Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan
|Founded||August 16, 1945|
|International affiliation||Socialist International (Consultative member)
Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization
|Slogan||“Democracy for Iran, Autonomy for Kurdistan”|
|Participant in Iran crisis of 1946, 1967 Kurdish revolt in Iran, 1979 Kurdish rebellion in Iran, Consolidation of the Iranian Revolution, KDPI–Komala conflict, Iran–Iraq War, KDPI insurgency (1989–96), 2016 West Iran clashes|
|Leaders||Mustafa Barzani (1940s)|
|Area of operations||Iraqi Kurdistan; Kurdistan and West Azerbaijan Provinces in Iran|
The Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan (PDKI; Kurdish: Hîzbî Dêmukratî Kurdistanî Êran, HDKA; Persian: حزب دموکرات کردستان ایران, translit. Ḥezb-e Demokrāt-e Kordestān-e Īrān), also known as the Kurdish Democratic Party of Iran (KDPI), is a militia leftist ethnic party of Kurds in Iran, exiled in northern Iraq. It is banned in Iran and thus not able to operate openly.
Since 1979, KDPI has waged a persistent yet thus far unsuccessful guerrilla war against the Government of Islamic Republic of Iran, during 1979–1983 Kurdish insurgency, its 1989–1996 insurgency and recent clashes in 2016. Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps officials have called the party a terrorist organization.
Hyeran Jo of Texas A&M University classifies KDPI as "compliant rebels", i.e. rebels that kill fewer than 100 and refrain from killing for more than half of their operating years. In order to gain domestic and international legitimacy, the party has denounced use of violence against civilians, claimed commitment to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Geneva Convention Article 3, and as of 2007 is one of the signatories to the Geneva Call's ban on anti-personnel mines.
Qazi Muhammad founded the PDKI in Mahabad, Iran, on 16 August 1945. On 22 January 1946, Qazi Muhammad declared a Kurdish Republic of Kurdistan, of which he formally became president. The Republic lasted less than a year: after the USSR retreated from the area, the Imperial Iranian army first reclaimed Iranian Azerbaijan, followed by Mahabad on 15 December 1946. After the fall of the Republic, many of the PDKI leaders were arrested and executed, effectively ending the party.
Against the Shah
The PDKI cooperated with the Tudeh party and saw a short revival under the anti-Shah administration of Mohammad Mosaddegh (1951–53), but this ended after Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi took full control again in the 1953 Iranian coup d'état. In 1958, the PDKI was on the verge of unifying with the Iraqi Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP), but was then dismantled by the SAVAK secret police. The remains of the PDKI continued to support the KDP, but this changed as the Shah started aiding the KDP, which fought against the Iraqi regime that had overthrown the royal Hashemite dynasty. In return for the Shah's aid, the KDP decreased its support for the PDKI.
The PDKI reorganised itself, marginalising its pro-KDP leader Abd-Allah Ishaqi (also known as Ahmad Tawfiq), adding new communist and nationalist members, and forming the Revolutionary Committee to continue the struggle against the Iranian regime. The Committee began an unsuccessful revolution in March 1967, ending after 18 months.
After reforms by a new leader, Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou, the PDKI fought alongside Islamic and Marxist movements against the Shah, culminating in the 1979 Iranian Revolution. Khomeini's new Islamic regime, however, refused the Kurdish demands, suppressing the PDKI and other Kurdish parties. The PDKI continued its activities in exile, hoping to achieve "Kurdish national rights within a democratic federal republic of Iran".
Against the Islamic Republic
In January 1981, Iraq supported the party in the Iranian cities of Nowdesheh and Qasr-e Shirin and provided weapons supplies to the PKDI. This move was made so as the party stops Tehran from using the Tehran-Baghdad highway. The PKDI hoped as well to establish a level of autonomy in the area. However, the Iranian forces staged a series of debilitating attacks against the KDPI, leaving them a "marginal military factor during much of the Iran-Iraq War".
In 1997, the party's call for abstaining the presidential election remained largely ignored by Kurdish citizens in Iran and amid a high turnout in Kurdistan Province, a large number voted for Mohammad Khatami.
By 2004, Seymour Hersh in the June 28, 2004 issue of the New Yorker magazine reported that Israel has started The highest PDKI organ is the Central Committee, composed of 21 permanent and 10 substitute members, elected in PDKI Congresses. The Central Committee elects 7 of its members for the executive Political Bureau, which also includes the Secretary-General. The current Secretary-General is Mustafa Hijri.
In 2015, a 25-year-old Kurdish woman, Farinaz Khosravani, was allegedly raped by a member of the Iranian Revolutionary Guard. She committed suicide and her death struck a nerve among the Iranian Kurdish community of Mahabad. Mass protests erupted and the government reacted by executing an alleged 84 of its supporters and arresting dozens more. As a result, Hadaka announced it was reviving its armed struggle early in 2016.
Senior party member Mohammed Nazif Qaderi said:
Our strength is drawn from the Kurds and other Iranian ethnicities - Turkish, Balug, Arab and Turkmen. People striving for democracy in Iran support us ... The Iranian regime is a bloody one, so our voice may become effective to lead to a popular uprising.
The party's leader, Secretary-General Mustafa Hijri, went further:
The Iranian regime is weak, contrary to what it pretends. It's involved in action on many fronts, like Iraq, Yemen and Syria. Internally, the regime is facing discontent from the Iranian people.
Mohammed Nazif Qaderi, Hadaka, senior party member, said:
The Iranian regime is a bloody one so our voice may become effective to lead to a popular uprising.
Mykonos restaurant assassinations
Sadeq Sharafkandi's murder became an international incident between Germany and Iran. On 17 September 1992, PDKI leaders Sadegh Sharafkandi, Fattah Abdoli, Homayoun Ardalan and their translator Nouri Dehkordi were assassinated at the Mykonos Greek restaurant in Berlin, Germany. In the Mykonos trial, the courts found Kazem Darabi, an Iranian national who worked as a grocer in Berlin, and Lebanese Abbas Rhayel, guilty of murder and sentenced them to life in prison. Two other Lebanese, Youssef Amin and Mohamed Atris, were convicted of being accessories to murder. In its 10 April 1997 ruling, the court issued an international arrest warrant for Iranian intelligence minister Hojjat al-Islam Ali Fallahian after declaring that the assassination had been ordered by him with knowledge of Grand Ayatollah Ali Khamenei and President Ayatollah Rafsanjani.
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The PDKI has held fifteen congresses. These occurred in 1945, 1964, 1971, 1980, 1982, 1984, 1985, 1988, 1992, 1995, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012.
During the 20th Congress of the Socialist International, held at the headquarters of the United Nations in New York City (9–11 September 1996), the PDKI was given the status of observer member. In 2005, the PDKI's membership was elevated to consultative status.
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- Qazi Muhammad (1945–1947)
- Ahmad Tofiq (1947–1973)
- Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou (1973–1989)
- Sadegh Sharafkandi (1989–1992)
- Abdullah Hasanzadeh (1993–2004)
- Mustafa Hijri (2004–)
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The KDPI (which had moved to the left in the meantime) adopted an anti-imperialist position, declaring their opposition to the Shah's regime...
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For example, the Soviet Union supported the Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan (KDPI), first against the shah's regime in Iran and then gainst the religious revolutionary regime. Throught the Cold War period, the Soviet funds were regularly channeled to the KDPI.
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Throughout much of the 1980s, the KDPI received aid from the Ba'thi regime of Saddam Hussein, but Ghassemlou broke with Baghdad in 1988 after Iraq used chemical weapons against Kurds in Halabja and then forced Kurdish villagers to...
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From 1993 to 1995, Ankara was willing to use its support of the KDPI as a lever to prevent Iran from supporting the PKK
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Morteza Esfandiari, the KDPI representative in the U.S., told me that KDPI had applied to get some of the 85 million dollars allocated to "promote democracy" in Iran in order to improve its satellite TV station. "We are friends with the United States. What other friends can we find in the world, other than the United States?"
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The Iraqi PUK and Iranian KDPI have often assisted each other, and roughly 5,000 Kurdish volunteers from Turkey went to Iran to fight Khomeini's government forces in 1979.
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The KDPI and Komala agreed to cooperate in late 1982 and enjoyed two years of military success, but when they split...
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Moreover, in August 2012, the KDPI and the Komala, now led by Abdullah Mohtadi, reached a strategic agreement calling for federalism in Iran to undo the national oppression suffered by the Kurds.
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During the late 1940s and the early 1950s, the Kurdistan Democratic Party of Iran (KDPI) cooperated closely with the Tudeh, or Iranian Communist Party.
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Between 1984 and 1991, the KDPI and Komala fought each other vigorously.
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