|The Right Honourable
Trudeau in Manila, November 18, 2015
|23rd Prime Minister of Canada|
November 4, 2015
|Governor General||David Johnston|
|Preceded by||Stephen Harper|
|Minister of Intergovernmental
Affairs and Youth
November 4, 2015
|Preceded by||Denis Lebel|
|Leader of the Liberal Party|
April 14, 2013
|Preceded by||Bob Rae (interim)|
|Member of the Canadian Parliament
October 14, 2008
|Preceded by||Vivian Barbot|
|Born||Justin Pierre James Trudeau
December 25, 1971
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
|Spouse(s)||Sophie Grégoire (m. 2005)|
|Relations||Alexandre Trudeau (brother)
Michel Trudeau (brother)
James Sinclair (grandfather)
Charles-Émile Trudeau (grandfather)
|Parents||Pierre Trudeau (father)
Margaret Sinclair (mother)
(1 Sussex Drive)
|Alma mater||McGill University (B.A.)
University of British Columbia (B.Ed.)
University of Montreal (attended)
Justin Pierre James Trudeau PC MP (born December 25, 1971) is a Canadian politician who is the 23rd and current Prime Minister of Canada, as well as the Leader of the Liberal Party. The second-youngest Canadian prime minister after Joe Clark, he is also, as the eldest son of former Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, the first child of a previous prime minister to hold the post.
Trudeau was born in Ottawa and attended Collège Jean-de-Brébeuf. He earned a BA in English literature from McGill University in 1994 and a BEd from the University of British Columbia in 1998. He gained a high public profile in October 2000, when he delivered a eulogy at his father's state funeral. After graduating, he worked as a teacher in Vancouver, British Columbia, then studied engineering, and began a master's degree in Environmental Geography. He used his public profile to advocate for various causes and acted in the 2007 TV miniseries The Great War.
After becoming more involved in politics after his father's death, Trudeau was elected in the 2008 federal election to represent the riding of Papineau in the House of Commons. In 2009, he was appointed the Liberal Party's critic for Youth and Multiculturalism and the following year became critic for Citizenship and Immigration. In 2011, he was appointed as critic for Secondary Education and Youth and Amateur Sport. Trudeau won the leadership of the Liberal Party in April 2013, and went on to lead his party to victory in the 2015 federal election, moving the third-placed Liberals from 36 seats to 184 seats, the largest-ever numerical increase by a party in a Canadian election.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Political beginnings
- 3 In Opposition, 2008–15
- 4 Prime Minister of Canada
- 5 Domestic policy
- 6 Foreign policy
- 7 Personal life
- 8 Electoral record
- 9 Published works
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Trudeau was born at 9:27 pm EST on Christmas Day at the Ottawa Civic Hospital, to Pierre Elliott Trudeau, then the 15th Prime Minister of Canada, and Margaret Trudeau (née Sinclair). Like all Canadian hospitals at the time, Ottawa Civic Hospital barred husbands from the delivery room, but the board of directors promptly ended the restriction upon Margaret Trudeau's protests.
Trudeau is the second child in Canadian history to be born to a prime minister in office; the first was John A. Macdonald's daughter Margaret Mary Theodora Macdonald (February 8, 1869 – January 28, 1933). Trudeau's younger brothers Alexandre (Sacha) (born December 25, 1973) and Michel (October 2, 1975 – November 13, 1998) were the third and fourth.
He is predominately of Scottish and French Canadian descent. Trudeau's grandfathers were businessman Charles-Émile Trudeau and Scottish-born James Sinclair, who served as Minister of Fisheries in the cabinet of Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent. Some of his maternal grandmother's ancestors were colonists in Singapore, Indonesia, and Malaysia, including Scotsman William Farquhar, a noted colonial leader of Singapore; Farquhar's first wife, Trudeau's 5th great-grandmother Antoinette "Nonio" Clement, was the daughter of a French father and an ethnic Malaccan mother, which makes Trudeau the first Canadian Prime Minister to have verified non-European ancestry.
Trudeau was christened with his father's niece Anne Rouleau-Danis as godmother and his mother's brother-in-law Thomas Walker as godfather at Ottawa's Notre Dame Basilica on the afternoon of January 16, 1972, which marked his first public appearance.
On April 14, 1972, Trudeau's father and mother hosted a gala at the National Arts Centre where visiting U.S. President Richard M. Nixon said, "I’d like to toast the future prime minister of Canada, to Justin Pierre Trudeau" to which Pierre Elliott Trudeau responded that should his son ever assume the role, he hoped he would have "the grace and skill of the President". Earlier that same day U.S. First Lady Pat Nixon had come to see him in his nursery to deliver a gift, a stuffed toy Snoopy.
His parents separated on May 27, 1977, when Trudeau was five years old, with his father having primary custody. There had been repeated rumours of a reconciliation in the public for many years afterwards, but his mother's attorney Michael Levine filed in Toronto to the Supreme Court of Ontario for a no-fault divorce on November 16, 1983 and finalized on April 2, 1984, with his father publicly announcing his intention to retire as prime minister on February 29 of that year. Eventually his parents came to an amicable joint-custody arrangement and learned to get along quite well. Interviewed in October 1979, his nanny Dianne Lavergne was quoted, "Justin is a mommy's boy, so it's not easy, but children's hurts mend very quickly. And they're lucky kids, anyway." Of his mother and father's marriage, Trudeau said in 2009, "They loved each other incredibly, passionately, completely. But there was 30 years between them and my mom never was an equal partner in what encompassed my father's life, his duty, his country." Trudeau has three half-siblings, Kyle and Alicia, from his mother's remarriage, and Sarah, from his father's later relationship.
Trudeau lived at 24 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, the official residence of Canada's prime minister from his birth until his father's government was defeated in the federal election on May 22, 1979. The Trudeaus were expected to move into the residence of the Leader of the Official Opposition, Stornoway, at 541 Acacia Avenue in Rockcliffe Park, but because of flooding in the basement, Prime Minister Joe Clark offered them Harrington Lake, the prime minister's official country retreat in Gatineau Park, with the expectation they would move into Stornoway at the start of July. However, the repairs were not complete so Pierre Trudeau took a prolonged vacation with his sons to the Nova Scotia summer home of his friend, MP Don Johnston, and later sent his sons to stay with their maternal grandparents in North Vancouver for the rest of the summer while he slept at his friend's Ottawa apartment. Justin and his brothers returned to Ottawa for the start of the school year, but lived only on the top floor of Stornoway while repairs continued on the bottom floor. His mother purchased and moved into a new home nearby at 95 Queen Victoria Avenue in Ottawa's New Edinburgh in September 1979. The Trudeaus returned to prime minister's official residence in February 1980 following his father's return to the prime ministership.
His father originally intended Trudeau begin his formal education at a French Lycée, but Trudeau's mother convinced his father on the importance of sending their sons to a public school. In the end, Trudeau was enrolled in the French immersion program at Rockcliffe Park Public School where he could have been dropped off by limousine, but his parents elected he take the school bus albeit with an RCMP car following. This was followed by one year at the private Lycée Claudel d'Ottawa.
After his father's retirement in June 1984, his mother remained at her New Edinburgh home while the rest of the family moved into his father's home at 1418 Pine Avenue, Montreal known as Cormier House where the following autumn he began attending the private Collège Jean-de-Brébeuf, his father's alma mater. The school was originally a Jesuit school but was non-denominational by the time Justin matriculated. In 2008, Trudeau said that of all his early family outings he enjoyed camping with his father the most, because "that was where our father got to be just our father – a dad in the woods." During the summers his father would send him and his brothers to Camp Ahmek on Canoe Lake in Algonquin Provincial Park where he would later work as a camp counselor.
Trudeau, then 28, emerged as a prominent figure in October 2000, after delivering a eulogy at his father's state funeral. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) received numerous calls to rebroadcast the speech after its initial transmission, and leading Quebec politician Claude Ryan described it as "perhaps [...] the first manifestation of a dynasty." A book issued by the CBC in 2003 included the speech in its list of significant Canadian events from the past fifty years.
Trudeau has a Bachelor of Arts degree in literature from McGill University and a Bachelor of Education degree from the University of British Columbia. In his first-year at McGill Trudeau became acquainted with Gerald Butts through their mutual friend Jonathan Ablett and Butts invited Trudeau to join the McGill Debating Union. They bonded while driving back to Montreal after a debate tournament at Princeton University in which the Princeton team included Calgary-born Ted Cruz. After graduation, he stayed in Vancouver and he found substitute work at several local schools and permanent work as a French and math teacher at the private West Point Grey Academy and was roommates at the Douglas Lodge with fellow West Point Grey Academy faculty member and friend Christopher Ingvaldson. From 2002 to 2004, he studied engineering at the École Polytechnique de Montréal, a part of the Université de Montréal. He also started a master's degree in Environmental Geography at McGill University before suspending his program to seek public office.
In 2007, Trudeau starred in the two-part CBC miniseries The Great War, which gave an account of Canada's participation in the First World War. He portrayed Talbot Mercer Papineau, who was killed on October 30, 1917, during the Battle of Passchendaele.
Trudeau is one of several children of former prime ministers who have become Canadian media personalities. The others are Ben Mulroney (son of Brian Mulroney), Catherine Clark (daughter of Joe Clark), and Trudeau's younger brother, Alexandre. Ben Mulroney was a guest at Trudeau's wedding.
Trudeau has used his public status to promote various causes. He and his family started the Kokanee Glacier Alpine Campaign for winter sports safety in 2000, two years after his brother Michel Trudeau died in an avalanche during a ski trip. In 2002, Trudeau criticized the British Columbia government's decision to stop its funding for a public avalanche warning system.
In 2002–03, he was a panelist on CBC Radio's Canada Reads series, where he championed The Colony of Unrequited Dreams by Wayne Johnston. Trudeau and his brother Alexandre inaugurated the Trudeau Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies at the University of Toronto in April 2004; the centre later became a part of the Munk School of Global Affairs. In 2006, he hosted the Giller Prize for literature.
In 2005, Trudeau fought against a proposed $100-million zinc mine that he argued would poison the Nahanni River, a United Nations World Heritage Site located in the Northwest Territories. He was quoted as saying, "The river is an absolutely magnificent, magical place. I'm not saying mining is wrong [...] but that is not the place for it. It's just the wrong thing to be doing."
Trudeau supported the Liberal Party from a young age, offering his support to party leader John Turner in the 1988 federal election. Two years later, he defended Canadian federalism at a student event at the Collège Jean-de-Brébeuf, an elite high school which he attended.
Following his father's death, Trudeau became more involved with the Liberal Party throughout the 2000s. Along with Olympian Charmaine Crooks, he co-hosted a tribute to outgoing prime minister Jean Chrétien at the party's 2003 leadership convention and was later appointed to chair a task force on youth renewal after the party's defeat in the 2006 federal election.
In October 2006, Trudeau criticized Quebec nationalism by describing political nationalism generally as an "old idea from the 19th century", "based on a smallness of thought" and not relevant to modern Quebec. This comment was seen as a criticism of Michael Ignatieff, then a candidate in the 2006 Liberal Party leadership election, who was promoting recognition of Quebec as a nation. Trudeau subsequently wrote a public letter on the subject, describing the idea of Quebec nationhood as "against everything my father ever believed."
Trudeau announced his support for leadership candidate Gerard Kennedy shortly before the 2006 convention and introduced Kennedy during the candidates' final speeches. When Kennedy dropped off after the second ballot, Trudeau joined him in supporting the ultimate winner, Stéphane Dion.
Rumours circulated in early 2007 that Trudeau would run in a by-election in the Montreal riding of Outremont however the Montreal newspaper La Presse reported despite Trudeau keenness Liberal leader Stephane Dion wanted Outremont for a star candidate who could help rebuild the Liberal Party so he instead announced that Trudeau would seek the Liberal nomination in nearby riding of Papineau for the next general election. The riding, which had once been held for 26 straight years by André Ouellet, a senior minister under his father, had been in Liberal hands for 53 years before falling to the Bloc Québécois in 2006.
Trudeau faced off against Mary Deros, a Montreal city councillor and Basilio Giordano, the publisher of a local Italian-language newspaper for the Liberal nomination. On April 29, 2007, he easily won the party's nomination, picking up 690 votes to 350 for Deros and 220 for Giordano.
In Opposition, 2008–15
Prime Minister Stephen Harper called an election for October 14, 2008, by which time Trudeau had been campaigning for a year in Papineau. On election day Trudeau narrowly defeated Bloc Québécois incumbent Vivian Barbot. Following his election win, Edward Greenspon, editor-in-chief of The Globe and Mail, noted that Trudeau would "be viewed as few other rookie MPs are—as a potential future prime minister—and scrutinized through that lens."
The Conservative Party won a minority government in the 2008 election, and Trudeau entered parliament as a member of the Official Opposition. Trudeau was the first member of the 40th Parliament of Canada to introduce a private member's motion, in which he called for a "national voluntary service policy for young people". The proposal won support from parliamentarians across party lines. He later co-chaired the Liberal Party's April 2009 national convention in Vancouver, and in October of the same year he was appointed as the party's critic for multiculturalism and youth. In September 2010, he was reassigned as critic for youth, citizenship, and immigration. He was critical of the Harper government's legislation targeting human smuggling, which he argued would penalize the victims of smuggling.
He encouraged an increase of Canada's relief efforts after the 2010 Haiti earthquake, and sought more accessible immigration procedures for Haitians moving to Canada in the time of crisis. His own riding includes a significant Haitian community.
Trudeau was re-elected in Papineau in the 2011 Canadian federal election, as the Liberal Party fell to third-party standing in the House of Commons with only thirty-four seats. Ignatieff resigned as party leader immediately after the election, and rumours again circulated that Trudeau could run to become his successor. On this occasion, Trudeau said, "I don't feel I should be closing off any options ... because of the history packaged into my name, a lot of people are turning to me in a way that [...] to be blunt, concerns me." Weeks after the election Toronto MP Bob Rae was selected to serve as the interim leader until the party's leadership convention, which was later decided to be held in April 2013. Rae appointed Trudeau as the party's critic for Post Secondary Education, Youth and Amateur Sport. After his re-election, he traveled the country hosting fundraisers for charities and the Liberal Party.
Trudeau wanted to take part in a charity boxing match on behalf of the cancer research fundraising event Fight for the Cure, but was having difficulty finding a Conservative opponent until Conservative senator Patrick Brazeau agreed when asked on Trudeau's behalf by their mutual hairdresser Stefania Capovilla. The fight on March 31, 2012 in Ottawa at the Hampton Inn was broadcast live on Sun News with commentary by Ezra Levant and Brian Lilley and Trudeau won in the third round, the result considered an upset.
Liberal Party leadership
After Dion's resignation as Liberal leader in 2008, Trudeau's name was mentioned as a potential candidate to succeed him, with polls showing him as a favourite among Canadians for the position.
However, he did not enter the race and Ignatieff was later acclaimed as leader in December 2008. After the party's poor showing in the 2011 election, Ignatieff resigned from the leadership and Trudeau was again seen as a potential candidate to lead the party.
Following the election, Trudeau said he was undecided about seeking the leadership; months later on October 12 at Wilfrid Laurier University, he announced he would not seek the post because he had a young family. When interim leader Rae, who was also seen as a frontrunner, announced he would not be entering the race in June 2012, Trudeau was hit with a "tsunami" of calls from supporters to reconsider his earlier decision to not seek the leadership. Opinion polling conducted by several pollsters showed that if Trudeau were to become leader the Liberal Party would surge in support, from a distant third place to either being competitive with the Conservative Party or leading them. In July 2012, Trudeau stated that he would reconsider his earlier decision to not seek the leadership and would announce his final decision at the end of the summer.
2013 leadership election
On September 26, 2012, multiple media outlets started reporting that Trudeau would launch his leadership bid the following week. While Trudeau was seen as a frontrunner for the leadership of the Liberal Party, he was criticized for his perceived lack of substance. During his time as a member of parliament he spoke little on policy matters and it was not known where he stood on many issues such as the economy and foreign affairs. Some strategists and pundits believed the leadership is the time for Trudeau to be tested on these issues; however, there was also fear within the party that his celebrity status and large lead may deter other strong candidates from entering the leadership race.
On October 2, 2012, Trudeau held a rally in Montreal to launch his bid for the leadership of the Liberal Party. The core people on his campaign team are considered longtime friends, and all in their 30s and 40s. His senior advisor is Gerald Butts, the former President of WWF-Canada who previously served as principal secretary to ex-Ontario premier Dalton McGuinty. Other senior aides include campaign manager Katie Telford, and policy advisors Mike McNeir and Robert Asselin, who have all worked for recent Liberal Party leaders. His brother Alexandre also took a break from his documentary work to be a senior advisor on Trudeau's campaign.
During the leadership campaign three by-elections were held on November 26, 2012. The riding Calgary Centre was expected to be a three-way race between the Conservatives, Liberals and Green Party. A week before by-election day Sun Media reported on comments Trudeau had made in a 2010 interview with Télé-Québec, in which he said "Canada isn't doing well right now because it's Albertans who control our community and socio-democratic agenda." Trudeau's campaign advisor said that the comments were being brought up now because of the close race in Calgary Centre. The following day, Trudeau apologized, saying he was wrong to use "Alberta" as "shorthand" in referring to Stephen Harper's government. The Conservatives held onto Calgary Centre in the by-election by less than 1,200 votes. Liberal candidate Harvey Locke said he lost the by-election on his own and that comments made by Trudeau did not influence the outcome.
Fellow leadership candidate Marc Garneau, seen as Trudeau's main challenger in the race, criticized Trudeau for not releasing enough substantial policy positions. Garneau called on him to release more detailed policies before members and supporters begin to vote. Garneau later challenged Trudeau to a one-on-one debate, and said that if Trudeau could not defend his ideas in a debate against him, he wouldn't be able to do so against Prime Minister Harper. Trudeau clashed in debates with challenger Joyce Murray, who was the only Liberal leadership candidate to speak out strongly in favour of electing the House of Commons with a system of proportional representation. She challenged Trudeau over his support for a preferential ballot voting system.
With Joyce Murray the last challenger receiving significant press time, more Liberal politicians and public figures declared themselves for Trudeau. Trudeau was declared the winner of the leadership election on April 14, 2013, garnering 80.1% of 30,800 votes. Joyce Murray finished in second place with 10.2% points, ahead of Martha Hall Findlay's 5.7%. Trudeau had lost only five ridings, all to Murray and all in BC.
Polls conducted during the leadership race showed that support for the Liberals would surge if they were led by Trudeau. Days after winning his party's leadership a poll showed that the Liberal Party was the choice of 43 per cent of respondents. This compared to 30 per cent for the governing Conservatives and 19 per cent for the Official Opposition New Democrats.
According to EKOS Politics, in October 2013 Trudeau's approval numbers improved to a 48–29 Approval-Disapproval; Thomas Mulcair's jumped to a slight lead at 50–25, while Stephen Harper's ratings sank to 24–69. A December 12–15 (2013) EKOS poll showed the Liberals preferred by 32.1% of voters, the Conservatives by 26.2%, the NDP 22.9%. Likely voters, estimated by removing those who didn't vote in 2011, moved the parties into a logjam: Liberals 29.1%, Conservatives 28.5%, NDP 27.2%.
In 2013, Justin Trudeau chose to give up his seat at the funeral of Nelson Mandela, in deference to Irwin Cotler as representative of the Liberal Party of Canada, because of Cotler's work for and with Nelson Mandela in fighting apartheid.
During the leadership campaign Trudeau pledged to park all his assets, exclusive of real estate holdings, into a blind trust which is atypical for opposition MPs, including leaders. According to documents obtained by the Ottawa Citizen, he fulfilled the pledge in July 2013 when the blind trust was set up by BMO Private Banking.
On January 27, 2014, Trudeau and MP Carolyn Bennett escorted Chrystia Freeland into the House of Commons, as is traditional for by-election victors. Trudeau launched an internet video the week before the 2014 Liberal party convention titled "An economy that benefits us all" in which he narrates his economic platform. He said that Canada's debt to GDP ratios have come down in recent years and now it's time for Ottawa to "step up".
2015 federal election
On October 19, 2015, after the longest official campaign in over a century, Trudeau led the Liberals to a decisive victory in the federal election. The Liberals won 184 of the 338 seats, with 39.5% of the popular vote, for a strong majority government; a gain of 150 seats compared to the 2011 federal election.
This was the second-best performance in the party's history. The Liberals won mostly on the strength of a solid performance in the eastern half of the country. In addition to taking all of Atlantic Canada and Toronto, they won 40 seats in Quebec – the most that the Liberals had won in that province since Trudeau's father led them to a near-sweep of the province in 1980, and also the first time since then that the Liberals won a majority of Quebec's seats in an election. The 150-seat gain was the biggest numerical increase for a single party since Confederation, and marked the first time that a party had rebounded from third place in the Commons to a majority government.
In addition to the appeal of his party's platform, Trudeau's success has been credited to his performance both on the campaign trail and televised election debates exceeding the lowered expectations created by Conservative advertisements and conservative media outlets.
Trudeau declared victory shortly after CBC News projected that he had won a majority government. He began his speech with a reference to Wilfrid Laurier's "sunny ways" (French: voies ensoleillées) approach to bringing Canadians together despite their differences. According to Trudeau, Laurier "knew that politics can be a positive force, and that's the message Canadians have sent today." Harper announced his resignation as the head of the Conservative Party that night.
Prime Minister of Canada
Trudeau and the rest of the Cabinet were sworn in by Governor General David Johnston on November 4, 2015. He said that his first legislative priority will be to lower taxes for middle-income Canadians and raise taxes for the top one per cent of income earners after parliament is reconvened on December 3, 2015. Trudeau also issued a statement promising to rebuild relations with indigenous people and run an open, ethical and transparent government. On November 5, 2015, during the first Liberal caucus meeting since forming a majority government, the party announced that it would reinstate the mandatory long-form census that had been scrapped in 2010, effective with the 2016 census.
Trudeau has stated that he wishes to form a party that is "resolutely pro-choice" and that potential Liberal candidates in the 2015 election who are anti-abortion would not be greenlighted for the nomination if they did not agree to vote pro-choice on abortion bills. This stance was in line with a resolution passed by a majority of Liberal party members at its 2012 policy convention. Trudeau's stance was criticized by conservative Catholics, with former MP Jim Karygiannis saying it will "definitely hurt the party", and Toronto Cardinal Thomas Collins writing to Trudeau urging him to reverse his ruling, leading Trudeau to defend the position.
Trudeau first publicly expressed an interest in the legalization of marijuana while speaking at a rally in Kelowna, B.C. on July 24, 2013. He told a crowd, "I’m actually not in favour of decriminalizing cannabis. I’m in favour of legalizing it. Tax it, regulate. It’s one of the only ways to keep it out of the hands of our kids because the current war on drugs, the current model is not working. We have to use evidence and science to make sure we’re moving forward on that." In an interview in August 2013, Trudeau said that the last time he had used marijuana was in 2010, after he had become a Member of Parliament: "We had a few good friends over for a dinner party, our kids were at their grandmother’s for the night, and one of our friends lit a joint and passed it around. I had a puff." After analysing the results of the legalization of marijuana in Colorado, Trudeau reiterated his position in favour of the legalization in Canada, saying that Canadians would benefit from analysing the experiences of both Colorado and the state of Washington.
After the Liberal party formed the government in November 2015, with Trudeau as Prime Minister, he announced that a federal-provincial-territorial process was being created to discuss a jointly-suitable process for the legalization of marijuana possession for recreational purposes. The plan is to remove marijuana consumption and incidental possession from the Criminal Code; however, new laws will be enacted for greater punishment of those convicted of supplying pot to minors and for impairment while driving a motor vehicle. By late November 2015, Justice Minister Jody Wilson-Raybould said that she and the ministers of Health and Public Safety were working on specifics as to the legislation.
Trudeau's father was a deeply devout Roman Catholic and his mother converted from Anglicanism to Catholicism just prior to their wedding although she studied Buddhism and considers herself an Anglican now. As a child he attended mass each Sunday and said his prayers before bedtime each night. He has become a lapsed Catholic since age 18 saying, "Like so many Catholics across this country, I said, 'OK, I’m Catholic, I’m of faith but I’m just not really going to go to church. Maybe on Easter, maybe midnight mass at Christmas.'" He has expressed opposition towards the proposed Quebec Charter of Values, a controversial charter in that province and elsewhere that among other things prohibited public sector employees from wearing or displaying "conspicuous" religious symbols, justifying that it would make the people of Quebec "choose between their freedom of religion and freedom of expression, freedom of conscience and their economic well-being and their acceptance in the workplace. That for me is a real concern." The Charter was dismissed after the Quebec Liberal Party won in the 2014 provincial election.
Trudeau identifies as a feminist, having stated "I am a feminist. I’m proud to be a feminist." Trudeau has also stated that "the Liberal Party is unequivocal in its defence of women’s rights. We are the party of the Charter." After being sworn in as Prime Minister, when asked by a reporter why he felt gender parity was important when naming his cabinet, he replied simply, "Because it's 2015."
Less partisan Senate
Trudeau has long advocated changes that would make the Senate of Canada a less partisan house. In January 2014, he announced a step that began reducing Senate partisanship by making Liberal senators independent and no longer part of the Liberal caucus.
On December 5, 2015, after his appointment as prime minister, the new government's Democratic Institutions Minister Maryam Monsef, with House leader Dominic LeBlanc, announced a major overhaul of the appointment process as Trudeau had promised during the election campaign. The new system consists of five board members - three federal appointees and two from the provinces - who will pick independent candidates, not officially affiliated with any political party, based on merit.
The stated goal of the December 2015 reform was to improve the effectiveness of the Senate which had been "... hampered by its reputation as a partisan institution," according to Monsef. She indicated that this reform would not require an amendment to the constitution. The advisory board was expected to have been appointed by the end of December 2015. The criteria for appointment to the Senate would be "... outstanding personal qualities that include integrity and ethics and experience in public life, community service or leadership in their field of expertise." At the time of the announcement, there were 17 Senate vacancies and these were expected to be filled by the end of 2016.
The Prime Minister met with hundreds of chiefs at the Assembly of First Nations on December 7, 2015 and laid out his philosophy and commitments to Canada's indigenous people, to assure their "constitutionally guaranteed rights ... a sacred obligation". In brief, he promised to rescind government policies that are in conflict with their rights, make a significant investment in education programs, increase general funding, and launch an enquiry into missing and murdered indigenous women. Trudeau also indicated that the new government would implement all of the recommendations made by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.
During the campaign prior to the 2015 federal election, Trudeau promised to eliminate the current voting system. Called "first-past-the-post" or “single-member plurality”, this system awards the House of Commons seat in any electoral district to the candidate who received the most votes, even if the votes received by the other candidates' in that riding total more than 50 percent. Consequently, it is often possible for a political party to capture the majority of seats in the House of Commons with 40 percent of the popular vote across Canada, entitling it to form the government.
Trudeau has said that he advocates a system where the distribution of seats is more in line with the popular vote on a Canada-wide basis, to be achieved by a new type of ballot that allows voters to rank the candidates in order of preference.
In December 2015, the government announced that an all-party parliamentary committee would be formed in early 2016 to consider other options too, such as those based on proportional representation. During a discussion of the plan, Democratic Institutions Minister Maryam Monsef referred to it as “an open and robust process of consultation”. However, she refused to commit to the Conservative Party's demand for a public referendum that would allow Canadians to vote on their preferred electoral system, indicating that she does not want to "prejudice the outcome of that consultation process".
On October 22, 2015, Trudeau stated that, once prime minister, he would end Canada's airstrike mission against ISIL. In his mandate letter to Defence Minister Harjit Sajjan, he also called for increased focus on Canadian trainers for local troops and humanitarian aid for the region.
On November 13, 2015, Trudeau was asked whether his plans to change Canada's contribution to the fight against ISIS and to repeal parts of Bill C-51 would change following the terrorist attacks in Paris. Trudeau responded "It's too soon to jump to conclusions, but obviously governments have a responsibility to keep their citizens safe, while defending our rights and freedoms, and that balance is something the Canadian government, and indeed all governments around the world, will be focusing on."
Trudeau first met Sophie Grégoire when they were both children growing up in Montreal; Grégoire was a classmate and childhood friend of Trudeau's youngest brother, Michel. They reconnected as adults in June 2003, when Grégoire, by then a Quebec television personality, was assigned as Trudeau's co-host for a charity ball; they began dating several months later. Trudeau and Grégoire became engaged in October 2004, and married on May 28, 2005, in a Roman Catholic ceremony at Montreal's Sainte-Madeleine d'Outremont Church. They have three children: Xavier James (born October 18, 2007), Ella-Grace Margaret (born February 5, 2009) and Hadrian Grégoire (born February 28, 2014).
In June 2013, two months after Trudeau became the leader of the Liberal Party, the couple sold their home in the Côte-des-Neiges neighbourhood of Montreal. They began living in a rented home in Ottawa's Rockcliffe Park, the neighbourhood near where Trudeau resided as a child during his father's time as prime minister. On August 18, 2014, an intruder broke into the house while Grégoire and the couple's three children were sleeping and left a "threatening note", however nothing was stolen and there was no damage to the property. Following the incident, Trudeau, who was in Winnipeg at the time of the break-in, stated his intention to inquire with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police about his home security. After his 2015 electoral victory, Trudeau opted to live at Rideau Cottage, on the grounds of Rideau Hall, until necessary repairs were completed at 24 Sussex.
Trudeau has a large Earth inside a Haida raven tattoo on his left arm. The tattoo is based on a design by Robert Davidson, a Haida artist whose grandmother ceremonially adopted Pierre Trudeau as an honorary member of the Haida tribe during a 1976 trip to what was then called the Queen Charlotte Islands.
|Canadian federal election, 2008: Papineau|
|Bloc Québécois||Vivian Barbot||16,535||38.69||-2.06||$70,872|
|New Democratic||Costa Zafiropoulos||3,734||8.74||+1.04||$5,745|
|Independent||Mahmood Raza Baig||267||0.62||+0.20|
|Total valid votes/Expense limit||42,735||100.00||$81,172|
|Total rejected ballots||576||1.33|
|Note: Baig's share of popular vote as an independent candidate is compared to his share in the 2006 general election as a Canadian Action Party candidate.|
|Sources: Official Results, Elections Canada and Financial Returns, Elections Canada.|
|Canadian federal election, 2011: Papineau|
|New Democratic||Marcos Radhames Tejada||12,102||28.29||+19.55|
|Bloc Québécois||Vivian Barbot||11,091||25.93||−12.76|
|Not affiliated1||Joseph Young||95||0.22|
|Total valid votes||42,772||100.0|
|Total rejected ballots||588|
|Source: Official Results, Elections Canada.
1 Communist League
|Liberal Party of Canada leadership election, 2013|
|Martha Hall Findlay||1,760||5.7||6,585||6.37|
*Each federal electoral district had 100 points, which were determined by the voters in the district.
|Canadian federal election, 2015: Papineau|
|New Democratic||Anne Lagacé Dowson||13,132||25.87||-3.6||–|
|Bloc Québécois||Maxime Claveau||6,182||12.18||-12.71||–|
|No affiliation||Beverly Bernardo||103||0.2||–||–|
|Total valid votes/Expense limit||50,770||100.0||$213,091.50|
|Total rejected ballots||698||–||–|
|Source: Elections Canada|
- "Liberals projected to win majority". Toronto Star. October 19, 2015. Retrieved October 19, 2015.
- "Justin Trudeau to be prime minister as Liberals surge to majority". CBC News (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation). October 19, 2015. Retrieved October 19, 2015.
- "Justin Trudeau plans to announce his cabinet Nov. 4". Toronto Star. October 20, 2015. Retrieved October 20, 2015.
- "'We're back,' Trudeau tells allies abroad". Hamilton Community News. October 20, 2015. Retrieved October 20, 2015.
- "Justin Trudeau*". Fondation Trudeau. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
- Amy Judd (October 20, 2015). "Vancouver schools remember new PM Justin Trudeau as a great teacher". Global News. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
- Downie, Jim (December 28, 1971). "Justin just like dad". Ottawa Citizen. Canadian Press. Retrieved October 21, 2015.
- Mas, Susana (October 20, 2014). "Justin Trudeau memoir: 7 surprising revelations from Common Ground". CBC News (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation). Retrieved October 22, 2015.
- "Welcome, Justin Trudeau". St. Petersburg Times. December 31, 1971. Retrieved March 2, 2013.
- John English (August 28, 2007). Citizen of the World: The Life of Pierre Elliott Trudeau Volume One: 1919–1968. Knopf Canada. pp. 205–. ISBN 978-0-676-97522-2. Retrieved May 27, 2011.
- Staff (January 9, 1994). "Pierre Trudeau toughens up". CBC Digital Archives. Retrieved November 13, 2015.
- Staff (March 5, 1971). "Colleagues, family discuss secret Trudeau wedding". CBC Digital Archives. Retrieved November 13, 2015.
- "SINCLAIR, The Hon. James, P.C.". Parliament of Canada. Retrieved March 2, 2013.
- "[Stanford Raffles] was not above sneering at Farquhar's Malay wife and the children by her he had acknowledged. 'The Maya connexion', he termed them archly." Barley, Nigel (1991). The Duke of Puddle Dock: Travels in the Footsteps of Stamford Raffles. Great Britain: Viking. p. 242.
- Ford, D. (2005). The world of Antoinette Clement: Colonial mistress. Australia: University of Queensland.
- "Justin Trudeau – Ethnicity of Celebs". Ethnicelebs.com. October 13, 2014. Retrieved October 21, 2015.
- Esther (Farquhar) Bernard at Find a Grave
- Gillespie, Mike (January 17, 2015). "It's ‘Justin Pierre James’ – Trudeau baby baptized". The Ottawa Journal. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
Justin remained perfectly quiet when the prime minister and his wife took their places in the baptistry, accompanied by Mr. Trudeau's niece, Marie Anne Rouleau-Danis, and a stand-in for Thomas Walker, the PM's brother-in-law, who, along, with Mrs. Roulea-Danis, are the baby's godparents.
- "Canada Premier's Son Christened In Ottawa". The Blade (Reuters). January 17, 1972. Retrieved October 28, 2015.
- Staff (April 15, 1972). "Nixon, Trudeau sign treaty: Great Lakes cleanup is multi-billion job". The Bryan Times. UPI. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- Staff (April 15, 1972). "'Snoopy' gift from Nixon's". Daily Record. UPI. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- Ruvinsky, Auren (November 10, 2015). "Parksville man discusses scene around some baby pictures he took of Justin Trudeau". Parksville Qualicum Beach News. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
- "Being single parent has 'downsides': PM". Montreal Gazette (UPI). January 3, 1978. Retrieved October 29, 2015.
- O'Hara, Jane (December 3, 1979). "When Pierre put his boys first". Maclean's Magazine. Retrieved December 2, 2015.
- Wong, Jan (March 28, 2003). "Mr. Conflict of Interest". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved November 20, 2015.
Indeed, Levine represented Margaret Trudeau when she got her shows on CJOH television in Ottawa in the early 1980s and later during her divorce from Pierre. And then he represented the former prime minister when he auctioned off his memoirs.
- "Margaret Trudeau files for divorce". Ottawa Citizen. November 17, 1983. Retrieved October 28, 2015.
- "Trudeaus' divorce has become final: Report". Montreal Gazette. April 5, 1984. Retrieved October 28, 2015.
- Elin Woodger; David F. Burg (March 2006). The 1980s. Infobase Publishing. p. 414. ISBN 978-0-8160-5809-9. Retrieved May 27, 2011.
- Laver, Ross (October 31, 1979). "Nostalgic nanny". Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved October 29, 2015.
- Campion-Smith, Bruce (July 20, 2009). "Justin on growing up Trudeau". Toronto Star. Retrieved March 2, 2013.
- Anzalone, Charles (February 8, 2008). "Margaret Trudeau: Forgiveness, gratitude, wisdom". bpHope. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- Popplewell, Brett (November 24, 2010). "Pierre Trudeau's daughter, Sarah, lives under the radar". Toronto Star. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- "Stornoway changes to cost $65,000". Montreal Gazette. June 16, 1979. Retrieved October 28, 2015.
- Janigan, Mary (September 6, 1979). "The new Trudeau: A beard holds the key". Montreal Gazette. Retrieved October 28, 2015.
- Staff (September 11, 1979). "Maggie house hunting?". Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved November 15, 2015.
- Strobel, Mike (September 27, 1979). "‘Burgh’ accepts Maggie's move". The Ottawa Journal. Retrieved November 15, 2015.
- "It's all yours next week, Clark tells a victorious Trudeau". Montreal Gazette. February 20, 1980. Retrieved October 28, 2015.
- Brooker, Deborah (February 9, 1983). "Margaret Trudeau today: a TV career, a new man – and her kids". Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved November 30, 2015.
Q: I understand you insisted that the children attend a public school. A: Pierre wanted them from the beginning to go to a French Lycée to get a very academic education. I held out, and was able to give good arguments. Pierre has certainly agreed that they've done very well in school. They are all in French immersion, and are quite bilingual. They attend a local public school, and they're just normal little kids doing all the fun things of elementary years.
- Staff (January 12, 1979). "Schreyer children to get bodyguards". Montreal Gazette. Canadian Press. Retrieved November 15, 2015.
A team of plainclothes RCMP officers spring into action the moment Trudeau's two oldest boys leave 24 Sussex Drive and hop on the school bus. The officers do not rest until their charges are returned home.
- Hampson, Beatrice (November 22, 1979). "Pierre-like shrug Justin's reaction". Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
- "Shannon McMullan was Justin Trudeau’s grade school teacher". The Manitoulin Expositor. October 21, 2015. Retrieved November 6, 2015.
- Kennedy, Mark (October 18, 2014). "Q and A: Justin Trudeau in his own words". Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved November 22, 2015.
- MacCharles, Tonda (October 5, 2000). "Spotlight on Justin sparks talk of dynasty". Toronto Star. Retrieved November 20, 2015.
- Grant, Hamish (January 25, 2007). "Justin Trudeau's Camp Application, 1984". Flickr. Retrieved November 20, 2015.
- "Trudeau checks his new house". Montreal Gazette. December 31, 1979. Retrieved October 28, 2015.
- Bryden, Joan (October 18, 2014). "Justin Trudeau Memoir Paints Frank Picture of Privileged But Painful Childhood". The Huffington Post. Retrieved October 19, 2014.
- Gatehouse, Jonathan (October 11, 2011). "Justin Trudeau on his own terms". Maclean's Magazine. Retrieved November 1, 2015.
- Solway, Diane. "The Son Also Rises". Wmagazine.com. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
- "TSC History". The Taylor Statten Camps. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
Prime Minister Trudeau, a former Ahmek camper himself (and yes, we taught him the “Ahmek J-stroke”), sent Justin, Alexandre (Sasha) and Michel (Mike) to Ahmek. Both Justin and Mike eventually became counsellors.
- Milne, Brian. "Justin Trudeau (7 images)". 4iiiis Photography. Retrieved November 20, 2015.
- "Exclusive photo: Justin Trudeau in his days as camp counsellor". The Globe & Mail. April 22, 2013. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
- "Summer campers hold reunion". Ottawa Citizen (Canadian Press). October 21, 1986. Retrieved October 28, 2015.
- "Justin Trudeau's eulogy for his father", CBC News; "Text of the eulogy given by Justin Trudeau at his father's funeral Tuesday", Canadian Press, October 3, 2000.
- Francine Dube, "Son's eulogy moves thousands to tears: 'It's all up to us': Dignitaries, citizens pay last respects to former PM", National Post, October 4, 2000, pg. A1
- Andre Picard and Mark Mickleburgh, "'Je t'aime, papa' THE SON: The very private Justin becomes a very public figure", The Globe and Mail, October 4, 2000, p. A1; Graham Fraser, "Trudeau children lead our farewell – Justin's eulogy a towering tribute at father's funeral", Toronto Star, October 4, 2000, p. 1.
- Tonda MacCharles, "Spotlight on Justin sparks talk of dynasty – Trudeau's final resting place", Toronto Star, October 5, 2000, pg. 1.
- Willa McLean, "This just in . . .; CBC broadcaster revisits momentous events of past 50 years", Kitchener-Waterloo Record, February 8, 2003, pg. G3.
- Raj, Althia (March 5, 2013). "Contender: The Justin Trudeau Story". Retrieved October 23, 2014.
- McCabe, Daniel (October 22, 2015). "Portrait of the PM-designate as a young man". McGill News. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
Trudeau joined the McGill Debating Union at the invitation of a new acquaintance, Gerald Butts, BA’93, MA’96, then the Debating Union’s vice-president. The two forged a close friendship at McGill that endures today...
- Staff (March 10, 2015). "Canadian Liberty and the Politics of Fear". Liberal Party of Canada. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
You know, I dabbled in the Debating Union at McGill. I even debated Ted Cruz once at a tournament at Yale. He hasn’t changed very much.
- Smith, Charlie (November 1, 2015). "Vancouver building that used to be home to Justin Trudeau damaged after ambulance crashes into limousine". The Georgia Straight. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
- "Justin Trudeau described by friends as down-to-earth and sensitive", Canadian Press, October 4, 2000, 03:25; Tonda MacCharles, "Son 'most like Pierre' relishes his privacy; While Liberals talk about dynasty, Justin looks forward to returning to teaching job", Kitchener-Waterloo Record, October 5, 2000, A06; Justin Trudeau, "Something I'm passionate about", The Globe and Mail, February 3, 2001, A11; Gloria Galloway, "Justin Trudeau delivers motivational speech to Ontario teachers", Canadian Press, April 27, 2001, 14:50; "Students should learn to be brave, Trudeau says", Globe and Mail, April 28, 2001, A9.
- "Justin Trudeau tells education conference he plans return to teaching", Canadian Press, February 28, 2004.
- "Canada Votes 2011: Ridings: Papineau", Canadian Broadcasting Corporation; retrieved October 25, 2015.
- "Justin Trudeau pleased to play war hero". Canwest News Service. April 6, 2007. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- Hopper, Tristin (October 5, 2012). "'There's so much attention on me': Fathers' legacies loom large for children of Canadian prime ministers". National Post. Retrieved March 2, 2013.
- Newman, Peter C. (September 18, 2012). "Trudeau's big leap—like father, like son". Maclean's Magazine. Retrieved March 2, 2013.
- Stetski, Wayne (April 2001). "The Kokanee Glacier Alpine Campaign" (PDF). Visions BC Parks Newsletter. Retrieved April 18, 2013.
- Carol Harrington, "Trudeau takes on B.C. – Son of late PM decries cuts to public avalanche bulletins", Toronto Star, January 12, 2002, A24.
- Kate Jaimet, "Trudeau retains '60s ideals: Lauds Katimavik's promotion of social causes", Calgary Herald, November 3, 2002, pg. A6
- Jen Gerson, "Captain Katimavik; Justin Trudeau comes to town to promote youth volunteer program, look cool", Toronto Star, March 21, 2006, pg. C4.
- "CBC Radio picks five books for second round of Canada Reads series", Canadian Press, November 19, 2002.
- "Bookmark your calendar: Canada Book Week turns the page on Canada Book Day", Calgary Herald, April 22, 2003, pg. B13.
- "Peace and Conflict Studies Centre Named for Trudeau". University of Toronto Magazine. 2004. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- "Justin Trudeau to host glitzy Giller prize gala". Kitchener-Waterloo Record. October 27, 2006. p. D12.
- Beltrame, Julian (April 24, 2013). "Justin Trudeau says lofty expectations have always followed him". CTV News. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- Bueckert, Dennis (May 16, 2005). "Justin Trudeau denounces mine near park his father created: Vancouver company wants to build massive mine with access through Nahanni watershed". The Vancouver Sun. p. D10.
- Trudeau, Justin. "We hold the Nahanni in trust for the world. Let's protect it". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- "Dallaire wants to mobilize young Canadians to support Darfur intervention". Canadian Press. September 13, 2006.
- "Trudeau, Dallaire to lead Darfur rally". Toronto Star. September 17, 2006. p. A06.
- Javed, Noor. "Dallaire says Canada should take leadership role in Darfur". CNews. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- Patricia Poirier, "Trudeau's son offers his support to Turner", The Globe and Mail, September 16, 1988, pg. A8.
- Jane Taber, "A teacher of drama, a riveting moment", National Post, October 4, 2000, pg. A3.
- "Chrétien bids adieu to a lifetime in politics". CBC News (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation). November 14, 2003. Retrieved September 28, 2012.
- Juliet O'Neill, "Justin Trudeau to spearhead youth renewal of Liberal party: Task force", National Post, April 7, 2006, pg. A1
- Gordon, Sean (October 27, 2006). "Sounding like his father, Justin Trudeau takes aim at Michael Ignatieff's idea of Quebec as a 'nation'". Toronto Star. p. A01.
- Perreaux, Les (October 27, 2006). "Eldest Trudeau son takes poke at Ignatieff stand, nationalism: 'Unfortunately, some people these days are wrapped up in this idea of nation for Quebec'". The Gazette (Montreal). p. A12.
- Macpherson, Son (November 2, 2006). "Pass the peanut butter, it looks like Ignatieff is toast: His 'nationhood' proposal has stirred political heavies to line up against him". The Gazette (Montreal). p. A23.
- Thompson, Elizabeth (November 15, 2006). "Ignatieff lacks 'wisdom' to lead: Justin Trudeau: Says Gerard Kennedy deserves closer look". The Gazette (Montreal). p. A14.
- Coyne, Andrew (December 2, 2006). "Kennedy's message is bold, but risky". National Post. Retrieved September 29, 2012.
- Robert Benzie, "All the right moves for Kennedy; 'Kingmaker' becomes Dion's heir apparent", Toronto Star, December 3, 2006, A07.
- Corrigan, Ed. "Liberals Elect Stephan Dion". The Canadian. Retrieved September 29, 2012.
- "Quebec Liberal MP Jean Lapierre to resign". CTV News. January 11, 2007. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
- Sean Gordon; Susan Delacourt (January 10, 2007). "Will Justin Trudeau run for Parliament MP?". Toronto Star. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- Taber, Jane (February 23, 2007). "Liberals welcome Trudeau, bid adieu to Graham". The Globe and Mail. p. A1.
- "Spotlight on Montreal ridings: Papineau". CBC News. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. September 25, 2015. Retrieved November 21, 2015.
- Woods, Allan (April 30, 2007). "Trudeau wins nomination". Toronto Star. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- "Trudeau pledges loyalty to constituents after Papineau win". CBC News (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation). October 15, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2013.
- Hebert, Chantal (February 27, 2007). "Trudeau looking lonely on left". Toronto Star. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- Jane Taber, "Vancouver to host a Liberal love-in; the knives are to be left at home", The Globe and Mail, April 25, 2009, A4; Terry Pedwell, "Liberals won't change strategy, despite polls, say MPs", October 6, 2009, 12:06.
- "Michael Ignatieff Announces Liberal Critic Team for Return of Parliament", States News Service, September 7, 2010.
- Douglas Quan and Norma Greenway, "Feds target human smugglers in legislation", Windsor Star, October 22, 2010, pg. C1.
- "Liberals rally for immediate action in Haiti", State News Service, January 13, 2010; "Liberal MP wants immigration rules relaxed for Haitians", Canada AM, January 22, 2010.
- "Trudeau won't rule out bid for party leadership", Ottawa Citizen, May 5, 2011, pg. A3
- Susan Delacourt, "Is the party over? Canada's 'natural governing party' faces difficult questions after Monday's shellacking", Toronto Star, May 7, 2011, IN1.
- "Trudeau – again?". Hamilton Spectator. July 17, 2011. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "Justin Trudeau pumps up St. John's Liberal fundraiser". CBC News (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation). May 3, 2012. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "Trudeau to speak at local scholarship fundraiser". Northern Life. April 17, 2012. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "Lawrence MacAulay Fundraising Dinner with Justin Trudeau". Liberal Party of Canada. Archived from the original on August 6, 2010. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "By-election fundraiser with Justin Trudeau". Liberal Calgary. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- Robert Hiltz and Michael den Tandt (April 1, 2012). "Justin Trudeau scores major upset in Fight for the Cure boxing match over Conservative Senator Patrick Brazeau". National Post. Retrieved April 4, 2013.
- Blaze Carlson, Kathryn (May 9, 2012). "Meet Stefania Capovilla, the hairstylist behind these Parliament Hill ’dos". National Post. Retrieved November 3, 2015.
Mr. Trudeau had, while sitting in her Somerset salon, lamented his inability to find a formidable Conservative opponent. Ms. Capovilla, who is a stylist for the SunNewsNetwork, recalled the conversation as she did Mr. Brazeau’s make-up before an on-camera interview about aboriginal policy. She looked down, saw “those arms,” and asked if he would square off against her Liberal friend.
- John Size (April 2, 2012). "Trudeau declines Brazeau boxing rematch as debt paid". CTV News. Retrieved April 4, 2013.
- "Canadians want Trudeau as next Liberal leader". Calgary Herald. October 29, 2008. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "Canadians prefer Trudeau: Poll shows young heir is top pick to replace Dion". canada.com. October 28, 2008. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
- "Ignatieff secures Liberal leadership as Rae bows out". Canadian Press. December 9, 2008. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "Liberals field questions about future leaders". CBC News (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation). May 4, 2011. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "Trudeau undecided on Liberal leadership bid". IFpress. May 4, 2011. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- Hicks, Jeff (October 12, 2013). "Trudeau rules out Liberal leadership bid in 2013". Waterloo Region Record. Retrieved November 21, 2015.
- Bryden, Joan (June 15, 2012). "Justin Trudeau hit with 'tsunami' of calls to run for Liberals since Bob Rae's withdrawal". National Post. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- Goldstein, Lorrie (June 27, 2012). "We're Justin love". Toronto Sun. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "Justin Trudeau at Stampede mulls Liberal leadership run". CBC News. The Canadian Press. July 7, 2012. Retrieved November 21, 2015.
- Hébert, Chantal (May 4, 2012). "Hébert: Is Justin Trudeau the Liberals’ salvation?". Toronto Star. Retrieved November 21, 2015.
- "Justin Trudeau to run for Liberal leadership". CBC News (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation). September 26, 2012. Retrieved September 28, 2012.
- "Justin Trudeau to seek Liberal leadership". The Globe and Mail (Toronto). September 26, 2012. Retrieved September 28, 2012.
- Radia, Andy (September 26, 2012). "Justin Trudeau to run for Liberal leadership but is he all splash and no substance?". Yahoo News. Retrieved October 1, 2012.
- Caplan, Gerald (September 28, 2012). "Is Justin Trudeau really taken seriously by his own party?". The Globe and Mail (Toronto). Retrieved October 1, 2012.
- Berthiaume, Lee (September 28, 2012). "Justin Trudeau's good looks expected to cover up other weaknesses". Canada.com. Retrieved October 1, 2012.
- Coyne, Andrew (September 28, 2012). "The son is not the father and the future is not buried in the past". National Post. Retrieved October 1, 2012.
- Bryden, Joan (September 26, 2012). "Reports: Trudeau leadership bid imminent". Canadian Press. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
- Berthiaume, Lee (September 28, 2012). "Trudeau leadership bid stirs talk of Liberal 'coronation'". Postmedia News. Retrieved October 1, 2012.
- MacKinnon, Leslie (October 1, 2012). "Trudeau seen by senior Liberals as a risk worth taking". CBC News (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation). Retrieved October 1, 2012.
- Vieira, Paul. "The Wall Street Journal – Justin Trudeau Poised to Step into Liberal Race in Canada". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 2, 2012.
- LeBlanc, Daniel (March 1, 2013). "Inside Justin Trudeau's war room". The Globe and Mail (Toronto). Retrieved March 2, 2013.
- "The other brother: Sacha, the 'apolitical' one, joins Justin Trudeau’s campaign team". National Post. October 22, 2012. Retrieved March 2, 2013.
- "Sun commentary on Télé-Québec interview". CBC News (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation). November 22, 2012. Retrieved January 2, 2013.
- Ian Bailey (November 23, 2012). "Globe reports on Trudeau apology". The Globe and Mail (Toronto). Retrieved January 2, 2013.
- Walton, Dawn (November 27, 2012). "Tories retain Calgary Centre as Liberals, Greens split vote". The Globe and Mail (Toronto). Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- McPharland, Kelly (February 14, 2013). "Kelly McParland: Marc Garneau challenges Justin Trudeau to take a stand. Any stand.". National Post. Retrieved March 2, 2013.
- Visser, Josh (February 25, 2013). "Marc Garneau challenges 'untested' Liberal frontrunner Justin Trudeau to one-on-one debate". National Post. Retrieved March 2, 2013.
- Mas, Susana (March 3, 2013). "Liberal MPs Murray and Garneau challenge frontrunner Trudeau". CBC News. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved November 21, 2015.
- Hebert, Chanatal (March 13, 2013). "Marc Garneau's withdrawal from Liberal leadership race saves himself humiliation: Hébert". Toronto Star. Retrieved March 15, 2013.
- Berthiaume, Lee (March 13, 2013). "'The game is long': Liberals still in leadership fight for votes after Marc Garneau bows out". National Post. Retrieved March 15, 2013.
- Lee, Berthiaume (April 14, 2013). "Justin Trudeau elected Liberal leader in landslide victory". National Post. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- "Justin Trudeau elected Liberal leader in a landslide". The Globe and Mail (Toronto). April 15, 2013.
- "Liberal leadership race – results map". Canadian Election Atlas. April 15, 2013. Retrieved October 20, 2015.
- "Photo: Liberal Leader Justin Trudeau campaigns in Toronto's Trinity–Spadina riding in support of Liberal candidate Adam Vaughan.". June 16, 2014.
- "Poll shows Justin Trudeau Liberals far ahead 38". Toronto Sun. April 16, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- "Stephen Harper Plumbing Record Lows on Trust, Direction, and Approval". ekospolitics.com. Retrieved October 19, 2015.
- "Stephen Harper and the Middle Class Crisis". ekospolitics.com. Retrieved October 19, 2015.
- CTV News Network, "Memorial of Nelson Mandela", December 10, 2013.
- McGregor, Glen (August 1, 2013). "Justin Trudeau voluntarily moves personal investments into blind trust, fulfilling campaign promise". Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- "Parliament: Speaking a language all its own". Toronto Star. February 7, 2014. Retrieved October 19, 2015.
- "John Ivison: Why Justin Trudeau’s new guiding light could have a dramatic impact on Canadian public policy". National Post. February 21, 2014. Retrieved October 20, 2015.
- "Election results". cbc.ca. Retrieved October 23, 2015.
- © 2013 - Élections Canada. "Election Night Results - National". elections.ca. Retrieved October 23, 2015.
- Campbell, Bradley (October 20, 2015). "Stephen Harper underestimated Justin Trudeau, but it was the mocking way he did it that cost him the election". PRI. Retrieved October 21, 2015.
- Hamilton, Graeme (October 20, 2015). "Graeme Hamilton: Justin Trudeau’s stunning victory for the Liberals should finally silence his doubters". National Post. Retrieved October 21, 2015.
- Gagnon, Michelle (October 7, 2015). "Justin Trudeau's rise shows the benefits of being underestimated". CBC News (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation). Retrieved October 21, 2015.
- "For the record: A full transcript of Justin Trudeau's speech". Maclean's Magazine. Retrieved October 23, 2015.
- "Stephen Harper resigns as Conservative leader". CTVNews. Retrieved October 20, 2015.
- Tom Blackwell (October 20, 2015). "Canadian election 2015 hands Justin Trudeau and the Liberals a majority government". National Post. Retrieved October 23, 2015.
- "Justin Trudeau signals new style on 1st day as Canada's 23rd prime minister". cbc.ca. November 4, 2015. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
- "Justin Trudeau on his cabinet and its promise to Canadians". Macleans.ca. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
- Lee Berthiaume, Ottawa Citizen More Lee Berthiaume, Ottawa Citizen. "The long-form census is back – with penalties still possible if you ignore it". Ottawa Citizen.
- "Liberals can restore long-form census for 2016, if they act quickly, observers say". cbc.ca. October 28, 2015.
- "Justin Trudeau says anti-abortion candidates can't run as Liberals". National Post (National Post). Canadian Press. May 7, 2014. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
- "Justin Trudeau's abortion policy will "definitely" hurt Liberals, former MP says". CBC. May 20, 2014. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
- "Cardinal Collins urges Justin Trudeau to reverse pro-choice rule". CBC. May 14, 2014. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
- "Trudeau defends abortion stance amid sharp Catholic criticism". CBC. May 21, 2014. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
- "Justin Trudeau wants to legalize marijuana in order to 'keep it out of the hands of our kids'". National Post. July 24, 2013. Retrieved November 21, 2015.
- Smith, Joanna (August 22, 2013). "Justin Trudeau admits smoking marijuana as MP". The Toronto Star.
- "Justin Trudeau says he smoked marijuana, makes no apologies". Global News. August 22, 2013. Retrieved November 21, 2015.
- Munroe, Ian (August 22, 2013). "Justin Trudeau admits smoking marijuana as MP". CBC News (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation). Retrieved November 21, 2015.
- Graveland, Bill (January 23, 2014). "Justin Trudeau says Canada should ‘draw on best practices’ from marijuana legalization in Colorado, Washington". National Post. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
- Bronskill, Jim (December 17, 2015). "Tax on legalized pot won't be a cash cow: PM". CTV News. Bell Media. Retrieved December 23, 2015.
- Lunn, Susan (November 28, 2015). "'World is going to be looking to Canada' on pot legalization, Jane Philpott says". CBC News. CBC/Radio Canada. Retrieved December 23, 2015.
- John Longhurst. "PM's faith has evolved with age - Trudeau's beliefs in social justice, abortion rights attract some, alienate others". Winnipeg Free Press. Associated Press. Retrieved November 23, 2015.
- Fitzpatrick, Meagan (August 29, 2013). "Trudeau says he will defend Quebec's open society". CBC. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
- Heather Saul (October 20, 2015). "Justin Trudeau: The rise of the feminist and pro-choice Canadian Prime Minister who wants to legalise marijuana 'right away'". The Independent.
- Prime Minister Justin Trudeau Explains Importance of Gender Parity With 3-Word Answer - The Huffington Post Canada
- Galloway, Gloria (December 3, 2015). "Liberals to set up advisory board for Senate nominees, but B.C. won't take part". Globe and Mail (Toronto, Canada). Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- Harris, Kathleen (December 3, 2015). "Liberal plan to pick 'non-partisan' senators draws quick criticism". CBC News. CBC/Radio Canada. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- Smith, Joanna (December 3, 2015). "Liberals set up non-partisan, merit-based process for choosing new senators". Toronto Star (Toronto, Canada). Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- Mas, Susana (December 8, 2015). "Trudeau lays out plan for new relationship with indigenous people". CBC News. CBC/Radio Canada. Retrieved December 8, 2015.
- Brown, Louise (December 7, 2015). "Q&A: Murray Sinclair: Time to right the wrongs of the past on First Nations education". Toronto Star (Toronto, Canada). Retrieved December 8, 2015.
- Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. 2015 http://www.trc.ca/websites/trcinstitution/index.php?p=3. Retrieved December 8, 2015. Missing or empty
- no by-line.-->. "The Electoral System of Canada". Elections Canada. Elections Canada. Retrieved December 9, 2015.
- Gollom, Mark (November 1, 2015). "Justin Trudeau's electoral reform plan needs to 'get going'". CBC News. CBC/Radio Canada. Retrieved December 9, 2015.
- Staff, The Canadian Press (December 3, 2015). "Trudeau government won’t commit to electoral reform referendum, Tories push for vote". Global News. Shaw Media Inc. Retrieved December 9, 2015.
- Gurney, Matt (October 22, 2015). "Matt Gurney: Mr. Trudeau has the right to bring the jets home. But why is he?". The National Post. Retrieved October 24, 2015.
- Lara O'Brien and Marc Apollonio. (October 23, 2015). "Trudeau pulls jets out from coalition against ISIS to mixed reviews". CBC. Retrieved October 24, 2015.
- "End combat mission in Iraq and Syria, Trudeau orders defence minister". Toronto Star. Canadian Press. November 13, 2015. Retrieved November 13, 2015.
- "Trudeau faces fiery foreign policy debut amid Paris attacks and G20". CBC News. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. November 14, 2015. Retrieved November 21, 2015.
- "After Paris attacks, Trudeau's soft power already under fire". The Globe and Mail. The Globe and Mail. November 14, 2015. Retrieved November 20, 2015.
- "After Paris attacks, Trudeau mulls Canada military policy". Reuters Canada. Reuters Canada. November 13, 2015. Retrieved November 20, 2015.
- Annett, Evan (October 30, 2015). "JUSTIN AND SOPHIE: THE FAMILY ALBUM". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved November 20, 2015.
- "Justin Trudeau weds". CBC News (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation). May 30, 2005. Retrieved August 23, 2013.
- Gordon, Sean (October 19, 2007). "Trudeau clan adds baby Xavier to its ranks". Toronto Star. Retrieved August 23, 2013.
- "Justin and Sophie Trudeau Welcome Daughter Ella-Grace". People. February 7, 2009. Retrieved August 23, 2013.
- "Justin Trudeau, Sophie Gregoire welcome baby girl". CTV News. February 5, 2009. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- "Justin Trudeau announces birth of third child, Hadrien". The Gazette. Montreal. February 28, 2014. Retrieved February 28, 2014.[dead link]
- "That's Hadrien Trudeau: new baby, new spelling". Toronto Star. March 13, 2014. Retrieved March 15, 2014.
- McGregor, Glen (August 9, 2013). "Justin Trudeau moves family to his childhood stomping grounds in Ottawa". National Post. Retrieved November 20, 2015.
- "Break-in at Justin Trudeau’s home the latest in long-line of security breaches involving Canadian politicians". National Post. August 18, 2014. Retrieved January 31, 2016.
- "Justin Trudeau and family to live in Rideau Cottage, not 24 Sussex". Ottawa Sun. The Canadian Press. October 26, 2015. Retrieved November 20, 2015.
- Friedman, Anna (October 20, 2015). "Justin Trudeau Joins the Ranks of the World's Tattooed Leaders". tattoohistorian.com. Retrieved November 14, 2015.
- Hopper, Tristin (October 22, 2015). "Haida leaders 'proud' of Justin Trudeau's stylized raven tattoo". National Post. Retrieved November 20, 2015.
- Lee, Jeremy (October 21, 2015). "10 things to know about Canada's prime minister". The Straits Times. Retrieved December 12, 2015.
- Elections Canada – Confirmed candidates for Papineau, 30 September 2015
- Elections Canada – Preliminary Election Expenses Limits for Candidates
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Media from Commons|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Data from Wikidata|
- Official website
- Liberal Party of Canada profile
- Parliament of Canada profile
- House of Commons profile
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- The Table of Precedence for Canada issued by the Department of Canadian Heritage, does not include members of the Royal Family and has the prime minister preceded in precedence by the governor general. The Canadian Forces guideline Honours, Flags, and Heritage Structure of the Canadian Forces (Section 1.5), however, does include members of the Royal Family, other than the Queen, while in Canada though without a precedence within the Royal Family itself. According to the Canadian Forces' definition, members of the Canadian Royal Family are "those persons, being subjects of the Canadian Sovereign, who bear the title 'Royal Highness.'"