Carboxypeptidase D

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(Redirected from KEX1 carboxypeptidase)
Carboxypeptidase D
EC no.
CAS no.153967-26-1
IntEnzIntEnz view
ExPASyNiceZyme view
MetaCycmetabolic pathway
PDB structuresRCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum

Carboxypeptidase D can refer to one of several enzymes. A family of serine carboxypeptidases (i.e. enzymes that use an active site serine residue) includes (EC, cereal serine carboxypeptidase II, Saccharomyces cerevisiae KEX1 gene product, carboxypeptidase Kex1, gene KEX1 serine carboxypeptidase, KEX1 carboxypeptidase, KEX1 proteinase, KEX1DELTAp, CPDW-II, serine carboxypeptidase, Phaseolus proteinase) is an enzyme.[1][2][3][4] This enzyme has an optimal pH of 4.5-6.0, is inhibited by diisopropyl fluorophosphate, and catalyses the following chemical reaction

Preferential release of a C-terminal arginine or lysine residue

A completely distinct enzyme has also been named carboxypeptidase D (EC number This second enzyme is a metallocarboxypeptidase (i.e. uses a zinc ion in the active site instead of a serine residue) and is broadly expressed in mammalian tissues.[5] Like the serine carboxypeptidase, the metallocarboxypeptidase D also removes C-terminal arginine or lysine residues from peptides, with an optimal pH range of 5 to 7. Metallocarboxypeptidase D is located in the trans Golgi network where it contributes to the biosynthesis of neuropeptides and peptide hormones (such as insulin) along with carboxypeptidase E. In addition to this role, metallocarboxypeptidase D contributes to the processing of proteins, following the action of furin (an endoprotease located in the trans Golgi network). The duck ortholog of metallocarboxypeptidase D was named gp180 and is a receptor for uptake of duck hepatitis B virus.[6] In fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), carboxypeptidase D is known as the silver mutation, with defects causing altered wing shape.[7] Metallocarboxypeptidase D is generally a membrane-bound protein, although in some organisms a soluble form is generated by either differential RNA splicing or by proteolytic activity.[8][9] In the scientific literature, most of the published articles using the name "Carboxypeptidase D" in the title refer to metallocarboxypeptidase D and not the serine carboxypeptidase.


  1. ^ Breddam, K. (1986). "Serine carboxypeptidases. A review". Carlsberg Res. Commun. 51 (2): 83–128. doi:10.1007/bf02907561.
  2. ^ Breddam, K.; Sørensen, S.B.; Svendsen, I. (1987). "Primary structure and enzymatic properties of carboxypeptidase II from wheat bran". Carlsberg Res. Commun. 52 (4): 297–311. doi:10.1007/bf02907172.
  3. ^ Dmochowska, A.; Dignard, D.; Henning, D.; Thomas, D.Y.; Bussey, H. (1987). "Yeast KEX1 gene encodes a putative protease with a carboxypeptidase B-like function involved in killer toxin and α-factor precursor processing". Cell. 50 (4): 573–584. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(87)90030-4. PMID 3301004. S2CID 22884209.
  4. ^ Liao, D.-I.; Breddam, K.; Sweet, R.M.; Bullock, T.; Remington, S.J. (1992). "Refined atomic model of wheat serine carboxypeptidase II at 2.2-Å resolution". Biochemistry. 31 (40): 9796–9812. doi:10.1021/bi00155a037. PMID 1390755.
  5. ^ Song L, Fricker LD (1995). "Purification and characterization of carboxypeptidase D, a novel carboxypeptidase E-like enzyme, from bovine pituitary". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (42): 25007–13. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.42.25007. PMID 7559630.
  6. ^ Eng FJ, Novikova EG, Kuroki K, Ganem D, Fricker LD (1998). "gp180, a protein that binds duck hepatitis B virus particles, has metallocarboxypeptidase D-like enzymatic activity". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (14): 8382–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.14.8382. PMID 9525948.
  7. ^ Settle SH, Green MM, Burtis KC (1995). "The silver gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes multiple carboxypeptidases similar to mammalian prohormone-processing enzymes". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 92 (21): 9470–4. Bibcode:1995PNAS...92.9470S. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.21.9470. PMC 40823. PMID 7568156.
  8. ^ Sidyelyeva G, Fricker LD (2002). "Characterization of Drosophila carboxypeptidase D". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (51): 49613–20. doi:10.1074/jbc.M209652200. PMID 12393882.
  9. ^ Song L, Fricker LD (1996). "Tissue distribution and characterization of soluble and membrane-bound forms of metallocarboxypeptidase D." J. Biol. Chem. 271 (46): 28884–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.46.28884. PMID 8910535.

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