Kofi Abrefa Busia
Kofi Abrefa Busia
|2nd Prime Minister of Ghana|
1 October 1969 – 13 January 1972
as Prime Minister
|Born||11 July 1913|
Wenchi, Gold Coast
|Died||28 August 1978 (aged 65)|
|Political party||Progress Party|
|Children||8, Abena and Akosua Busia|
Elected following military rule and overthrown by military regime.
Kofi Abrefa Busia (11 July 1913 – 28 August 1978) was Prime Minister of Ghana from 1969 to 1972. As a nationalist leader and Prime Minister, he helped to restore civilian government to the country following military rule.
He was educated at Methodist School, Wenchi, Mfantsipim School, Cape Coast, then at Wesley College, Kumasi, from 1931 to 1932. He later became a teacher at Achimota School and Wesley College. He gained his first degree with Honours in Medieval and Modern History from the University of London, through correspondence during this period. He then went on to study at University College, Oxford, where he was the college's first African student. He returned to the Gold Coast in 1942. He took a BA (Hons) in Philosophy, Politics, and Economics (1941, MA) 1946) and a DPhil in Social Anthropology in 1947 at Nuffield College, Oxford, with a thesis entitled "The position of the chief in the modern political system of Ashanti: a study of the influence of contemporary social changes on Ashanti political institutions."
He served as a district commissioner from 1942 to 1949, and was appointed first lecturer in African Studies. He became the first African to occupy a Chair at the University College of the Gold Coast (now the University of Ghana). In 1951 he was elected by the Ashanti Confederacy to the Legislative Council. In 1952, he was Leader of Ghana Congress Party, which later merged with the other opposition parties to form the United Party (UP).
As leader of the opposition against Kwame Nkrumah, he fled the country on the grounds that his life was under threat. In 1959 Busia became a Professor of Sociology and Culture of Africa at the University of Leiden near the Hague, Netherlands. From 1962 until 1969, he was a Fellow of St Antony's College, Oxford.
He returned to Ghana in March 1966 after Nkrumah's government was overthrown by the military to serve on the National Liberation Council of General Joseph Ankrah, the military head of state; and was appointed as the Chairman of the National Advisory Committee of the NLC. In 1967/68, he served as the Chairman of the Centre for Civic Education. He used this opportunity and sold himself as the next Leader. He also was a Member of the Constitutional Review Committee. When the NLC lifted the ban on politics, Busia, together with friends in the defunct UP formed the Progress Party (PP).
In 1969, the PP won the parliamentary elections with 104 of the 105 seats contested. This paved the way for him to become the next Prime Minister. Busia continued with NLC's anti-Nkrumaist stance and adopted a liberalised economic system. There was a mass deportation of half a million Nigerian citizens from Ghana, and a 44 percent devaluation of the cedi in 1971, which met with a lot of resistance from the public.
While he was in Britain for a medical check-up, the army under Colonel Ignatius Kutu Acheampong overthrew his government on 13 January 1972. Busia remained in exile in England and returned to Oxford University, where he died from a heart attack in August 1978.
- The Position of the Chief in the Modern Political System of Ashanti. London, 1951 (Orig. Dissertation Oxford)
- The Sociology and Culture of Africa. Leiden, 1960
- The Challenge of Africa. New York, 1962
- Purposeful Education for Africa. The Hague, 1964
- Urban Churches in Britain. London, 1966
- Africa in Search of Democracy. London, 1967
- Martin, G. (23 December 2012). African Political Thought. Springer. ISBN 9781137062055.[permanent dead link]
- "Dr Kofi Abrefa Busia, Ex-Prime Minister: 1969 – 1972". ghanaweb.com. Archived from the original on 6 October 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
- Lentz, Harris M. (4 February 2014). Heads of States and Governments Since 1945. Routledge. p. 320. ISBN 978-1-134-26490-2.
- "Ghana:Political Parties". Encyclopaedias of the Nations. Archived from the original on 10 March 2007. Retrieved 15 April 2007.
- Leiden 1960 inaugural lecture open access online[permanent dead link]
as Prime Minister
| Prime Minister of Ghana
|Parliament of Ghana|
|New title|| Leader of the Opposition
1952 – ?
|Parliament suspended by military|| Member of Parliament for Wenchi East
1969 – 19721
|Parliament suspended after military coup|
|Party political offices|
|New title|| Leader of the Ghana Congress Party
|New title|| Leader of the United Party
1957 – ?
|New title|| Leader of the Progress Party
|Parties banned after coup|
|Notes and references|