Born in Nuremberg, from 1923 to 1938 Käte Müller worked in the office of agricultural organisations in Bavaria. In 1928, she married Hans Strobel, who in 1934 was arrested for planning high treason against the Nazis. He was released from Dachau concentration camp in 1937.
Käte Strobel joined the SPD in 1925, being part of the party's leadership from 1958 to 1971 while from 1949 to 1972 being a member of the German Bundestag. She also served 27 February 1958 to 26 January 1967 in the European Parliament, where she became the leader of the Socialist Group from 1964 to 1967 (to this day, the only female leader other than Pauline Green) and from 1972 to 1978 in the city council of Nuremberg.
In West Germany's government, under Kurt Georg Kiesinger she led the Department of Health (from 1966 to 1969 Federal Ministry of Health) which from 1969 to 1972, with Willy Brandt as chancellor, was expanded to Federal Ministry of Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth.
Her home town Nuremberg made her an honorary citizen in 1980, and named a street near the central station after her. She died in Nuremberg at age 88.
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