|Place of origin||South Korea|
|In service||1999 – present|
|Used by||See Operators|
|Wars||Bombardment of Yeonpyeong|
|Designer||Samsung Techwin, Agency for Defense Development|
|Manufacturer||Hanwha Land Systems (formerly Hanwha Techwin and Samsung Techwin)|
|Unit cost||$3.9 million|
|Variants||K10 Automatic ammunition re-supply vehicle|
|Weight||47 tonnes (K9)|
|Crew||5 (Commander, Driver, Gunner, 2 Loaders)|
|Maximum firing range||30,000 m (HE)|
38,000 m (DP-ICM base-bleed)
41,600 m (K307 Drag reduction. Extended range full-bore base-bleed)
52–56,000 m (K315. BB+RAP extended range)
|52 cal (155mm howitzer)|
|12.7 mm (.50 caliber) K6 HMG|
|Engine||MTU Friedrichshafen MT 881 Ka-500 8-cylinder water-cooled diesel engine|
|Transmission||S&T Dynamics X1100-5A3|
The K9 Thunder is a South Korean self-propelled 155 mm howitzer developed by Samsung Techwin for the Republic of Korea Armed Forces and now manufactured by Hanwha Land Systems. It was developed to supplement and then replace the K55 self-propelled howitzers in South Korean service. K9 howitzers operate in groups with the K10 automatic ammunition resupply vehicle variant (see below).
The development program of the 155 mm/52-caliber self-propelled howitzer has been underway since 1989. The howitzer is based on the design of the M109A2, but is equipped with a larger turret. The K9 Thunder self-propelled howitzer was developed as a replacement for the M109A2K. In 1996, the first prototype of this new artillery system was tested. The contract for the new K9 artillery system was awarded to Samsung Aerospace Industries (SSA) by the Korean Government on 22 December 1998. The Republic of Korea Army received its first batch of K9 in 1999.
The K9 Thunder saw its first combat during the bombardment of Yeonpyeong on November 23, 2010. Six ROKMC howitzers engaged against the surprise attack from the North Korean artillery. Prior to the battle, the howitzers returned from a scheduled firing exercise, using most of the shells stored within the howitzer. In addition, one howitzer experienced a problem during the exercise when a shell became stuck in the barrel, disabling it. Two units received slight damage to their firing control systems during the initial North Korean attack, meaning only three out of the six units were able to counterattack. Eventually, the howitzer that had barrel problems joined the second counterattack after receiving field repairs. The K9s fought back in the ratio of shooting one shell every one minute and 30 seconds, because the marines had to carry the shells from the armory and manually load the howitzer under heavy fire after exhausting B/L rounds.
K9 is an indigenous system of an all-welded steel armour construction which is rated to withstand 14.5 mm armour piercing rounds, 152 mm shell fragments, and anti-personnel mines. The main armament consists of a 155 mm/52 caliber ordnance with a maximum firing range of 40 km; the K307 BB-HE projectile propelled by the K676 top charge has a muzzle velocity of 928 m/s (3,040 ft/s). State-of-the-art mobility subsystems include a 1,000 horsepower (750 kW) engine with potential for growth and hydropneumatic suspension unit, a requirement for Korea's rugged mountainous terrain.
It was designed to give the artillery arm of the Republic of Korea Army a significant improvement in capability. With a claimed range of 75 km, it offers greater mobility, longer range, higher rate of fire, and increased battlefield survivability, as it can quickly be brought into action, open fire, and come out of action. It is less likely to be engaged by counter-battery fire, by relying on shoot-and-scoot. The unit also supports full CBRN protection.
In June 2016, the Defense Acquisition Program Administration (DAPA) revealed they were designing a new fully automatic projectile-and-charge loading system that will be retrofitted to the K9, essentially giving it a robotic turret. The purpose is to reduce the crew needed to operate the vehicle to two in order to mitigate personnel losses expected to be suffered during North Korean attacks.
The K9 has the ability to fire its shells in MRSI mode (Multiple Rounds Simultaneous Impact). In the MRSI mode, the K9 is able to fire three shells in under 15 seconds—1 shell every 5 seconds—each in different trajectories so that all of the shells will arrive on their target at the same time.
K10 Ammunition Resupply Vehicle (ARV)
The K10 is an automatic ammunition resupply vehicle built on the K9 platform, part of the K9 Thunder system. It shares the same chassis as K9, preserving K9's mobility, and can follow the main artillery battery without lagging behind. Maximum transfer rate of shells is 12 rounds per minute, and maximum load of shells is 104 rounds.
The reloading process is fully automated. The reloading is done through a munition bridge on the K10 that extends out to lock itself into a reception hole located at the rear of the K9. This allows the unit to rearm itself under harsh combat conditions without the crew having to expose themselves to the combat environment.
Samsung Techwin sold the K9 subsystems to Turkey. Turkey received its first batch of the K9 subsystems and the license to domestically produce the subsystems in 2004, in a deal that amounted to $1 billion. The domestic Turkish self-propelled howitzer was named as T-155 Firtina. Turkey is expected to field a force of 300 Firtinas by 2011. Samsung Techwin has also formed a venture on 29 March 2012 with Indian conglomerate Larsen and Toubro to supply the K9 for the Indian Army Howitzer competition.
The K9 was a contender for Phase 1C of Australia's Land 17 Artillery Replacement Program prior to that phase of the project being cancelled in May 2012.
In September 2015, Larsen and Toubro emerged as the finalist for a US$800 million contract to supply 100 self-propelled howitzers to the Indian Army. The vehicle is the K9 VAJRA-T, a variant of the K9 specially designed for operation in the desert areas bordering Pakistan. India has not had any new artillery pieces since the 1980s and several rounds of modernization plans since 1999 had failed to select a gun. India has been at a distinct disadvantage against Pakistan regarding self propelled artillery since the United States supplied them with 115 M109A5 cannon in 2009. The final process to sign the contract could take up to six more months.
In July 2016, the Finnish Ministry of Defence announced that an undisclosed number of used K9s have been selected to be acquired from the Republic of Korea. The acquisition is claimed to be biggest of the decade for the Land Forces, whose both mobile and towed artillery face mass outdating in the 2020s. In February 2017, the Ministry of Defence announced that Finland will acquire 48 used K9s over a period of seven years starting in 2018, with conscript training on the equipment commencing in 2019.
On August 24, 2016 the Norwegian Defence Materiel Agency published their intention to continue negotiations with Hanwha Techwin and Swiss RUAG, which has offered their M109 KRAIT upgrade. At the same time, the NDMA said that negotiations concerning the KMW made Panzerhaubitze 2000 and the Nexter Caesar had been put "on hold". Unnamed sources in the Norwegian Army had previously stated that the K9 was a leading candidate in the competition. A contract is expected to be awarded in the middle of 2017. Estonia has also confirmed its decision to purchase K9 Thunders. According to other sources Estonia is teaming up with Finland in the procurement of the K9 and will order 12 howitzers. At the end of June 2018 Rauno Sirk, the director of the Estonian military procurement agency, said in a statement, that Estonia will buy K9 Thunder howitzers, the first of the twelve will arrive in the country in 2020. 
In April 2017, it was reported that Hanwha Techwin was in negotiations with Egypt to export its K9 Thunder self-propelled howitzer. The K9 Thunder is one of the contenders for supplying Egypt with new artillery systems, other howitzers competing with the K9 include those from Russia, South Africa and France, specifically the CAESAR self-propelled howitzer. South Korea's K9 self-propelled howitzer began performance evaluation tests in Egypt at the end of July 2017. A K9 howitzer arrived in Egypt earlier that month for test-firing at a range located west of Cairo. Egypt plans to complete performance evaluations of the howitzer by the end of the year and sign a contract in early 2018.
Variants and upgrades
- XK9: Experimental prototype.
- K9 Thunder: First-production variant.
- K9 VAJRA-T(Lightning): Indian variant of the K9.
- K9FIN Moukari (Sledge-hammer): Finnish variant of the K9.
- K9A1(K9 PIP): APU, A pilot IR periscope, Rear surveillance camera (such as a K1E1 tank), Fire control HW/SW upgrade 
- K10: Ammunition resupply vehicle using the K9 chassis.
- T-155 Fırtına: Turkish version with modified turret, chassis, electronics and navigation system.
- AHS Krab: Polish self-propelled howitzer, using the K9 chassis and AS-90 turret.
On 26 June 2018, Estonia signed an agreement with South Korea for the procurement of 12 K9 self-propelled howitzers, with a reported option for 12 additional artillery systems. The agreement also includes training, maintenance and spare parts. Deliveries to start in 2020.
10 units were brought from South Korea and assembled by L&T in India, were to be handed over to the Indian Army during Defexpo 2018. Rest of the 100 will be produced by Larsen & Toubro for the Indian Army. The first batch of 25 units was delivered to the Indian Army in May 2018.
1,136 K9s and 179 K10s have been ordered.
Norway has selected the K9 Thunder + 6 units of K10 in its bid to replace their current M109A3GNMs dating from the 1960s. 24 units of K9 will be purchased, with an option of 24 more. Deliveries are scheduled to begin in 2019.
See T-155 Fırtına
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