (2011–2012): Proposing a balanced budget amendment to the Constitution of the United States - Library of Congress". congress.gov. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
- Justin Amash – Energy and the Environment, Thepoliticalguide.com, June 13, 2012.
- "H.R.910 - 112th Congress (2011-2012): Energy Tax Prevention Act of 2011". Congress.gov. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
- Nate Reens, Justin Amash stood alone opposing Flint water federal aid bid, MLive.com, January 19, 2016.
- Oosting, Jonathan (October 3, 2018). "Amash: Partisan redistricting an 'ugly' process". The Detroit News. Retrieved October 30, 2018.
- "How the House voted to pass the GOP health-care bill". Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-05-04.
- Amash, Justin (March 31, 2017). "Didn't vote for #Swampcare because it's just another version of #Obamacare ..." Twitter. Retrieved May 4, 2017. Accessible if registered.
- Kamisar, Ben, "Freedom Caucus member fires back: The swamp drained Trump", The Hill, March 30, 2017; retrieved 2017-05-09.
- Shelbourne, Mallory (March 8, 2017). "Amash: GOP wants to 'ram' ObamaCare plan through Congress". The Hill. Retrieved 4 May 2017.
- Kliff, Sarah. "Congress is voting Thursday on a bill to replace Obamacare. The CBO still hasn't scored it". Vox. Retrieved 4 May 2017.
- Weigel, David (July 31, 2018). "The new 'Dr. No': Rep. Justin Amash, marooned in Congress". Washington Post. Retrieved August 5, 2018.
- "Michigan Republican Congressman Votes No On Supporting ICE". WBCKFM.com. Retrieved August 5, 2018.
- Fung, Brian (2013-07-25). "Justin Amash almost beat the NSA. Next time, he might do it" (major news org. online blog). The Washington Post. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
- "How a Palestinian-American won a GOP primary". aljazeera.com.
- "S. 990 (112th): PATRIOT Sunsets Extension Act of 2011 – House Vote #376". May 26, 2011. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
- "H.R. 5949 (112th): FISA Amendments Act Reauthorization Act of 2012 – House Vote #569". September 12, 2012. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
- "FINAL VOTE RESULTS FOR ROLL CALL 224" (XML). Clerk.house.gov. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
- Blake, Aaron. "Coffman, Gardner join Republicans against President Trump's travel ban; here's where the rest stand". Denver Post. Retrieved January 30, 2017.
- By CHARLIE SAVAGEJAN. 10, 2018 (2018-01-10). "Surveillance and Privacy Debate Reaches Pivotal Moment in Congress - The New York Times". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 2018-01-19.
- Published 10:43 a.m. ET Jan. 11, 2018 (2018-01-11). "House rejects Amash measure on warrantless surveillance". Detroitnews.com. Retrieved 2018-01-19.
- "House votes to renew a surveillance law that collects Americans' emails". Usatoday.com. 2018-01-11. Retrieved 2018-01-19.
- "Justin Amash on the Issues". Ontheissues.org. Retrieved 2016-05-27.
- Steinhauer, Jennifer (April 14, 2011). "Justin Amash, Republican Freshman, Bucks His Party". The New York Times.
- Justin Amash Backs DOMA Repeal On Twitter, Huffington Post, March 29, 2013.
- Burr, Thomas (July 24, 2018). "House passes Rep. Stewart's bill to create a national suicide prevention hotline". The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved July 25, 2018.
- "Justin Amash Endorses Ron Paul". Facebook. Retrieved September 18, 2011.
- Jesser Byrnes (February 23, 2016). "Rep. Amash endorses Cruz". The Hill.
- Britzky, Haley; Barr, Luke; Dunn, Andrew (April 29, 2016). "Republicans who vow to never back Trump". The Hill. Retrieved May 5, 2016.
- Andrews, Natalie (February 20, 2017). "Justin Amash Emerges as Leading Critic of Fellow Republican Donald Trump". wsj.com. Retrieved February 21, 2017.
- Bunker, Theodore (February 20, 2017). "WSJ: Justin Amash Becoming Trump's Leading Critic in the GOP". Newsmax. Retrieved February 21, 2017.
- Watson, Kathryn. "Trump aide calls for primary challenge against Freedom Caucus member". CBS News. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
- Fuller, Matt (December 27, 2016). "The One House Republican Who Can't Stop Criticizing Donald Trump". Huffington Post. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
- Gibbons, Lauren. "Michigan Congressman Justin Amash to Donald Trump: 'Dude, just stop'". MLive.com. MLive Media Group. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
- "White House aide calls for primary challenge against Rep. Amash". Fox 17 West Michigan. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
- Smilowitz, Elliot (May 17, 2017). "First Republican raises impeachment for Trump". The Hill.
- Seitz-Wald, Alex (May 31, 2017). "Republican Carlos Curbelo Wants You to Know He Called for Impeachment First". NBC News.
- Vicens, AJ (May 17, 2017). "Two GOP Congressmen Suggest Trump May Have Committed Impeachable Offense". Mother Jones (magazine).
- Reilly, Ryan; Delaney, Arthur; Fuller, Matt (June 7, 2018). "What Will House Republicans Do If Trump Pardons Himself? We Asked Them". Huffington Post. Retrieved June 9, 2018.
- "GOP lawmaker: Trump 'went out of his way to appear subordinate' at Putin press conference". TheHill. Retrieved July 19, 2018.
- Ted W. Lieu, Justin Amash (September 16, 2015). "Introduction of the Bill" (PDF). Mr. Ted W. Lieu, Mr. Justin Amash. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
- Mark Ram (October 5, 2015). "Civil Forfeiture for Marijuana Businesses". Mark Ram. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
- U.S. Department of Justice (May 16, 2014). "FY 2014 Performance Budget Congressional Submission" (PDF). U.S Department of Justice. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
- Steven Nelson (September 23, 2015). "Congressmen Want to Save Pot Plants From DEA Sickle". Steven Nelson. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
- "Text - H.R.1227 - 115th Congress (2017-2018): Ending Federal Marijuana Prohibition Act of 2017 | Congress.gov | Library of Congress". Congress.gov. Retrieved 2018-01-19.
- Kristina Peterson; Julian E. Barnes (January 29, 2015). "GOP Split Over Expected Obama Request for More Defense Outlays". WSJ.
- "Lawmakers Slam Obama for Skirting Congress, Constitution on ISIS". thenewamerican.com.
- Friedersdorf, Conor (2013-08-29). "President Obama Faces Mounting Pressure to Stay Out of Syria" (online article). The Atlantic. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
President Obama faces increasing pressure from lawmakers, foreign-policy experts, constitutional scholars, and anti-war activists to refrain from striking Syria. Opponents of war worry that an insular group of hawkish Washington, D.C., elites will succeed in prompting an intervention the consequences of which they cannot anticipate, despite widespread public opposition to U.S. involvement. The concerns of Syria anti-interventionists vary, but all agree that the president should not unilaterally decide to attack tyrant Bashar al-Assad's regime, even granting that recent chemical weapons attacks on civilians were atrocious.
- Washington Post Staff (2011-07-07). "The U.S. Congress Votes Database: Vote 524, H RES [House Resolution] 268" (online database entry). The Washington Post. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
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- "HOUSE VOTE No. 291 IN 2012". govtrack.us. Retrieved July 16, 2012.
- Hunter, Jack (December 2, 2011). "The terrorists have won". The Daily Caller Opinion. Retrieved March 2, 2012.
- How Smith-Amash NDAA Amendment Bans Indefinite Detention (FACT SHEET), Human Rights First, November 5, 2012.
- Shaw, Adam; Pergram, Chad (2016-03-16). "House declares ISIS committing genocide against Christians, other minorities" (online news report). Fox News. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
- "America's Support for Saudi Arabia's War on Yemen Must End". The Nation. April 5, 2017.
- "Meet the 5 Lawmakers Who Voted Against the Russia Sanctions Bill". IVN.us. August 3, 2017.
- Wing, Nick, "Tim Huelskamp: John Boehner Guilty Of 'Petty, Vindictive Politics' In Committee Ousters", The Huffington Post, December 12, 2012.
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- "Committees and Caucuses". U.S. Representative Justin Amash. 2012-12-13. Retrieved 2017-06-20.
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- Congressman Justin Amash official U.S. House website
- Campaign website
- Justin Amash at Curlie
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Profile at Vote Smart
- Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
- Legislation sponsored at the Library of Congress
|Michigan House of Representatives|
| Member of the Michigan House of Representatives
from the 72nd district
|U.S. House of Representatives|
| Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Michigan's 3rd congressional district
|Party political offices|
|New office|| Chairman of the Liberty Caucus
|Current U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial)|
| United States Representatives by seniority
|112th||Senate: C. Levin • D. Stabenow||House: J. Dingell Jr. • J. Conyers II • D. Kildee • S. Levin • F. Upton • D. Camp • M. Rogers • T. McCotter (until Jul. 2012) • C. Miller • G. Peters • T. Walberg • J. Amash • D. Benishek • H. Clarke • B. Huizenga • D. Curson (from Nov. 2012)|
|113th||Senate: C. Levin • D. Stabenow||House: J. Dingell Jr. • J. Conyers II • S. Levin • F. Upton • D. Camp • M. Rogers • C. Miller • G. Peters • T. Walberg • J. Amash • D. Benishek • B. Huizenga • K. Bentivolio • D. Kildee|
|114th||Senate: D. Stabenow • G. Peters||House: J. Conyers II • S. Levin • F. Upton • C. Miller (until Dec. 2016) • T. Walberg • J. Amash • D. Benishek • B. Huizenga • D. Kildee • M. Bishop • D. Dingell • B. Lawrence • J. Moolenaar • D. Trott|
|115th||Senate: D. Stabenow • G. Peters||House: J. Conyers (until Dec. 2017) • S. Levin • F. Upton • T. Walberg • J. Amash • B. Huizenga • D. Kildee • M. Bishop • D. Dingell • B. Lawrence • J. Moolenaar • D. Trott • J. Bergman • P. Mitchell|