|History of Japan|
Kōō (康応?), also romanized as Kō-ō, was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. year name) of the Northern Court during the Era of Northern and Southern Courts after Kakei and before Meitoku. This period spanned the years from February 1389 to March 1390. The emperor in Kyoto was Emperor Go-Komatsu (後小松天皇 Go-Komatsu-tennō?)  The Southern Court rival in Yoshino during this time-frame was Emperor Go-Kameyama (後亀山天皇 Go-Kameyama-tennō?).
During the Meiji period, an Imperial decree dated March 3, 1911 established that the legitimate reigning monarchs of this period were the direct descendants of Emperor Go-Daigo through Emperor Go-Murakami, whose Southern Court (南朝 nanchō?) had been established in exile in Yoshino, near Nara.
Until the end of the Edo period, the militarily superior pretender-Emperors supported by the Ashikaga shogunate had been mistakenly incorporated in Imperial chronologies despite the undisputed fact that the Imperial Regalia were not in their possession.
Change of era
- 1389, also called Kōō gannen (康応元年?): The new era name was created to mark an event or series of events. The previous era ended and the new one commenced in Kakei 3.
Events of the Kōō era
- 1389 (Kōō 1): Dissension continues in Toki family in Mino.
- 1389 (Kōō 1): Yoshimitsu pacifies Kyūshū and distributes lands; Yoshimitsu opposed by Kamakura kanrei Ashikaga Ujimitsu.
- 1389 (Kōō 1, 7th month): The udaijin Saioinji Sanetoshi died at the age of 56.
- 1390 (Kōō 2): Kusunoki defeated; Yamana Ujikiyo chastises Tokinaga.
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Kō-ō" in Japan encyclopedia, p. 560; n.b., Louis-Frédéric is pseudonym of Louis-Frédéric Nussbaum, see Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Authority File.
- Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, pp. 317-318.
- Thomas, Julia Adeney. (2001). Reconfiguring modernity: concepts of nature in Japanese political ideology, p. 199 n57, citing Mehl, Margaret. (1997). History and the State in Nineteenth-Century Japan. p. 140-147.
- Titsingh, p. 317.
- Ackroyd, Joyce. 1982) Lessons from History: The "Tokushi Yoron", p. 329.
- Titsingh, p. 318; Mass, Jeffrey P. (2002). The Origins of Japan's Medieval World: Courtiers, Clerics, Warriors, and Peasants in the Fourteenth Century, p. 410.
- Ackroyd, Joyce. (1982) Lessons from History: The Tokushi Yoron. Brisbane: University of Queensland Press. ISBN 978-0-7022-1485-1
- Mehl, Margaret. (1997). History and the State in Nineteenth-Century Japan. New York: St Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-21160-8; OCLC 419870136
- Nussbaum, Louis Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan Encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 48943301
- Thomas, Julia Adeney. (2001). Reconfiguring Modernity: Concepts of Nature in Japanese Political Ideology. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-22854-2; OCLC 47916285
- Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Nihon Odai Ichiran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691
- National Diet Library, "The Japanese Calendar" -- historical overview plus illustrative images from library's collection
|Era or nengō