K. R. Narayanan
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|K. R. Narayanan|
|10th President of India|
25 July 1997 – 25 July 2002
|Prime Minister||I. K. Gujral
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
|Vice President||Krishan Kant|
|Preceded by||Shankar Dayal Sharma|
|Succeeded by||A. P. J. Abdul Kalam|
|9th Vice President of India|
21 August 1992 – 24 July 1997
|President||Shankar Dayal Sharma|
|Prime Minister||P. V. Narasimha Rao
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
H. D. Deve Gowda
I. K. Gujral
|Preceded by||Shankar Dayal Sharma|
|Succeeded by||Krishan Kant|
|Born||Kocheril Raman Narayanan
4 February 1921
Perumthanam, Travancore, British India
(now Uzhavoor, Kerala, India)
|Died||9 November 2005
New Delhi, India
|Political party||Indian National Congress|
|Spouse(s)||Usha Narayanan (m. 1951–2005)|
|Alma mater||University of Kerala (B.A., M.A.)
London School of Economics (B.Sc)
Born in Perumthanam, Uzhavoor village, in the princely state of Travancore (present day Kottayam district, Kerala), and after a brief stint with journalism and then studying political science at the London School of Economics with the assistance of a scholarship, Narayanan began his career in India as a member of the Indian Foreign Service in the Nehru administration. He served as ambassador to Japan, United Kingdom, Thailand, Turkey, People's Republic of China and United States of America and was referred to by Nehru as "the best diplomat of the country". He entered politics at Indira Gandhi's request and won three successive general elections to the Lok Sabha and served as a Minister of State in the Union Cabinet under former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi. Elected as the ninth Vice President in 1992, Narayanan went on to become President in 1997. He was the first member of the Dalit community to hold the post.
Narayanan is regarded as an independent and assertive President who set several precedents and enlarged the scope of the highest constitutional office. He described himself as a "working President" who worked "within the four corners of the Constitution"; something midway between an "executive President" who has direct power and a "rubber-stamp President" who endorses government decisions without question or deliberation. He used his discretionary powers as a President and deviated from convention and precedent in many situations, including – but not limited to – the appointment of the Prime Minister in a hung Parliament, in dismissing a state government and imposing President's rule there at the suggestion of the Union Cabinet, and during the Kargil conflict. He presided over the golden jubilee celebrations of Indian independence and in the country's general election of 1998, he became the first Indian President to vote when in office, setting another new precedent.
K. R. Narayanan was born in a small thatched hut at Perumthanam, Uzhavoor, as the fourth of seven children of Kocheril Raman Vaidyar, a practitioner of the traditional Indian medical systems of Siddha, Ayurveda and Punnaththuraveettil Paappiyamma. His family (belonging to the Paravan caste, whose members are assigned the task of plucking coconuts as per the caste system) was poor, but his father was respected for his medical acumen. He was born on 4 February 1921, but his uncle, who accompanied him on his first day in school, did not know his actual date of birth, and arbitrarily chose 27 October 1920 for the records; Narayanan later chose to let it remain official.
Narayanan had his early schooling in Uzhavoor at the Government Lower Primary School, Kurichithanam (where he enrolled on 5 May 1927) and Our Lady of Lourdes Upper Primary School, Uzhavoor (1931–35). He walked to school for about 15 kilometres daily through paddy fields, and was often unable to pay the modest fees. He often listened to school lessons while standing outside the classroom, having been barred from attending because tuition fees were outstanding. The family lacked money to buy books and his elder brother K. R. Neelakantan, who was confined to home as he was suffering from asthma, used to borrow books from other students, copy them down, and give them to Narayanan. He matriculated from St. Mary's High School, Kuravilangad (1936–37) (he had studied at St. John's High School, Koothattukulam (1935–36) previously). He completed his intermediate at C. M. S. College, Kottayam (1938–40), aided by a scholarship from the Travancore Royal family.
Narayanan obtained his B. A. (Honours) and M.A. in English literature from the University of Travancore (1940–43) (present day University of Kerala), standing first in the university (thus becoming the first Dalit to obtain this degree with first class in Travancore).
With his family facing grave difficulties, he left for Delhi and worked for some time as a journalist with The Hindu and The Times of India (1944–45). During this time he once interviewed Mahatma Gandhi in Bombay on his own volition (10 April 1945). Narayanan then went to England (1945) and studied political science under Harold Laski at the London School of Economics (LSE); he also attended lectures by Karl Popper, Lionel Robbins, and Friedrich Hayek. He obtained the honours degree of B. Sc. (Economics) with a specialisation in political science, helped by a scholarship from J. R. D. Tata. During his years in London, he (along with fellow student K. N. Raj) was active in the India League under V. K. Krishna Menon. He was also the London correspondent of the Social Welfare Weekly published by K. M. Munshi. He shared lodgings with K. N. Raj and Veerasamy Ringadoo (who later became the first President of Mauritius); another close friend was Pierre Trudeau (who later became Prime minister of Canada).
Diplomat and academician
When I finished with LSE, Laski, of his own, gave me a letter of introduction for Panditji. On reaching Delhi I sought an appointment with the PM. I suppose, because I was an Indian student returning home from London, I was given a time-slot. It was here in Parliament House that he met me. We talked for a few minutes about London and things like that and I could soon see that it was time for me to leave. So I said goodbye and as I left the room I handed over the letter from Laski, and stepped out into the great circular corridor outside. When I was half way round, I heard the sound of someone clapping from the direction I had just come. I turned to see Panditji [Nehru] beckoning me to come back. He had opened the letter as I left his room and read it. [Nehru asked:] "Why didn't you give this to me earlier?" [and KRN replied:] "Well, sir, I am sorry. I thought it would be enough if I just handed it over while leaving." After a few more questions, he asked me to see him again and very soon I found myself entering the Indian Foreign Service.
In 1949, he joined the Indian Foreign Service (IFS) on Nehru's request. He worked as a diplomat in the embassies at Rangoon, Tokyo, London, Canberra, and Hanoi. He was the Indian ambassador to Thailand (1967–69), Turkey (1973–75), and the People's Republic of China (1976–78). He taught at the Delhi School of Economics (DSE) (1954), and was Jawaharlal Nehru fellow (1970–72) and secretary to the ministry of external affairs (1976). He retired in 1978. After his retirement, he served as the Vice-Chancellor of Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU) in New Delhi from 3 January 1979 – 14 October 1980; he would later describe this experience as the foundation for his public life. Subsequently, he was recalled from retirement to serve as Indian Ambassador to the United States from 1980–84, under the Indira Gandhi administration. Narayanan's tenures as Indian ambassador to China, the first such high level Indian diplomatic posting in that country after the 1962 Sino-Indian War, and to the USA where he helped arrange Ms. Gandhi's landmark 1982 visit to Washington during the Reagan presidency helped mend India's strained relations with both these countries. Nehru, who had also been the Minister for External Affairs during his 16 years as PM, held that K. R. Narayanan was "the best diplomat of the country."(1955)
While working in Rangoon, Burma (Myanmar), K. R. Narayanan met Ma Tint Tint, whom he later married in Delhi on 8 June 1951. Ma Tint Tint was active in the YWCA and on hearing that Narayanan was a student of Laski, approached him to speak on political freedom before her circle of acquaintances. Their marriage needed a special dispensation from Nehru as per Indian law, because Narayanan was in the IFS and she was a foreigner. Ma Tint Tint adopted the Indian name Usha and became an Indian citizen. Usha Narayanan (1923–2008) worked on several social welfare programs for women and children in India and completed her Masters in Social Work from Delhi School of Social Work. She also translated and published several Burmese short stories; a collection of translated stories by Thein Pe Myint, titled Sweet and Sour, appeared in 1998. She is the second woman of foreign origin to have become the First Lady. They have two daughters, Chitra Narayanan (Indian ambassador to Switzerland and The Holy See) and Amrita.
Narayanan entered politics at the request of Indira Gandhi and won three successive general elections to the Lok Sabha in 1984, 1989 and 1991, as a representative of the Ottapalam constituency in Palakkad, Kerala, on a Congress ticket. He was a Minister of State in the Union cabinet under Rajiv Gandhi, holding the portfolios of Planning (1985), External Affairs (1985–86), and Science and Technology (1986–89). As a Member of Parliament, he resisted international pressure to tighten patent controls in India. He sat in the opposition benches when the Congress was voted out of power during 1989–91. Narayanan was not included in the cabinet when the Congress returned to power in 1991. K. Karunakaran, Congress Chief Minister of Kerala, a political adversary of his, informed him that he was not made a minister because of him being a "Communist fellow-traveller". He did not, however, respond when Narayanan pointed out that he had defeated Communist candidates (A. K. Balan and Lenin Rajendran, the latter twice) in all three elections.
K. R. Narayanan was elected as the Vice-President of India on 21 August 1992, under the Presidency of Shankar Dayal Sharma. His name had been proposed initially by V. P. Singh, former Prime Minister and the then leader of the Janata Dal parliamentary party. The Janata Dal and the parliamentary left parties had jointly declared him as their candidate, and this had later garnered support from the Congress under P. V. Narasimha Rao, leading to a unanimous decision on his election. On his relationship with the Left front, Narayanan later clarified that he was neither a devotee nor a blind opponent of Communism; they had known of his ideological differences, but had supported him as Vice-President (and later as President) because of special political circumstances that prevailed in the country. He had benefited from their support, and in turn, their political positions had gained acceptability. When the Babri Masjid was demolished on 6 December 1992, he described the event as the "greatest tragedy India has faced since the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi".
K. R. Narayanan was elected to the Presidency of India (17 July 1997) with 95% of the votes in the electoral college, as a result of the Presidential poll on 14 July. This is the only Presidential election to have been held with a minority government holding power at the centre. T. N. Seshan was the sole opposing candidate, and all major parties save the Shiv Sena supported his candidature., while Seshan alleged that Narayanan had been elected solely for being a Dalit.
That the nation has found a consensus for its highest office in some one who has sprung from the grass-roots of our society and grown up in the dust and heat of this sacred land is symbolic of the fact that the concerns of the common man have now moved to the centre stage of our social and political life. It is this larger significance of my election rather than any personal sense of honour that makes me rejoice on this occasion.
- Golden Jubilee of independence
The principal event of the golden jubilee of Indian independence was President K. R. Narayanan's midnight address to the nation during the special session of Parliament convened on the night of 14 August; in this address, he identified the establishment of a democratic system of government and politics to be the greatest achievement of India since independence. The following morning, Prime Minister I. K. Gujral, addressing the nation from the ramparts of the Red Fort, said:
When Gandhiji dreamt of India's future, he had said that the country will attain the real freedom only on the day when a Dalit would become the President of this country. This is our great fortune that today on the eve of golden jubilee of independence, we have been able to fulfil this dream of Gandhiji. In the person of Shri K. R. Narayanan we have been able to fulfil the dream of Gandhiji. Our President of whom the whole country is proud of, is from a very poor and downtrodden family and today he has endowed the Rashtrapati Bhavan with a new pride and respect. It is a matter of further happiness that the President has a very high place among the intellectuals of this country. This is a feather in the cap of our democracy that the backward sections of the society today are attaining their rightful place in society. All the countrymen today whether they are from minorities, scheduled castes [Dalits], or scheduled tribes [Adivasis] -- are working unitedly for the development of the country.
- Participation in the elections
In the general elections of 1998, K. R. Narayanan became the first sitting President to vote (16 February 1998), casting his vote at a polling booth in a school within the Rashtrapati Bhavan complex after standing in a queue like an ordinary citizen. He insisted on casting his vote, despite the departure from precedent being pointed out to him. Narayanan sought to change what was a long-standing practice of Indian presidents not voting during general elections. He also exercised his franchise as President in the 1999 general elections.
- Golden jubilee of the Republic
President K. R. Narayanan's address to the nation on the golden jubilee of the Indian Republic (26 January 2000) is considered a landmark: it was the first time a President attempted to analyse, with due concern for growing disparities, the several ways in which the country had failed to provide economic justice to the Indian people, particularly the rural and agrarian population; he also stated that discontent was breeding and frustrations erupting in violence among the deprived sections of society. In his address to Parliament later that day, he praised the work of B. R. Ambedkar on the Indian constitution and cautioned against attempts to change its basic structure, concurring with Ambedkar's preference for accountability and responsibility over the stability of the government. He reiterated this in stronger terms in his next Republic day address (2001); on this occasion, he took exception to certain proposals seeking to abridge the franchise, and pointed out the wisdom of reposing faith in the common men and women of India as a whole, rather than in some elite section of society.
Exercise of Presidential discretion
President Narayanan introduced the important practice of explaining to the nation (by means of Rashtrapati Bhavan communiqués) the thinking that led to the various decisions he took while exercising his discretionary powers; this has led to openness and transparency in the functioning of the President.
- Appointment of the Prime minister and dissolution of Parliament
During his Presidency, Narayanan dissolved the Lok Sabha twice after determining through consultations across the political spectrum, that no one was in a position to secure the confidence of the house. Congress president Sitaram Kesri withdrew his party's support of the I. K. Gujral government and staked his claim to form the government on 28 November 1997. Gujral advised Narayanan of the dissolution of the Lok Sabha. President Narayanan determined that no one would be able to secure a majority in the Lok Sabha and accepted Gujral's advice (4 December). In the ensuing general elections, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) emerged as the single largest party, leading the largest pre-election coalition, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), and the coalition leader Vajpayee staked his claim to form the government, though at that point he did not have a majority. Narayanan asked Vajpayee to furnish letters of support to demonstrate the NDA's ability to secure a majority. Vajpayee was able to meet this demand after support for the NDA grew, and subsequently he was appointed Prime Minister (15 March 1998) on the condition (which was met) that a vote of confidence be secured within 10 days.
One of the coalition partners supporting the minority government (the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam under J. Jayalalithaa) wrote a letter to the President withdrawing support on 14 April 1999, and Narayanan advised Vajpayee to seek a vote of confidence in the Lok Sabha. This motion was defeated (17 April). Both Vajpayee and the Leader of the Opposition, Congress president Sonia Gandhi, then staked claims to form the government. Narayanan asked the NDA and the Congress party to show proof of support since the loss of the confidence vote. When evidence from neither party was forthcoming, Narayanan informed the Prime minister that fresh elections seemed to be the only way to resolve the crisis in governance. The Lok Sabha was then dissolved at Vajpayee's advice (26 April). (In the ensuing general elections, the NDA secured a majority and Vajpayee was reappointed Prime minister (11 October 1999) in a straightforward manner.)
In these decisions, President Narayanan set a new precedent concerning the appointment of a Prime minister – if no party or pre-election coalition had a majority, then a person would be appointed Prime minister only if he was able to convince the President (through letters of support from allied parties) of his ability to secure the confidence of the house. In doing so, he diverged from the actions of his predecessors who had been faced with the task of appointing a Prime minister from a hung parliament, Presidents N. Sanjiva Reddy, R. Venkataraman, and Shankar Dayal Sharma: the latter two had followed the practice of inviting the leader of the single largest party or pre-election coalition to form the government without investigating their ability to secure the confidence of the house.
- Imposition of President's rule
President Narayanan returned for reconsideration the advices from the Union cabinet to impose President's rule in a state, in accordance with Article 356, in two instances: one from the Gujral government (22 October 1997) seeking to dismiss the Kalyan Singh government in Uttar Pradesh, and the other from the Vajpayee government (25 September 1998) seeking to dismiss the Rabri Devi government in Bihar. In both instances, he cited the Supreme court judgement of 1994 on S. R. Bommai vs. Union of India and exercised his discretion. In both cases, the cabinet honoured the President's reservations. These remain the only occasions when a President urged such a reconsideration, and has set an important precedent concerning federalism and the rights of state governments.
- Kargil conflict
A military conflict was developed in Kargil on the Line of Control (LoC) with Pakistan in May 1999. The Vajpayee government had lost a no-confidence vote in Lok Sabha earlier that year and the opposition failed to form the next government. The Lok Sabha had been dissolved and a caretaker government was in office. This caused a problem with democratic accountability, as every major government decision is expected to be discussed, deliberated and consented by the parliament. Narayanan suggested to Vajpayee that the Rajya Sabha be convened to discuss the conflict, as demanded by several opposition parties (citing the precedent of Nehru convening a parliamentary session on Vajpayee's demand during the Sino-Indian war in 1962 ) though there was no precedent of convening the Rajya Sabha in isolation during an interregnum. Further, Narayanan was briefed by the chiefs of the three arms of the Indian Armed Forces on the conduct of the conflict. His Republic day address next year began by paying homage to the soldiers who had died defending the nation.
President Narayanan in his speeches consistently sought to remind the nation of its duties and obligations towards the Dalits and Adivasis, the minorities, and the poor and downtrodden. He called the nation's attention to various recalcitrant social ills and evils, such as atrocities against women and children, caste discrimination and the ingrained attitudes it nurtured, abuse of the environment and public utilities, corruption and lack of accountability in the delivery of public services, religious fundamentalism, advertisement-driven consumerism, and flouting of human rights, and lamented the absence of public concern, political debate, and civic action to address them. Drawing from the experiences of his own home state Kerala, he pointed out that education was at the root of human and economic development. He hoped that the establishment would not fear the awakening of the masses through education, and spoke of the need to have faith in the people.
President Narayanan spoke on various occasions on the condition of the Dalits, Adivasis, and other backward sections of society, and the various iniquities they faced (often in defiance of law), such as denial of civic amenities, ostracism, harassment and violence (particularly against women), and displacement by ill-conceived development projects.
He felt that the policy of reservations for the backward sections in education and the public sector had remained unfulfilled due to administrative distortions and narrow interpretations, and needed to be implemented with renewed vigour and sincerity; apprehensive of what he described as a counter-revolution among some privileged sections seeking to reverse progressive policies, he reminded the nation that these benefits were not charity, but had been provided by way of human rights and social justice to sections constituting a large portion of the population and contributing to the economy as landless agricultural labourers and industrial workers. In his 2002 Republic day address, he drew attention to the Bhopal Declaration on the Dalit and Adivasi agenda for the 21st century and spoke of the necessity of the private sector adopting policies to promote equitable representation of the backward sections in their enterprises. In a governmental note on higher judicial appointments (which leaked to the press; January 1999), he observed that eligible persons from the backward sections were available and that their under-representation or non-representation was not justifiable; K. G. Balakrishnan, a Dalit, was elevated to the Supreme court (8 June 2000), the fourth such instance, and the only one since 1989.
He felt that Ambedkar's exhortation to "educate, organise, agitate" continued to be relevant; with the Dalits forming a quarter of the population in a democracy with universal adult franchise, he felt that the ultimate destiny of the backward sections lay in the hands of the backward sections themselves, organised socially and politically.
When the Australian missionary and social worker Graham Staines and his two minor sons were burned alive (22 January 1999), President Narayanan condemned it as a barbarous crime belonging to the world's inventory of black deeds.
Towards the end of his Presidency, communal riots broke out in Gujarat (February 2002). President Narayanan was deeply pained and anguished, and described it as a grave crisis of the society and the nation; he called it the duty of every Indian to strive to restore peace and thus preserve and strengthen the foundations of the state and the tradition of tolerance. He did not stand the election for a second Presidential term due to the lack of support from the ruling government. After the demission of Presidential office, he lent his support to alternative globalisation movements like the World Social Forum. After he had left the Presidency, and after the Vajpayee government had been voted out of power in the general elections of May 2004, in an interview on the third anniversary of the riots (in February 2005), he said;
There was governmental and administrative support for the communal riots in Gujarat. I gave several letters to Prime Minister Vajpayee in this regard on this issue. I met him personally and talked to him directly. But Vajpayee did not do anything effective.
I requested him to send the army to Gujarat and suppress the riots. The military was sent, but they were not given powers to shoot. If the military was given powers to shoot at the perpetrators of violence, recurrence of tragedies in Gujarat could have been avoided.
However, both the state(the Narendra Modi government) and central government did not do so. I feel there was a conspiracy involving the state and central governments behind the Gujarat riots.
He also stated that constitutional limits on his powers had prevented him from doing anything further. Throughout his Presidency, Narayanan adopted the policy of not visiting places of worship or godmen/godwomen; he is the only President to have followed this practice.
Demission of office
As Narayanan's tenure neared its end, various sections of public opinion looked forward to a second term of his Presidency. The NDA had a slender majority in the electoral college. Narayanan offered to be a consensus candidate. The Opposition parties (including the Congress, the Left Front, Janata Dal (Secular), and various regional parties) supported a second term for him, and Sonia Gandhi met him to request his candidature; Vajpayee then met Narayanan, informed him that there was no consensus within the NDA on the question, and advised against his candidature. The NDA then proposed to elevate the Vice-President Krishan Kant as a consensus; this drew support from the Opposition and an agreement to this effect was conveyed by Vajpayee's representative to the Congress. However, within a day, the NDA unable to reach an internal consensus, decided to propose another candidate Dr. P. C. Alexander. Alexander's candidature drew disapproval of the Opposition parties. The Opposition parties approached Narayanan and renewed their request to seek a second term. The NDA then put forth a third candidate Abdul Kalam as their official choice, without seeking consensus; one opposition party (the Samajwadi Party under Mulayam Singh Yadav) dissipated the unity of the Opposition by supporting this proposal. Narayanan opted himself out from a contest at this point.
When asked about these events later, Narayanan accused the BJP of scuttling a second term of his Presidency.
In his farewell address to the nation (24 July 2002), K. R. Narayanan set his hopes for social action and progress on the service of the nation by its youth. He reflected on his varied experiences of the essential goodness and wisdom of the Indian people, recalling how he had grown up in Uzhavoor among adherents of several religions, how religious tolerance and harmony had prevailed, how upper-caste Hindus and well-off Christians had helped him in his early studies, and how upper-caste Hindus as well as Christians and Muslims had worked together enthusiastically for his election campaigns in Ottapalam. He said that the credibility and endurance of India's unity and democracy are founded on its tradition of tolerance, and spoke of the need for Hindus, who form the majority, to express the traditional spirit of their religion.
Reflecting on his Presidency, K. R. Narayanan said:
As the President of India, I had lots of experiences that were full of pain and helplessness. There were occasions when I could do nothing for people and for the nation. These experiences have pained me a lot. They have depressed me a lot. I have agonised because of the limitations of power. Power and the helplessness surrounding it are a peculiar tragedy, in fact.
After his retirement as President, K. R. Narayanan, along with his wife Usha, lived his remaining years in a central Delhi bungalow (on 34 Prithviraj Road).
At the World Social Forum (WSF) in Mumbai (21 January 2004), he lent his support to the alternative globalisation movement. Addressing the forum at its concluding session, he praised the WSF for demanding freedom in its most comprehensive form, and was happy that people had assembled under an important idea, rather than for narrow political ends; after reflecting on corporations displacing governments in various countries, and on how Mahatma Gandhi had fought British colonisers non-violently with the strength of the masses, he predicted that vocal masses the world over would successfully fight by non-violent means the capturing of the world's resources by a few corporations in the name of globalisation. He urged the people to struggle against power corporates and militarism and fight those aspects of globalisation which were against the interests of the people; he hailed people's power as a renascent factor of international politics.
K. R. Narayanan dedicated (15 February 2005) his tharavaadu at Uzhavoor to the Santhigiri Ashram in Pothencode for the purpose of establishing the Navajyothisree Karunakara Guru research centre for Siddha and Ayurveda. This turned out to be his last return to Uzhavoor.
K. R. Narayanan died on 9 November 2005 aged 85 at the Army Research and Referral Hospital, New Delhi, after being briefly ill with pneumonia and consequent renal failure. He was cremated with full state honours at sunset the following day, according to Hindu rites, which took place in Karma Bhumi near Rajghat, New Delhi.Every year on his death anniversary respects are paid at this Samadhi. The last rites were performed by his nephew Dr. P. V. Ramachandran, at Ekta sthal on the banks of the River Yamuna (adjacent to Shanti van, the memorial of his mentor Jawaharlal Nehru). Part of the urns containing the ashes were by taken by train to Haridwar where they were immersed in the Ganga by the eldest daughter in the presence of the Hindu pandit who performed the ceremony according to Hindu rites. The second part of the urns were accompanied by the younger daughter and taken to Kerala where the State Government arranged the procession to the Bharthapuzha river, a sacred river of Kerala.
Four siblings, K. R. Gowri, K. R. Bhargavi, K. R. Bharathi, and K. R. Bhaskaran, survived him; two elder brothers had died when Narayanan was in his twenties. His elder sister Gowri (a homoeopath, who remained unmarried) and his younger brother Bhaskaran (a teacher, also unmarried) had been living in Uzhavoor. Villagers of Uzhavoor marched silently to the tharavaadu of K. R. Narayanan and paid him reverent homage.
- From the sidelines of society
About his life and its message, K. R. Narayanan said:
I see and understand both the symbolic as well as the substantive elements of my life. Sometimes I visualise it as a journey of an individual from a remote village on the sidelines of society to the hub of social standing. But at the same time I also realise that my life encapsulates the ability of the democratic system to accommodate and empower marginalised sections of society.
The K. R. Narayanan Foundation
The K. R. Narayanan Foundation (K.R.N.F) founded in December 2005, aims at propagating the ideals and perpetuating the memory of K. R. Narayanan. K.R.N.F is a mission of collective action to provide better future to the most vulnerable sections of Kerala Society – women, children, disabled persons, the aged and other disadvantaged groups – by providing educational training, protecting their health and environment, improving their living conditions and strengthening their family and community. The paradigms of K.R.N.F revolves around five crucial elements;
- research and development on science and technology for the dissemination of eco-friendly rural technology to the poor
- human resource development
- attitudinal change and self-management
- economic empowerment to the poor.
The Foundation is to identify and honour the best in areas of national importance like Integrity in Public Life, Journalism, Civil Service, Medical Science, Social Service, Literature, Sports, Entertainment, Politics etc.
K.R.N.F is also producing a documentary (both in Malayalam and English) on the life of K. R. Narayanan, entitled The Footprints Of Survival, aimed at propagating the ideals and perpetuating the memory of K.R.Narayanan. This documentary will be directed by Mr. Sunny Joseph, a senior journalist. The script will be based on a biography of the late President written by Eby J. Jose, who is also the General Secretary of the K.R.N.F. The Foundation has planned to distribute DVD copies of the creative work to all schools, colleges and public libraries.
The Foundation General Secretary Eby J. Jose has written a biography of the late president titled K. R. Narayanan Bharathathinte Suryathejassu. It is written in Malayalam, the mother tongue of Dr. K. R. Narayanan. This book traces the not-so-rosy paths through which this great man had to travel.
- Manmohan Singh: Condolence message Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Interview with K. R. Narayanan on Independence day, 15 August 1998; by N. Ram, Editor, Frontline ["K. R. Narayanan in conversation with N. Ram", The Hindu, 10 November 2005. Retrieved 24 February 2006].
- K. R. Narayanan's interview with M. K. Gandhi, 10 April 1945; given in full in H. Y. Sharada Prasad: "How an interview with Gandhi was spiked", The Asian Age, n.d. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- LSE counts K. R. Narayanan among its distinguished alumni Archived 3 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine.; his portrait Archived 3 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. has been unveiled and placed in a position of honour; B. R. Ambedkar is the only other Indian to have been similarly honoured. . Retrieved 24 February 2006."Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 February 2009. Retrieved 2005-09-08.
- Some of his experiences as a Tata fellow are recounted here . . Retrieved 24 February 2006. Archived 30 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
- Gopalkrishna Gandhi: "A remarkable life-story", Frontline 22 (24), 5–18 November 2005. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Haresh Pandya: "K. R. Narayanan: Indian president from downtrodden caste", The Guardian, 29 November 2005. Retrieved 6 March 2006.
- P. T. Thomas: "Interview with K. R. Narayanan", Maanavasamskruthi 1 (8), February 2005, in Malayalam. English translation of part of the interview, at CHRO web page: Part I Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine.; Part II Archived 12 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine.. Additional translation of question on his relationship with the Left front in "Narayanan criticises Vajpayee for Gujarat riots", The Hindu, 10 November 2005. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- His speech Archived 30 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine. at Peking University while on a state visit, briefly describes his vision of relations between India and China. (Retrieved 24 February 2006.) Narayanan spoke Chinese, and had a scholarly knowledge of Chinese culture and history, particularly the cultural exchanges between the two countries. His visit as President eased tensions that had developed with China after the Pokhran nuclear tests.
- His banquet speech Archived 30 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine. welcoming Bill Clinton to Rashtrapati Bhavan briefly describes his vision of relations between India and the USA. . Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- "Her Excellency Tin Tin". The OutLook. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- "Chitra Narayanan concurrently accredited Ambassador to Holy See". News.oneindia.in. 7 August 2008. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
- "Results of Presidential poll". Archived from the original on 1 August 1997. Retrieved 2017-04-03. , 17 July 1997. Archived Aug. 1997.
- Diwanji, Amberish K. (1997). "The importance of a dalit President". Rediff. Retrieved 2 May 2006.
- K. R. Narayanan: "Inaugural address". Archived from the original on 4 August 1997. Retrieved 2017-04-03. , 25 July 1997. Archived Aug. 1997.
- K. R. Narayanan: Address on the golden jubilee of Indian independence Archived 30 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine., 15 August 1997. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- I. K. Gujral: Address to the nation from the ramparts of the Red fort on the golden jubilee of Indian independence, 15 August 1997. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Sukumar Muralidharan: "A role for the President" Archived 28 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine., Frontline 15 (5), 7–20 March 1998. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Sukumar Muralidharan: "A presidential intervention" Archived 23 September 2005 at the Wayback Machine., Frontline 18 (3), 3–16 February 2001. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- K. R. Narayanan: Address to the nation on the golden jubilee of the Republic, 26 January 2000. Retrieved 24 February 2006. Archived 24 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
- V. Venkatesan: "A wake-up call" Archived 18 February 2005 at the Wayback Machine., Frontline 17 (3), 5–18 February 2000. Retrieved 17 March 2006.
- Ammu Joseph: "Areas of darkness", Humanscape, April 2000 Archived 3 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
- P. Sainath:"Iron in the soul, decay in the brain" Archived 13 October 2005 at the Wayback Machine., Frontline 17 (3), 5–18 February 2000. Retrieved 17 March 2006.
- K. R. Narayanan: Address to parliament on the golden jubilee of the Republic, 26 January 2000. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- K. R. Narayanan: Address on Republic day, 26 January 2001. Retrieved 24 February 2006. Archived 10 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
- Sukumar Muralidharan, V. Venkatesan: "A presidential intervention" Archived 30 December 2005 at the Wayback Machine., Frontline 17 (3), 5 – 18 February 2000. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- K. R. Narayanan: "Rashtrapati Bhavan communique concerning the dissolution of the eleventh Lok Sabha". Archived from the original on 19 January 1998. Retrieved 2017-04-03. , 4 December 1997. Archived Jan. 1998.
- K. R. Narayanan: "Rashtrapati Bhavan communique concerning the appointment of the Prime minister". Archived from the original on 18 February 1999. Retrieved 2017-04-03. , 15 March 1998. Archived Feb. 1999.
- K. R. Narayanan: "Rashtrapati Bhavan communique concerning the dissolution of the twelfth Lok Sabha". Archived from the original on 20 February 2001. Retrieved 2017-04-03. , 26 April 1999. Archived Feb. 2001.
- K. R. Narayanan: "Rashtrapati Bhavan communique concerning the appointment of the Prime minister". Archived from the original on 12 October 2000. Retrieved 2017-04-03. , 11 October 1999. Archived Oct. 2000
- Venkitesh Ramakrishnan, Praveen Swami: "A crisis defused" Archived 16 December 2004 at the Wayback Machine., Frontline 14 (22), 1–14 November 1997. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Praveen Swami, Sudha Mahalingam: "The BJP's Bihar fiasco", Frontline 15 (21), 10–23 October 1998. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- V. Venkatesan: "Political echoes" Archived 29 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine., Frontline 16 (15), 17–30 July 1999. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- K. R. Narayanan: Speech Archived 30 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine. while inaugurating the new complex of the Kerala Legislature, 22 May 1998. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- K. R. Narayanan: "Message". Archived from the original on 7 June 2000. Retrieved 2017-04-03. on the first World convention of the Dalit international organisation in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 11 October 1998. Archived Jun. 2006.
- K. R. Narayanan: Address on Republic day, 26 January 2002. Retrieved 24 February 2006. Archived 10 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
- V. K. Madhavan Kutty: "Behind the leak" Archived 25 November 2005 at the Wayback Machine., Frontline 16 (3), 30 January – 12 February 1999. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Sukumar Muralidharan: "Wanted intervention, phoney controversy" Archived 29 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine., Frontline 16 (3), 30 January – 12 February 1999. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- K. R. Narayanan: "Letter". Archived from the original on 8 October 1999. Retrieved 2017-04-03. on the murder of Graham Staines and his two minor sons, 24 January 1999. Archived Oct. 1999.
- "President stays away from Holi celebrations". Archived from the original on 21 August 2002. Retrieved 2017-04-03. , 28 March 2002. Archived Aug. 2002.
- "Press release". Archived from the original on 23 August 2002. Retrieved 2017-04-03. on the President meeting with victims of Gujarat violence, 27 April 2002. Archived Aug. 2002.
- K. R. Narayanan: "Message". Archived from the original on 23 August 2002. Retrieved 2017-04-03. to the nation on Gujarat violence, 29 April 2002. Archived Aug. 2002.
- "Constitution limited my powers: Narayanan", The Hindu, 3 March 2005. Retrieved March 2006.
- Purnima S. Tripathi, Sukumar Muralidharan: "Elusive consensus" Archived 29 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine., Frontline 19 (12), 8–21 June 2002. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- V. Venkatesan: "The political dynamics" Archived 29 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine., Frontline 19 (13), 22 June-5 Jul 2002. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- K. R. Narayanan: Farewell address to the nation Archived 30 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine., 24 July 2002. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Manmohan Singh: Speech Archived 5 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine. on the dedication of K. R. Narayanan's tharavaadu for establishing a research centre in Indian medicine (Navajyothisree Karunakara Guru research centre for Siddha and Ayurveda), 15 February 2005. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Venkitesh Ramakrishnan: "Citizen President" Archived 26 March 2006 at the Wayback Machine., Frontline 22 (24), 5–18 November 2005. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Presidential addresses and other documents
- Inaugural address; 25 July 1997. Archived Aug. 1997.
- Address on the golden jubilee of Indian independence; 15 August 1997. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Rashtrapati Bhavan communique concerning the dissolution of the eleventh Lok Sabha; 4 December 1997. Archived Jan. 1998.
- Address on Republic day; 26 January 1998. Archived June 2000.
- Rashtrapati Bhavan communique concerning the appointment of the Prime minister; 15 March 1998. Archived Feb. 1999.
- Interview on Independence day; 15 August 1998; by N. Ram, Editor, Frontline ["K. R. Narayanan in conversation with N. Ram", The Hindu, 10 November 2005. Retrieved 24 February 2006].
- Address on Republic day; 26 January 1999. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Rashtrapati Bhavan communique concerning the dissolution of the twelfth Lok Sabha; 26 April 1999. Archived February 2001.
- Address on the golden jubilee of the Indian Republic; 26 January 2000. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Address in Parliament, and in the Supreme court, on the golden jubilee of the Republic; 26 January 2000. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Commentary: Sukumar Muralidharan, V. Venkatesan: "A presidential intervention", Frontline 17 (3), 5 - 18 February 2000. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Address on Republic day; 26 January 2001. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Commentary: Sukumar Muralidharan: "A presidential intervention", Frontline 18 (3), 3-16 February 2001. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Address on Republic day; 26 January 2002. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Farewell address in Parliament; 22 July 2002. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Farewell address to the nation; 24 July 2002. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Interview of February 2005 in which K. R. Narayanan accused the A. B. Vajpayee Government of complicity in the 2002 Gujarat riots; by P. T. Thomas, Congress legislator from Thodupuzha in the Kerala Legislative Assembly, and Editor, Maanavasamskruthi. ["Interview with K. R. Narayanan", Maanavasamskruthi 1 (8), February 2005, in Malayalam. English translation of part of the interview, at CHRO web page: Part I; Part II. Additional translation of question on his relationship with the Left front in "Narayanan criticises Vajpayee for Gujarat riots", The Hindu, 10 November 2005. Retrieved 24 February 2006.]
- Miscellaneous speeches and writings
- K. R. Narayanan's interview with M. K. Gandhi, 10 April 1945; given in full in H. Y. Sharada Prasad: "How an interview with Gandhi was spiked", The Asian Age, n.d. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Speech while inaugurating the new complex of the Kerala Legislature; 22 May 1998. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Message on the first World convention of the Dalit international organisation in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 11 October 1998. Archived June 2006.
- Letter on the murder of Graham Staines and his two minor sons; 24 January 1999. Archived Oct. 1999.
- Speech on Human rights day; 10 December 2001. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- President stays away from Holi celebrations; 28 March 2002. Archived Aug. 2002.
- Press release on the President meeting with victims of Gujarat violence; 27 April 2002. Archived Aug. 2002.
- Message to the nation on Gujarat violence; 29 April 2002. Archived Aug. 2002.
- "India empowered", Indian Express, 26 October 2005. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Other links concerning his life
- St. Mary's High School, Kuravilangad. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- C. M. S. College, Kottayam. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- University College, Trivandrum. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- J. N. Tata Scholarship. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- London School of Economics; K. R. Narayanan's portrait unveiled at LSE. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Interview with K. R. Gowri and K. R. Bhaskaran, K. R. Narayanan's siblings in Uzhavoor, after the announcement of his candidature for the Presidency, Rediff, 1997. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Results of Presidential poll; 17 July 1997. Archived Aug. 1997.
- Assumption of office as President, 25 July 1997; India News, 1-15 August 1997. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Prime minister I. K. Gujral's address to the nation from the ramparts of the Red fort on the golden jubilee of Indian independence; 15 August 1997. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Biography at Rashtrapati Bhavan during President K. R. Narayanan's term in office; Biography of First Lady Usha Narayanan. Archived February 2002.
- Navajyothisree Karunakara Guru research centre for Siddha and Ayurveda. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Prime minister Manmohan Singh's speech on the dedication of K. R. Narayanan's tharavaadu for establishing a research centre in Indian medicine; 15 February 2005. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Mari Marcel Thekaekara: "A President to be proud of", The Hindu, 22 April 2005. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Commentary: Mari Marcel Thekaekara: "Insight into the person", The Hindu, 11 November 2005. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Commentary by journalists
- Amberish K. Diwanji: "The importance of a Dalit President", Rediff, Jul. 1997. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Praveen Swami: "From demon to god", Frontline 14 (22), 1-14 November 1997. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Cites the report: "Dalit Hindu or Christian?", Rediff, 1997. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Ajay Singh:"MAN OF HIS TIME",Asiaweek,14 November 1997. Retrieved 18 March 2006.
- Venkitesh Ramakrishnan, Praveen Swami: "A crisis defused", Frontline 14 (22), 1-14 November 1997. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Sukumar Muralidharan: "A role for the President", Frontline 15 (5), 7-20 March 1998. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Praveen Swami, Sudha Mahalingam: "The BJP's Bihar fiasco", Frontline 15 (21), 10-23 October 1998. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Sukumar Muralidharan: "Wanted intervention, phoney controversy", Frontline 16 (3), 30 January - 12 February 1999. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- V. K. Madhavan Kutty: "Behind the leak", Frontline 16 (3), 30 January - 12 February 1999. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- V. Venkatesan: "Political echoes", Frontline 16 (15), 17-30 July 1999. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Praveen Swami: "A new chief for the Army", Frontline 20 (2), 18-31 January 2003. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Purnima S. Tripathi, Sukumar Muralidharan: "Elusive consensus", Frontline 19 (12), 8-21 June 2002. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- V. Venkatesan: "The political dynamics", Frontline 19 (13), 22 June-5 July 2002. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- A. G. Noorani: "The Indian Presidency", Frontline 19 (13), 22 June -5 July 2002. Retrieved 24 February 2006
- Sukumar Muralidharan: "Distinction and dignity: an assessment of K. R. Narayanan's eventful Presidential tenure", Frontline 19 (16), 3-16 August 2002. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- A. G. Noorani: "The legacy of a President", Rediff, 23 July 2002. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Siriyavan Anand: "Caste, religion, and the Indian Presidency", Himal, July 2002. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Obituaries and reminiscences
- Editorial of The Hindu: "A salute to Citizen Narayanan", The Hindu, 10 November 2005. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Gopalkrishna Gandhi: "KRN at the high table", The Hindu, 12 November 2005. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Gopalkrishna Gandhi: "A remarkable life-story", Frontline 22 (24), 5-18 November 2005. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Chandrabhan Prasad: "Losing a mentor", The Pioneer, 13 November 2005. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Venkitesh Ramakrishnan: "Citizen President", Frontline 22 (24), 5-18 November 2005. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- V. B. Rawat: "A tribute to K. R. Narayanan", Countercurrents, 15 November 2005. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- P. Sainath: "Compassion at the top", The Hindu, 11 November 2005. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Manmohan Singh: Condolence message, 9 November 2005. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Sita Ram Sharma: K. R. Narayanan: Just the President of India, Sublime Publications, 1998. ISBN 8185809232.
- Darshan Singh: K. R. Narayanan: A journey from Uzhavoor to Raisina Hills, United Children's Movement, 1999.
- Eby J. Jose: K.R.Narayanan Bharathathinte Suryathejassu, It is written in Malayalam,in the mother tongue of Dr. K.R. Narayanan, published by Jeevan Books, Bharananganam, 2006
- Books by K. R. Narayanan
- Nehru and his vision, D. C. Books, Kottayam, 1999. ISBN 8126400390
- India and America: essays in understanding, Second edition, Asia book corporation of America, 1998. ISBN 999764137X
- Images and insights, D. C. Books, Kottayam.
- Non-alignment in contemporary international relations (Joint authorship)
- Speeches and writings by K. R. Narayanan
- Nehru Memorial Lecture: "Nehru's vision of India and the world-- then and now"; 13 November 1997. Archived Jun. 2000.
- Message on the death of E. M. S. Namboodiripad; 19 March 1998. Archived May 1999.
- Message to Nelson Mandela on his 80th birthday; 17 July 1998. Archived Sep. 2000. (Message on his political retirement. Archived Jan. 2001.)
- Speech while dedicating the J. R. D. Tata ecotechnology centre; 29 July 1998. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Speech while unveiling the statue of Vallabhbhai Patel; 14 August 1998. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Letter to Amartya Sen on his being awarded the Nobel prize for Economics; 14 October 1998. Archived Oct. 1999.
- Message on the birth centenary of K. P. S. Menon; 18 October 1998. Archived Oct. 1999.
- Speech on the occasion of Buddha Mahotsav at Sarnath; 5 November 1998. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Speech while inaugurating the first International congress on agronomy, environment, and food security for the 21st century; 23 November 1998. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Message on the death of P. N. Haksar; 28 November 1998. Archived Oct. 1999. (Commemorative speech. Retrieved 24 February 2006.)
- Speech on Judicial reforms; 5 December 1998. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Speech on the birth centenary of Field Marshal K. M. Cariappa; 5 June 1999. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Speech at the All India Urdu editors conference; 29 July 1999. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Speech while accepting credentials from the Vatican Nuncio to India; 30 August 1999. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Speech on the golden jubilee of Hindi as the official language of India; 14 September 1999. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Message to Jiang Zemin on the occasion of the golden jubilee of the People's Republic of China; 30 September 1999. Archived Aug. 2000.
- Speech while unveiling the bust of Rajendra Prasad; 3 December 1999. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Message on the death of Shankar Dayal Sharma; 26 December 1999. Archived Apr. 2001.
- Banquet speech on the visit of Bill Clinton; 21 March 2000. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Address at Peking University; 30 May 2000. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Tribute to Pierre Trudeau; 28 September 2000. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Banquet speech on the visit of Vladimir Putin; 3 October 2000. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Commentary by journalists
- Praveen Swami: "Protecting secularism and federal fair play", Frontline 14 (22), 1-14 November 1997. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- A. G. Noorani: "The BJP and the Bommai case", Frontline 14 (24), 29 November-12 Dec 1997. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- Siriyavan Anand: "Untouchability is no 'internal matter' " Retrieved 24 February 2006.
- V. Venkatesan: "Judiciary and social justice", Frontline 17 (21), 14-27 October 2000. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
Shankar Dayal Sharma
|Vice-President of India
|President of India
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