Kanafeh

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Kanafeh
Kanafeh Nabulsieh.jpg
Kanafeh Nabulsieh from Nablus, Palestine
Alternative names kunafeh, kunafah, knafeh
Type Dessert
Place of origin Nablus, Palestine[1][2][3][4]
Region or state Arab world, Caucasus, Turkey, Greece
Invented 10th century[5]
Serving temperature Hot
Main ingredients Sugar, cheese, pistachio, rose water, kaymak
Variations Multiple
Cookbook: Kanafeh  Media: Kanafeh

Kanafah (Arabic: كُنافة‎, [qūˈnā:fā] (About this sound listen), dialectal: [knāˈfei]) is a traditional Palestinian dessert made with cheese pastry soaked in sweet, sugar-based syrup.[6] It is popular throughout the Arab world,[7] especially in Levant,[8] principally in Palestine.[9] In addition in Turkey, the Caucasus and Greece.[10]

Kanafeh is popularly known to have originated in the Palestinian city of Nablus,[11][12] and is the most representative and iconic Palestinian dessert.[13][14] Kanafeh Nabulsieh enjoys continued fame, partly due to its use of a white-brine cheese called Nabulsi.[15][16]

Etymology[edit]

The Arabic word kunāfah (Arabic: كنافة‎) is derived from the Arabic verb Arabic: كَنَف‎, translit. Kanaf, meaning to shelter.[17]

Preparation[edit]

mbrwma (twined) kanafeh

Kanafeh pastry contains many types:[18][19][20]

  • khishnah (Arabic: خشنة‎, rough): crust made from long thin noodle threads.
  • na'ama (Arabic: ناعمة‎, fine): semolina dough.
  • mhayara (Arabic: محيرة‎, mixed): a mixture of khishnah and na'ama.
  • mbrwma (Arabic: مبرومة‎, twined): It is prepared with noodle.

The pastry is heated in butter, margarine, palm oil, or traditionally semneh and then spread with soft white cheese, such as Nabulsi cheese, and topped with more pastry. In khishnah kanafeh the cheese is rolled in the pastry. A thick syrup of sugar, water, and a few drops of rose water or orange blossom water is poured on the pastry during the final minutes of cooking. Often the top layer of pastry is tinted with red food coloring (a modern shortcut, instead of baking it for long periods of time). Crushed pistachios are sprinkled on top as a garnish.

Variants[edit]

Kanafeh Nabulsieh[edit]

A siniyyeh (tray) of Kanafeh

Kanafeh was first mentioned in the 10th century.[21]

It is generally believed to have originated in the Palestinian city of Nablus,[22][23][24] hence the name Nabulsieh. Nablus is still renowned for its kanafeh, which consists of mild white cheese and shredded wheat surface, which is covered by sugar syrup.[25] In the Levant, this variant of kanafeh is the most common. The largest plate of kanafeh was made in Nablus[26] in an attempt to win a Palestinian citation in the Guinness World Records. It measured 75×2 meters and weighed 1,350 kilograms.[27][28]

Kadayıf and künefe[edit]

Turkish künefe and Turkish tea

The Turkish variant of the pastry kanafeh is called künefe and the wiry shreds are called tel kadayıf. A semi-soft cheese such as Urfa peyniri (cheese of Urfa) or Hatay peyniri (cheese of Hatay), made of raw milk, is used in the filling.[29][30] In making the künefe, the kadayıf is not rolled around the cheese; instead, cheese is put in between two layers of wiry kadayıf. It is cooked in small copper plates, and then served very hot in syrup with clotted cream (kaymak) and topped with pistachios or walnuts. In the Turkish cuisine, there is also yassı kadayıf and ekmek kadayıfı, none of which is made of wiry shreds.

Riştə Xətayi[edit]

This type of Azerbaijani variant is prepared in Tabriz, Iran. "Riştə Xətayi" consists of meshed shreds, and is typically cooked in Ramadan in the world's biggest covered Bazaar of Tabriz. It is made of chopped walnuts, cinnamon, ginger, powder of rose[further explanation needed], sugar, water, rose water and olive oil.[31][dead link]

Kadaif[edit]

Greek kataifi

In this variant, called also καταΐφι (kataïfi) or κανταΐφι (kadaïfi) in Greek, the threads are used to make various forms of pastries, such as tubes or birds' nests, often with a filling of chopped nuts as in baklava.

A Bosnian style kadaif pastry is made by putting down a layer of wire kadaif, then a layer of a filling of chopped nuts, then another layer of wire kadaif. The pastries are painted with melted butter, baked until golden brown, then drenched in sugar or honey syrup.[32]

See also[edit]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Albala, K. (2011). Food Cultures of the World Encyclopedia. 1. Greenwood. p. 311. ISBN 9780313376269. Retrieved 2014-12-02. 
  2. ^ "Knafeh كنافة: The Nabulsi Treat". tartqueenskitchen.com. Retrieved 2015-12-21. 
  3. ^ Magazine, Culture; Miller, Laurel; Skinner, Thalassa (2012). Cheese For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781118145524. 
  4. ^ Edelstein, Professor Retired Nutrition and Dietetics Department Simmons College Sari (2010). Food, Cuisine, and Cultural Competency for Culinary, Hospitality, and Nutrition Professionals. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. ISBN 9781449618117. 
  5. ^ Roufs, Timothy G.; Roufs, Kathleen Smyth (2014). Sweet Treats around the World: An Encyclopedia of Food and Culture: An Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781610692212. 
  6. ^
  7. ^ Alliance, The Austin Food Blogger (26 March 2013). "The Austin Food Blogger Alliance Cookbook". Arcadia Publishing. 
  8. ^ "Knafeh". Time Out Sydney. 
  9. ^ "Cuisine". TRAVEL PALESTINE. 3 November 2011. 
  10. ^ "How to prepare Kanafah". 
  11. ^ "Volunteer Palestine". Volunteer Palestine. 
  12. ^ Alliance, The Austin Food Blogger (2013). The Austin Food Blogger Alliance Cookbook. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 9781625840349. 
  13. ^ Nasser, Christiane Dabdoub (2013). Classic Palestinian Cuisine. Saqi. ISBN 9780863568794. 
  14. ^ "Is Knafeh Israeli or Palestinian?". Haaretz. 4 June 2014. 
  15. ^ "Cuisine". Institute for Middle East Understanding. 16 January 2006. Retrieved 2008-04-24. 
  16. ^ Tamime, editors, R.K. Robinson, A.Y. (1996). Feta and related cheeses. Cambridge, England: Woodhead Pub. ISBN 1855732785. 
  17. ^ Team, Almaany. "Definition and meaning of Kanafeh in Arabic in the dictionary of the meanings of the whole, the lexicon of the mediator, the contemporary Arabic language - Arabic Arabic dictionary - Page 1". www.almaany.com. 
  18. ^ "Knafeh". Nivin's Kitchen. 21 July 2014. 
  19. ^ "Kunafa". Sampateek. 9 October 2013. 
  20. ^ "Arabic knafeh". Chef in disguise. 18 March 2016. 
  21. ^ Roufs, Timothy G. (2014). Sweet Treats around the World: An Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. ABC-CLIO. p. 464. 
  22. ^ Edelstein, Sari (2010). Food, Cuisine, and Cultural Competency for Culinary, Hospitality, and Nutrition Professionals. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. p. 575. 
  23. ^ Arafat-Roy, Sahar (2013). "Sweet Baked Phyllo With Cheese (Knafeh)". In Broyles, Addie. The Austin Food Blogger Alliance Cookbook. The History Press. p. 43. 
  24. ^ Abu Shihab, Sana Nimer (2012). Mediterranean Cuisine. AuthorHouse. p. 74. 
  25. ^ Cuisine Institute for Middle East Understanding
  26. ^ WEST BANK: Palestinian Knafeh enters Guinness World Records.
  27. ^ "Largest-ever kunafa to break Guinness world record in Nablus". Maan News Agency. 
  28. ^ France-Presse, Agence. "Giant West Bank cake aims for Guinness record". ABS-CBN News. 
  29. ^ http://www.politikcity.de/forum/internationale-k%FCche-d%FCnyanin-mutfa/19192-k%FCnefe.html
  30. ^ "Künefe – ein außergewöhnliches Dessert". nobelio.de. Retrieved 2014-12-02. 
  31. ^ Behnegarsoft.com. "اهراب نیوز - تصویری/ رشته ختایی؛ شیرینی مخصوص تبریز برای رمضان". ahrabnews.com. Retrieved 2014-12-02. 
  32. ^ "Kadaif | Kuhar.ba - Hrana, recepti, zdravlje". kuhar.ba. Retrieved 2014-12-02. 

External links[edit]

  • Media related to Kanafeh at Wikimedia Commons