K21

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K21
2014.5.20 육군 수도기계화보병사단 K-21 장갑차 전투사격훈련 K-21 combat firing practice, Republic of Korea Army Capital Mechanized Infantry Division (14299828042).jpg
K21 on combat firing practice
TypeInfantry fighting vehicle
Place of originSouth Korea
Service history
In service2009-present
Production history
DesignerAgency for Defense Development
Designed1999-2008
ManufacturerHanwha Defense Systems (formerly Doosan DST)
Unit cost$3.2 million
Produced2009-present
Specifications
Weight25.6 t (25.2 long tons; 28.2 short tons)
Length6.9 m (23 ft)
Width3.4 m (11 ft)
Height2.6 m (8.5 ft)
Crew3 crew + 9 passengers

Armor2519 aluminium alloy chassis. Layers consisting of S2 glass fiber reinforced Al2O3 ceramic armor

All round protection against 14.5×114mm API projectiles as well as 20 mm FSP

Frontal armour is resistant to 30 mm APDS rounds fired from a 2A72 autocannon (standard on BMP-3 turrets)

Roof armour is resistant to 155 mm artillery shell fragments

Soft- and hard-kill anti-missile defense systems, ERA, NERA (only for the K21 PIP)
Main
armament
K40 40 mm autocannon (80 rounds ready, 700 rounds maximum),
Two Hyungung ATGM launchers (planned)
Secondary
armament
7.62 mm M60 GPMG
EngineDoosan- D2840LXE diesel
740 hp (840 hp for the PIP)
Power/weight29.2 hp/tonne
SuspensionIn-arm Suspension Unit
Operational
range
500 km (310 mi)
Speed70 km/h (43 mph) (road)
40 km/h (25 mph) (cross-country)
7 km/h (4.3 mph; 3.8 kn) (water)

A replacement for the South Korean K200-series infantry fighting vehicles, formerly designated as K300 or XK21 KNIFV (Korea Next-generation Infantry Fighting Vehicle), is currently called the K21. The initial production began in 2009, with the Republic of Korea Army planning to field approximately 466 units. It is designed to effectively defeat other IFVs as heavily armed and armored as the BMP-3.[1]

History[edit]

Development began in 1999. A $77 million contract was awarded to Doosan DST for the NIFV prototype in 2003. Three prototype vehicles were delivered to the ROK Army in 2005. A contract for the first batch of K21 vehicles was signed in October 2008 worth $386.7 million. Production began in November 2009 after a ten-year development period. K21s will be deployed from 2013 through 2016.

Design[edit]

Construction[edit]

The K21 KNIFV's chassis is constructed entirely out of fiberglass, reducing the weight of the vehicle and enabling it to travel at higher speeds without bulky and powerful engines. The NIFV is to be lighter than other IFVs, including the American Bradley series, increasing both speed and payload.

The design was finally deemed production-ready in 2009, following 10 years in development and a research budget expenditure of approximately USD $80 million. More than 85% of the vehicle's design is domestic. However a redesign is in order following the sinking of two vehicles while engaged in amphibious operations, a board of inquiry found that the problem was a lack of buoyancy, a malfunctioning wave plate and a technical problem with the drain pump, all of which will be corrected in the new design.

Armaments[edit]

K-21 rear egress

The two-man turret on the K21 is armed with an S&T Dynamics K40 40 mm cannon[2] capable of firing APFSDS, high-explosive, smoke and multipurpose munitions, and a 7.62 mm machine gun. This is combined with an advanced fire-control system and gun stabilizer usually found on third-generation main battle tanks that makes the K21, together with the German Puma, able to move and engage the targets with high degree of accuracy at the same time. The ammunition for the autocannon is stored under the turret. The 40 mm cannon can fire up to 300 rounds per minute, with a projectile velocity of up to 1,005 m/s (3,300 ft/s). The improved APFSDS rounds fired from it is able to penetrate up to 160–220 mm (6.3–8.7 in) of armor, slightly higher than other APFSDS rounds, due to the self-sharpening process as the round penetrates the armour.

The multipurpose munition (한글: 복합기능탄) has several modes including proximity, air burst, armour-piercing and fragmentation. The mode is configured by the K21's FCS, which then transmits the necessary data to a small programmable fuse system inside the round before it is fired. This allows more control over the trajectory and impact of the round, expanding the scope of possible targets from medium armored vehicles to aircraft and infantry personnel.

Anti-tank armament includes an indigenous 3rd-generation ATGM, with performance similar to the Israeli Spike and armour penetration of 700 to 1,000 mm (28 to 39 in) of RHA base.

Sensors[edit]

The fire-control system is able to spot and track targets as far away as 6,000 metres (3.7 mi) away and identify them from up to 3,000 metres (1.9 mi) away. IFF sensors are also present. The vehicle also has hunter-killer capabilities with its separate commander's sight (IFV Commander's Panoramic Sight or ICPS) and gunner's sight (IFV Gunner's Primary Sight or IGPS), which can detect both ground and aerial targets. The sights are designed by Samsung Thales.

The gunner's sight is equipped with a third generation thermal viewer and a 1.54 μm laser rangefinder. It can detect targets from 6,000 meters away and identify them from 3,000 meters away. The commander's sight is equipped with the same system as the gunner's. This allows the gunner to use the commander's sight to engage targets if his own sight is disabled or destroyed. The commander of the vehicle also has the ability to override the command to take control of the turret and gun from the gunner.

Armour[edit]

Although not much is known about the composition of the K21's armour, the frontal armour of the vehicle is specifically designed to protect against large caliber automatic cannon rounds, primarily the 30 mm APDS munitions (30×165mm) for 2A72 automatic cannon used on BMP-3, which has approximately 50 mm (2.0 in) armour penetration at ranges of 1,000 m. The side armour is designed to protect against 14.5 mm AP rounds, which has approximately 25 mm (0.98 in) armour penetration at 1,000 m. The top can withstand fragments from 152 mm artillery shells exploding as close as 10 meters. It has been confirmed that the composite armour comprises S2-glass fibre and Al2O3 ceramic including lightweight aluminium alloy.[3]

The vehicle has a soft self-sealing fuel tank that can absorb the impact of a projectile.[4] There is also an automatic fire suppression system inside the vehicle to extinguish any internal fires that might erupt.

The K21 PIP will include an active protection suite and hard-kill anti-missile system similar to the AWiSS that will also be utilized for the K2 PIP. This will increase the vehicle's ability to defend itself against various ATGMs.

Troop deployment[edit]

The K21 is able to carry a total of 9 passengers and 3 more vehicle crew members. With the Battle Management System, the vehicle crew and passengers inside the vehicle can be instantly notified about the environment around them, improving their situational awareness. A 15 in (38 cm) screen is installed inside the passenger compartment, which provides various data from the BMS. The vehicle is mounted with an external CCD camera, and the passengers inside can survey the environment using the same screen.

Mobility[edit]

Amphibious driver training

The K21 is equipped with Doosan D2840LXE V-10 diesel engine, equipped with a turbocharger. The vehicle weight is approximately 25.6 tonnes which, combined with the total output of the engine, gives it a power/weight ratio of approximately 29 hp/t. The K21 PIP will feature an improved version of the engine that will give the vehicle an increased power of 840 hp.

A newly developed semi-active ISU, or In-arm Suspension Unit, is available for the K21. The same unit is to be used on the K2 Black Panther. Despite having the same ISU used on the K2 Black Panther, the K21 cannot change its posture.

The vehicle can travel on both land and water. "Pontoon System" gives more buoyancy to float on water when additional weight is put on to the vehicle.

Pricing[edit]

The average cost per unit is approximately 3.95 billion ($3.5 million USD) (2015).

Variants[edit]

Light tank[edit]

Doosan DST and Belgian firm Cockerill joined together in early 2013 to develop the Cockerill XC-8 turret for the K21 to provide a medium weight direct fire capability. The XC-8 is based on the Cockerill CT-CV 105HP turret and is fitted with a 105 mm or 120 mm gun. The 105 mm version fires all NATO 105 mm ammunition and can also use the Cockerill Falarick 105 Gun-Launched Anti-Tank Guided Missile (GLATGM). It has a maximum elevation of 42 degrees, allowing for a max indirect fire range of 10 km (6.2 mi). The 120 mm version fires all NATO 120 mm ammunition and can utilize the Cockerill Falarick 120 GLATGM. The missile can engage heavy armor beyond 5 km (3.1 mi). Both turrets have a two-man crew, are autoloaded, and are digital, fully stabilized, day/night weapon systems.[5]

In 2014, CMI Defence and Doosan DST publicly revealed the K21-105, a light tank version of the K21 chassis fitted with a CMI Defence CT-CV 105HP turret. Referred to as a medium tank by its developers, the vehicle weighs around 25 tons with a 3-man crew, and is cheaper to produce and maintain and has better mobility than actual tanks. The vehicle's main role is direct fire support for infantry against armored and soft-skinned vehicles, buildings, and fortifications. Main armament is a 105 mm rifled low-recoil gun that fires standard NATO and newly developed smart ammunition with a max direct fire range of 4 km (2.5 mi); although the gun would not be effective against modern main battle tanks, it can defeat older tanks that North Korea still has in widespread service. The gun can also fire the Ukrainian-designed laser-guided Falarick 105 GLATGM, which has a range of 5 km (3.1 mi) and a tandem warhead capable of penetrating 550 mm (22 in) of armor behind ERA. The turret has a bustle-mounted automatic ammunition loading system capable of firing 8 rounds per minute and stores rounds in the bustle compartment, separated from the crew. Secondary armament is a coaxial 7.62 mm machine gun plus an optional roof-mounted 12.7 mm machine gun in a remote weapon station. The K21-105 retains the protection level and amphibious capability of the K21 IFV.[6]

Future development[edit]

The ROK MoD announced plans for the development of the "K31" which is to be an improved version of the current K21. Official plans include reduction of the vehicle to 20 tons to enable airlift capabilities as well as a better integrated and improved interior for the crew. Advancements in firepower, mobility, and on-board technology are still yet to be confirmed.

Hanwha Defense have proposed a development of the K21 known as the AS21 Redback equipped with a large caliber automatic cannon for the Australian Army's LAND 400 Phase 3 IFV competition.[7][8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "K-21 K21 Doosan tracked armoured infantry fighting technical data sheet description information UK | South Korean Korean army light armoured vehicle UK | South Korea Korean army military equipment UK".
  2. ^ "Defence Industry Fire Division 40mm Single Cannon (K40)". S&T Dynamics.[permanent dead link]
  3. ^ 복합재 동체 Archived 5 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine.복합재 방호판 Archived 5 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Dacc Co., Ltd
  4. ^ "복합재 연료탱크". Archived from the original on 5 July 2015.
  5. ^ CMI Defence and Doosan DST Present a New 120/105mm Medium Tank Concept Archived 14 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine. - CMIgroupe.com, 18 February 2013
  6. ^ K21-105 - Military-Today.com
  7. ^ "Hanwha to offer AS21 Redback for LAND 400 Phase 3". Australian Defence Business Review. 31 August 2018. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  8. ^ "South Korea offers AS21 Redback tracked armored IFV to replace Australian M113AS4 | September 2018 Global Defense Security army news industry | Defense Security global news industry army 2018 | Archive News year".

External links[edit]