Korean People's Air Force
Korean People's Army Air Force
|Founded||20 August 1947|
|Part of||Korean People's Army|
|Commanding General of the KPAF||General Ri Pyong-chol|
|VMAR Cho Myong-rok
Col. Gen. Oh Gum-chol
|Attack||Shenyang F-5 · Su-7 · Nanchang Q-5 · Su-25|
|Bomber||Harbin H-5 · Ilyushin Il-28|
|Fighter||Chengdu F-7B · Shenyang F-5
Shenyang F-6 · MiG-21 · MiG-23 · MiG-29
|Reconnaissance||An-24 · Tu-143|
|Trainer||L-39 · MiG-15 · Nanchang CJ-6|
|Transport||IL-76 · AN-24 · AN-2|
The Korean People's Army Air Force, (Chosŏn'gŭl: 조선인민군 공군; Hanja: 朝鮮人民軍 空軍), is the name of the unified aviation forces of North Korea. The KPAF is the second-largest branch of the Korean People's Army with an estimated 110,000 personnel. It possesses between 1,600 and 1,700 aircraft of different types, mostly of Soviet and Chinese origin. Its primary task is to defend North Korean airspace. When the People's Army was formed up with Soviet help, the aviation unit became its air force branch on August 20, 1947. North Korea has celebrated August 20 as Air Force Foundation Day ever since.
- 1 History
- 2 Organization
- 3 Personnel and training
- 4 Structure
- 5 Aircraft Inventory
- 6 Aircraft subtypes and capabilities
- 7 Air Defense
- 8 Capabilities
- 9 Ranks and uniforms
- 10 Defections
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Kim Il-sung set up the Aviation Association branches in Pyongyang, Sinuiju, Chongjin and other parts of the country in 1945. In December 1945 he merged them into the Aviation Association of Korea. The air force became a separate service in 1948. The KPAF incorporates much of the original Soviet air tactics, as well as North Korean experience from the UN bombings during the Korean War. In 1990-91, North Korea activated four forward air bases near the DMZ.
Given North Korea's experience with heavy U.S. bombardments in the Korean War, its aim has been mainly to defend North Korean airspace. The heavy reliance on fighter aircraft, Surface-to-air missile and Anti-aircraft warfare reflects this. However, since nearly all of North Korea's aircraft inventory consists of aging and obsolete Soviet and Chinese aircraft, the primary goal of the air force may have changed in the last years to providing ground support for the land forces and threatening South Korean population centers and military targets with a massive air attack.
In this way, North Korea could try to maintain military parity with South Korea by using its air force as a deterrent, much like its ballistic missiles, instead of trying to maintain a technological parity in aircraft types for individual air to air roles. This seems to be confirmed by the recent redeployment of 120 mostly obsolete fighters, bombers and transport aircraft closer to the demilitarized zone, even though 440 modern aircraft are also based near the DMZ. Keeping in mind the production, storage and use of a vast chemical, biological and possibly nuclear weapons inventory by North Korea, this change in doctrine is even more significant.
Personnel and training
The KPAF is estimated to possess a total strength of 110,000. Personnel for the KPAF are obtained through voluntary enlistment, conscription and assignments from other branches of the KPA. The selection criteria for the KPAF are higher than for the ground forces or navy. This has resulted in a force which is qualitatively above the national average in the level of education, technical proficiency, political reliability and ideological conviction. In general, Non-commissioned officers and privates of the KPAF are required to serve three years and those with technical specialisations serve four years.
Officers serve for 20–30 years and are usually discharged only for physical disability, illegal activities or political reasons. All pilots are believed to be members of the Korean Workers' Party. Base pay is determined by duty assignment and rank rather than by rank alone. All officers receive longevity pay and pilots are given several additional allowances. Pilots receive a higher rate of flight pay for hours flown during adverse weather or at night. Enlisted ground crews receive only base pay. Air crews probably receive base pay plus small allowances.
The pilots receive better treatment than officers of the same rank in the KPAF or equivalent ranks in the other armed forces. In spite of the severe shortage of food within North Korea during the 1990s, pilots - although they do not receive a full ration - had priority for food in their units. Pilots' food rations in 2000 consisted of about 850 Calories per day. This is increased to 950 Calories during periods of flight training. On national holidays pilots also receive special rations, including buckwheat and beef. Pilots receive an extra clothing allowance, although alcohol and cigarettes are strictly rationed. Pilots and support personnel assigned to overseas deployments live in sharp contrast to their companions at home, enjoying the use of cars, television, refrigerators and easy access to food and consumer goods. The morale among the KPAF pilots is high relative to their ground force.
From 1978 to 1995 General Jo Myong-rok was the commander of the air force. In October 1995 he was promoted to vice-marshal and appointed Chief of the KPA General Political Bureau and a member of the Korean Workers' Party Central Military Committee. His place as commander of the Air Force was taken by Colonel General Oh Gum-chol.
In general, pilot education is conducted under a plan by which fighter pilots are trained by the type of aircraft they will fly, then assigned to units having that type of aircraft. Transport and helicopter pilot training follows a similar pattern. The KPAF's two primary schools are the Kim Ch'aek Air Force Academy located at Chongjin and the Kyongsong Flight Officers School. In addition to these, there are a number of smaller specialized schools and courses.
For example, during the mid-1990s the Kim Ch'aek Air Force Academy could not meet the demand for officers and so a short-term course was established at the KPAF headquarters located at Chunghwa-kun, Pyongyang-Si. It was a one year course for senior enlisted personnel which concentrated upon command and administration. Courses typically last four years. The majority of the cadets enrolled in the pilot training program are graduates of high schools or colleges and come from families with reliable political backgrounds (to reduce the risk of defection).
Annual flying hours
The number of annual flying hours (AFH) per pilot is, like almost every other aspect of the KPAF, very hard to estimate. Most sources on the subject abstain from giving hard numbers, but all of them estimate the average annual flying hours per pilot as being 'low' to 'very low'. The number of annual flying hours is of course very important in estimating the individual skill and experience of the pilots of an air force and the general rule of thumb is 'the more the merrier'. Most estimates present a rather grim picture: AFH per pilot for the KPAF are said to be only 15 or 25 hours per pilot each year - comparable to the flying hours of air forces in ex-Soviet countries in the early 1990s. In comparison, most NATO fighter pilots fly at least 150 hours a year. Ground training, both in classrooms, on instructional airframes or in a flight simulator can only substitute for 'the real thing' to a certain degree, and the low number of modern jet trainers in the KPAF arsenal points to a very modest amount of flying time for the formation of new pilots.
There are a number of possible explanations for the low AFH: concern over the aging of equipment, scarcity of spare parts - especially for the older aircraft - difficulties with worn airframes, fear of defection and the scarcity of fuel are all contributing factors. It is very likely however that some 'elite' pilots and regiments receive considerably more flying hours. Especially those equipped with modern aircraft and tasked with homeland defence - like the 57th regiment flying MiG-29s and the 60th regiment flying MiG-23s - are receiving multiple times the average AFH per pilot; however, aging equipment, the scarcity of fuel and the general economic crisis in the DPRK will affect these regiments as well, and keep their AFH low compared to NATO AFH.
AFP reported on January 23, 2012 that the KPAF had conducted more flight training than average in 2011.
The Chosun Ilbo reported on March 29, 2012 that the KPAF had dramatically increased the number of flights to 650 per day.
- Northwestern area
Uiju Airfield ( )
- 24th Air Wing (Transport) - operating transport aircraft, Il-28 or Harbin B-5s and disassembled MiG-21s
- Air Wing- operating MiG-17F/J-5, F-5/FT-5
- 5th Air Transport Wing
- Kaech'on Airfield - Headquarters, 1st Air Combat Command. 35th Air Fighter Wing (MiG-19/J-6). Fighter base with 2500 m runway.
- Pukch'ang Airport - 60th Air Fighter Wing (1 ACC) (MiG-23ML/MiG-23UB/MiG-15UTI); Air Transport Wing (5 TD) (H500D/H500E/500D). This base was where most new Soviet fighter aircraft were delivered during the 1960s.
- Samjangkol - Air Transport Wing (6 TD) (Mi-2)
- Sunchon Airport - 55th Air Fighter Wing (1 ACC) (Su-25K/Su-25UBK/Su-7BMK)(MiG-29/MiG-29UB)
- Kanch'on - Air Transport Wing (6 TD) (Mi-4/Z-5/Mi-8/Mi-17/Mi-2)
- West Coast and Pyongyang area (Pyongyang is also the location of HQ, KPAAF)
- Onchon Airport - 57th Air Wing (1 ACC) (MiG-19/J-6/MiG-29/MiG-29UB)
- Hwangju Airfield - Headquarters, 3rd Air Combat Command. 56th Air Fighter Wing(3 ACC) (MiG-21U/MiG-21PF/J-7)
- Kwail Airport/Pungchon( )
- Taetan Airfield - Air Fighter Wing (3 ACC) (F-5/FT-5/H-5)
- Pyongyang Sunan International Airport - Special Service Air Transport Wing (KPAAF-CAAK) (Air Koryo) (Tu-134B/Tu-154B/Il-62/Il-76MD/Il-14/Il-18/An-24)
- Mirim Airfield - This airfield served as a light transport base and closed sometime in the 1990s, now used as a KPA training facility.
- DMZ area
- Chunghwa - Headquarters, Air Defense and Combat Command
- Koksan Airport - 86th Air Wing
- Hyon-ni Airfield - Air Wing (F-5/FT-5)
- East Coast area
- Toksan Airfield - Headquarters, 2nd Air Combat Command. Air Wing (2 ACC) (MiG-21PF/J-7/F-7)
- Sondok Airfield - Air Transport Wing (Y-5/An-2/Li-2)
- Kowon - Air Transport Wing (6 TD) (Z-5/Mi-4/Mi-8/Mi-17)
- Pakhon - Air Transport Wing (6 TD) (Z-5/Mi-4/Mi-8/Mi-17/Mi-2)
- Wonsan Airport - Air Wing
- Kang Da Ri Airfield - Underground runway near Wonsan, under construction; Google Earth Imagery is available.
- Inhung - Helipads (Mi-8/Ka-27 (possibly Ka-28/Ka-29/Ka-32)) ( )
- Far Northeast area
- Samjiyon Airfield - Training Wing
- Hyesan Airfield - Training Wing
- Hwangsuwon-ni Airfield - 72nd Air Wing
- Kilchu Highway Airfield - Training Wing
- Orang Airfield - Headquarters, 8th Air Division. Training Wing (8 AD) (MiG-15UTI/J-2/MiG-15). Air Wing (H-5).
- Changjin-up Airfield
Unless otherwise stated, the number of aircraft is from the principal source in the table. The total amount of aircraft by type is as follows:
- Fighter aircraft: 484
- Strike aircraft: 194
- Trainer aircraft: 357
- Transport aircraft: ~500
- Other: 82+
- Total: around 1,500
|Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-29||Soviet Union||Fighter Aircraft
|Used to defend Pyongyang 9.12B and UB 9.51 models; Google Earth Imagery is available.|
|Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23||Soviet Union||Fighter Aircraft||MiG-23ML||56||Google Earth Imagery is available.|
|Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21||Soviet Union||Fighter Aircraft
|>150||Google Earth Imagery is available.|
|Chengdu F-7||China||Fighter Aircraft||F-7B||40|
|Shenyang F-6||China||Fighter Aircraft||Shenyang F-6||98|
|Shenyang F-5||China||Fighter Aircraft||Shenyang F-5||100|
|Harbin H-5||China||Strategic bomber||Harbin H-5||80||At least 40 Il-28's and H-5's are confirmed to exist in a servicable condition at Uiju and Chanjin-Up AFB's. Google Earth Imagery is available.|
|Nanchang A-5||China||Strike aircraft||Nanchang A-5||40|
|Sukhoi Su-25||Soviet Union||Strike aircraft
|Google Earth Imagery is available.|
|Sukhoi Su-7||Soviet Union||Strike aircraft||Su-7BMK||18|
|Mil Mi-24||Soviet Union||Helicopter gunship||Mi-24D||20|
|Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15||Soviet Union||Training aircraft||MiG-15UTI||30|
|Nanchang CJ-6||China||Training aircraft||Nanchang CJ-6||180|
|Aero L-39||Czechoslovakia||Training aircraft||L-39C||12|
|Shenyang F-5||China||Training aircraft||FT-5||135|
|Ilyushin Il-76||Soviet Union||Heavy transport||Il-76MD||3||Also in service with Air Koryo|
|Ilyushin Il-62||Soviet Union||Heavy transport||Il-62M||2|
|Antonov An-24||Ukraine||Tactical transport||An-24||6||At least one converted to a rudimentary AEW aircraft in the 1990s|
|Antonov An-2||Soviet Union||Utility transport||various||c. 300||Formerly grounded due to high fuel costs Recently seen operationally in footage of 2013 Military Exercises|
|Lisunov Li-2||Soviet Union||Utility transport||Lisunov Li-2||Few in number||Google Earth Imagery is available.|
|Mil Mi-26||Soviet Union||Heavy transport||Mi-26||4||Google Earth Imagery is available.|
|Mil Mi-8||Soviet Union||Utility||Mi-8T||15||Google Earth Imagery is available.|
|Mil Mi-2|| Poland
|Utility||various||140||Locally produced|
|Harbin Z-5||China||Medium transport||Z-5||48|
|Kamov Ka-27||Soviet Union||Anti-submarine warfare/civil transport||Unknown (poss. Ka-27/28/29/32)||At least 2||Google Earth Imagery is available. ()|
|Reconnaissance / UAV|
|Antonov An-24||North Korea||AEW||Unknown||at least 1||Local conversion using a N019 radar from MiG-29 aircraft|
|Tupolev Tu-143||Soviet Union||UAV||DR-3||at least 1|
|MD 500D||United States||Scout helicopter||Unknown||87||Imported from Germany|
|MQM-107||United States||UAV||MQM-107D, Local Copies||Unknown||Developing an unmanned flying bomb version using examples bought from Syria.|
|Mil Mi-14||Soviet Union||ASW helicopter||Mi-14PL||10|
- The annual report of North Korea's military capabilities by the U.S. Department of Defense, released in early 2014, identified the North Korean Air Force's strength at 110,000 personnel, over 800 combat aircraft, 300 helicopters, and over 300 transports.
Aircraft subtypes and capabilities
- MiG-17F/F-5: The MiG-17, and Shenyang F-5 are subsonic jet fighters. North Korea operates the basic variant, armed with 1 x 37 mm cannon and 2 x 23 mm cannons, with a total round supply of 200 rounds. There is no provision for AA missiles, although the fighter could be modified to carry two AA-2 Atoll missiles. It is obsolete because of its low maximum speed and may lack radar and any sort of modern avionics. Due to lack of modern avionics, it is defenseless in Beyond-Visual-Range combat. At least some have been modified into ground attack aircraft through the addition of two fuselage pylons.
- F-6B/MiG-19: The Shenyang F-6B is a Chinese clear-weather, day fighter version of the Soviet MiG-19. It has a supersonic capability, and is armed with two AA-2 Atoll missiles as well as three 30 mm automatic cannons. Along with the F-5 and the MiG-21 it is equipped with a radar, which has very limited range and capabilities. Having a short range, small payload and outdated avionics, the aircraft is clearly obsolete, as its tiny missile load and poor avionics do not measure up to those of American or South Korean aircraft. Due to lack of modern avionics, it is defenseless in Beyond-Visual-Range combat. At least some have been modified into ground attack aircraft through the addition of four fuselage pylons.
- MiG-21: North Korea operates a large number of MiG-21PFMs, which are the country's most numerous fighter. The MiG-21PFM is one of the later versions of the original MiG-21, with many improvements over earlier models. It includes systems such as a radar warning receiver and IFF, which are necessary to wage a modern air war; other more modern components are lacking on this fighter, though. The PFM is armed with a GSh-23 cannon with 200 rounds, two AA-2 Atoll missiles, and has a provision for a Kh-66 missile. At least 200 MiG-21s, including 30 built in China, are generally accepted as having been delivered to the KPAF. By 1966-67, 80 MiG-21F-13 were delivered, with the first 14 arriving in or before 1963. 65 MiG-21PFM were delivered 1968-1971 and 24 more in 1974. In May 1968, the United States estimated that a minimum of 400 fighter jets existed in the North Korean Air Force. According to the US DIA, by 1977 there were a total of 120 MiG-21s in DPRK, but by 1983 this number had dropped to 50; 150 MiG-21PFM and MiG-21MF were reportedly delivered in 1985. According to one estimate, 150 MiG-21s are in service. 50 MiG-21 trainers of different variants were delivered, of which 30 are believed to be in service. In 1999, 38 MiG-21bis izdeliye 75A were delivered from Kazakhstan.
- F-7B: The Chengdu F-7B is an improved Chinese-made copy of the Soviet MiG-21, armed with PL-7 AA missiles.
- MiG-23ML: The MiG-23ML is a third-generation fighter with many improvements over previous models. It has a look-down capability and effective longer-range radars, as well as other more modern avionics. The ML is very maneuverable, has a large payload and with proper maintenance and good pilot quality can be on par with some newer fighter aircraft.
- MiG-29B/UB: The MiG-29 is the KPAF's most modern fighter, possessing all types of modern avionics and weaponry. North Korea operates approximately 30 MiG-29B/UB's, which are in flying condition and are used mostly for the defence of Pyongyang's airspace. No other MiG-29 variants are confirmed to be flown, owned or purchased by the KPAF. However photographs obtained by a US RC-135 aircraft intercepted by MiG-29's in 2003 suggests that the KPAF may operate some MiG-29C's
- One squadron of 46th Air Regiment at Wonsan
- Three squadrons of 56th Air Regiment at Toksan, flying J-7B, MiG-21PFM and MiG-21bis, but it is not known if the types are mixed or not.
- One squadron of 60th Air Regiment at Pukch'ang
- Three squadrons of 86th Air Regiment at Koksan flying MiG-21PF and MiG-21U
- Three squadrons of an unidentified Air Regiment at Hwangju flying MiG-21PF and MiG-21U
- An unidentified reconnaissance/electronic warfare regiment.
- Il-28/H-5: Having been developed in the late 1940s, the Il-28/H-5 represents an old generation of bomber aircraft. North Korea originally received 24 Ilyushin Il-28 Beagles in 1960, and after that deliveries of the Chinese H-5 copy continued. The H-5 is a simple, robust, jet-engined bomber, capable of carrying up to 3,000 kg of bombs, including conventional, biological, chemical or nuclear. Its range is about 2,400 km, capable of hitting targets in most of Japan and all of South Korea. The bomber is supplied with a special aiming radar for the bombardier for precise targeting during poor visibility. Despite these advantages, it has a few grave drawbacks - a low maximum speed (900 km/h) and a fairly low ceiling (about 13,000 m), which renders the aircraft very vulnerable even to older types of SAMs and jet fighters. Despite this, it provides North Korea with a medium-range weapons platform.
Ground attack aircraft
- Su-7BMK: One of the first mass-produced Cold War-era Soviet ground attack aircraft, the Su-7BMK is a swept-wing aircraft for bombing missions and with a limited fighter capability. It is easy to maintain, but requires very long airfields due to its wing configuration. The Su-7 is generally obsolete. It can carry up to 2,000 kg of armament and is armed with 2x 30 mm cannons.
- A/Q-5II: A ground attack fighter designed by China and based on the MiG-19, the A-5 has been in service since the 1970s. Like most of North Korea's aircraft, it is obsolete compared to most modern aircraft, lacking modern avionics and weaponry.
- Su-25K: The Su-25K is the North's most modern strike/CAS aircraft.
- MD 500D: The MD Helicopters MD 500D is a civilian helicopter which North Korea imported in 1985 by circumventing United States export controls. Ironically, the airframe of the 500D was manufactured in South Korea, was assembled in the United States, and was purchased through a German export firm. The 500D has no attack capabilities, but it can be easily modified to assume the role of a gunship. Of the 87 500Ds North Korea imported, at least 60 are said to be modified in this manner. Although a modified 500D would be effective in the anti-personnel role, it only has a marginal chance of deterring lightly armored vehicles, so it is likely that the 500D would be used in a defensive role or employ guerrilla tactics. With a range of 605 km, the 500D should be capable of scouting much of the Korean Peninsula. However, as the civilian version lacks a radar, its role as an observation helicopter would be limited. The ROKA operates a military variant of the 500D known as the 500MD, which could lead to deceptive operations by the North Koreans if their 500Ds were painted with ROKA livery and infiltrated South Korea. Although there are slight differences between the airframes of the 500D and the 500MD, it would be difficult to differentiate between them if a soldier is unfamiliar with the differences or if the helicopter were flying at high speeds. However, this problem could be resolved if an IFF system is implemented, thereby further limiting the 500D's role as an observation helicopter.
- Mi-2: Light transport and light combat helicopter. The Mi-2 Hoplite can be armed with PK M.Gs and 57 mm rocket pods and was able to provide close air support. 140 in service with the Korean People's Air Force and 7,200 of these aircraft were produced. This aircraft worked well as a transport and light utility helicopter with the ability to hold up to 8 fully armed men and a pilot. But the Mi-2 was not much more than that because its light armor made it vulnerable to small arms fire.
- Mi-14: Derived from the flexible Mi-8 Hip design, the Mi-14 Haze is a naval development of the Mi-8, capable of ASW, mine sweeping and SAR roles. It is unclear what the KPAF's ASW arsenal consists of, but it is unlikely that their inventory contains equipment that are feasible in anti-submarine roles by modern standards. It is much more likely that the Mi-14 will be used in the SAR role, as it is unclear which variant of the Mi-14 the KPAF possesses.
- Mi-24: Also a development from the Mi-8 design, the Mi-24 Hind is a very feasible gunship with troop-transport capability. Although it is unknown which variant of the Mi-24 the KPAF possesses, it is likely to be the Mi-24D Hind-D variant, the most common type of Mi-24 in service around the world. It can be internally equipped with a 12.7 mm Gatling gun, a door mounted machine gun, and has a payload capacity of 1500 kg that can consist of anti-tank missiles, gunpods, rocket launchers, bombs and IR guided AAMs. While the KPAF's anti-tank arsenal is unknown, they are likely to have at least a limited inventory to fit the Mi-24 as a capable attack helicopter. The Mi-24 also has a passenger compartment capable of accommodating up to 8 passengers, with armoured plates protecting this section. The flight performance of the Mi-24 is far from agile, and its mobility would further diminish when carrying the extra passengers. The Mi-24 has a range of 450 km, making it a capable attack helicopter that can cover much of the South Korean peninsula even with a feasible combat load. The Hind would be an excellent complement to the Su-25 Frogfoot ground attack aircraft, along with escort fighters. Because it is capable of transporting troops into the front lines, the Mi-24 Hind may also rescue injured soldiers to transport them for treatment. The Mi-24 is also capable of carrying R-60 "Aphid" IR guided AAMs for self-defense. Despite its age, the Mi-24 is still very much capable as a gunship and an anti-armour helicopter.
- An-2: The Antonov An-2 is propeller driven cargo and utility aircraft, the world's largest biplane. Although primarily used in the civilian role as an agricultural and firefighting aircraft in other countries, the An-2 is capable of transporting up to 14 passengers in its rear compartment. The North Korean Special Forces possesses around 300 of these aircraft, and due to its 845 km range, it may be used by the KPAF to deploy special forces agents well behind the South Korean front lines. Because the An-2 is almost silent and can operate at very low speeds, the An-2 may also be used as a light bomber in addition to its ability to paratroop special forces agents. Since the An-2 is a STOL aircraft that requires minimal runway space, the airfields for the An-2 are less vulnerable compared to others and may be placed discreetly along North Korea.
Aircraft of the KPAF operate the following missiles:
|Kalinigrad AA-1 Alkali||Kaliningrad||used on MiG-17 and MiG-19; probably withdrawn?|
|Vympel AA-2 Atoll||Vympel||used on MiG-21|
|Vympel AA-7 Apex||Vympel||used on MiG-23|
|Molyniya AA-8 Aphid||Molniya||used on Su-25, MiG-21bis, MiG-23 and MiG-29?|
|Vympel AA-10 Alamo||Vympel||used on MiG-29|
|Vympel AA-11 Archer||Vympel||used on MiG-29|
|PL-2||Hanzhong Nanfeng Machine Factory (Hanzhong Air-to-Air Missile Factory)?||Chinese copy AA-2 Atoll, used on F-7|
|PL-5||Hanzhong Nanfeng Machine Factory (Hanzhong Air-to-Air Missile Factory)||improved version of PL-2, used on F-7?|
|PL-7||Factory 331 (Zhuzhou Aeroengine Factory)||Chinese copy of Matra R-550 Magic 1, used on F-7?|
North Korea has deployed a wide range of SAM and AAA systems ranging from the oldest Soviet designs to highly mobile and modern examples. Most SAM systems are of Soviet design lineage with some locally produced designs, while AA artillery is from both Soviet and local suppliers. The DPRK has the densest air defense network in the world, with air defence pads deployed virtually around every town and major city. MANPADS are used extensively, with over 15,000 units fielded according to a 1995 Pentagon report on the country. North Korea has one of the best hardened integrated air defence systems (IADS) in the world, with many of its radars and launchers positioned on fortified elevating platforms and its aircraft positioned in hardened bunkers and even two underground airbases. The addition of the KN-06 SAM, which was flight-tested in the spring of 2011, and a local model of the Pechora 2 (Upgraded SA-3), unveiled at a 2012 military parade have notably expanded the systems capabilities.
- SAM system summary:
- 8+ long-range KN-06
- 24-40 long-range SA-5
- Up to 440 medium range SA-1, SA-2 and SA-3
- Unknown number of medium-range SA-4, SA-6 and SA-17
- At least 15,000 MANPADS
|SA-1 Guild||KB-1||Probably Retired||72 launchers delivered in 1961||35 km|
|SA-2 Guideline||Lavochkin||Single Rail Launchers in fixed sites||up to 240 launchers||45 km|
|SA-3 Goa||Aleksei Mihailovich Isaev||Hardened Quadruple Launchers and a local version of Pechora 2||32 batteries (128 launchers)||35 km|
|SA-4 Ganef||Kalinin Machine Building Plant||Unknown||55 km|
|SA-5 Gammon||NPO Almaz||24-40 launchers||300 km|
|SA-6 Gainful||Ulyanovsk Mechanical Plant||Unknown||24 km|
|SA-7 Grail||KBM, Kolomna||Local variant, known as Hwasung-Chong in use||At least 3,5 km|
|KN-06||Unknown local Maufacturer||Flight tested in early 2011, precise capabilities unknown||8+||90–150 km?|
|SA-13 Gopher||KB Tochmash||Unknown||5 km|
|SA-14 Gremlin||KBM, Kolomna||4,1 km|
|SA-16 Gimlet||KBM||Produced locally||550+||5,2 km|
|SA-17 Gadfly||Almaz-Antey||Produced locally||? (500 missiles manufactured as of 2006, no. of launchers unknown)||30 km|
- Anti-aircraft artillery (11,000+ units)
|KS-30||Heavy 130 mm AA gun|
|KS-19||Heavy 100 mm AA gun||500|
|KS-12||Heavy 85 mm AA gun||400|
|M-1985||SP Medium 57 mm AA gun|
|ZSU-57-2||Twin SP Medium 57 mm AA guns|
|S-60||Medium 57 mm AA gun|
|M-1992||SP Medium 37 mm AA gun|
|M-1939||Medium 37 mm AA gun||1,000|
|M-1992||Light 30 mm AA gun|
|M-1992||Light 23 mm AA gun|
|ZSU-23-4||Multiple 23 mm SP AA gun||>100|
|ZU-23-2||Twin 23 mm AA gun||1,500|
|M-1984||Multiple SP 14,5 mm AA machine gun|
|ZPU-4||Multiple 14,5 mm AA machine gun|
The KPAF operates a wide range of fighter and attack aircraft. North Korea is one of the few nations still operating the obsolete MiG-17 and MiG-19 fighters, yet it operates more modern and fairly capable MiG-23 and MiG-29 fighters. The KPAF's most numerous fighter is the MiG-21, which is somewhat obsolete but still a worthy foe in air-to-air combat, if maintained properly and crewed by experienced pilots. An assessment by US analysts GlobalSecurity.org reported that the air force "has a marginal capability for defending North Korean airspace and a limited ability to conduct air operations against South Korea." Yet, North Korea operates a wide variety of air defence equipment, from short-range MANPADS and ZPU-4 machine guns, to long-range SA-5 Gammon SAM systems and large-calibre AA artillery guns. DPRK has one of the densest air defence networks in the world. Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle bombers provide a medium-range attack platform, despite being generally obsolete. A large part of the ground attack aircraft are kept in heavily fortified hangars, some of which are capable of withstanding a nearby nuclear blast. Stealth capacity is known in the KPAF through researching in radar-absorbing paint and inventory deception.
Ranks and uniforms
The Korean People's Air Force has five categories of ranks; general officers, senior officers, junior officers, Non-commissioned Officers, and airmen.
The soldier and NCO ranks are aircraftman, leading aircraftman, senior aircraftman, corporal, junior sergeant, sergeant, flight sergeant and master aircrew.
|Ranks in Korean||T'ŭkmu-sangsa
|Ranks||Master Aircrew||Flight Sergeant||Sergeant||Junior Sergeant||Corporal||Senior Aircraftman||Leading Aircraftman||Aircraftman|
Junior officer ranks are junior lieutenant, lieutenant, senior lieutenant and captain.
Senior officer ranks are major, lieutenant colonel, colonel and brigader.
General officer ranks are major general, lieutenant general, colonel general, and general of the air force.
|Ranks in Korean||Taejang
|Ranks||General of the Air Force||Colonel General||Lieutenant General||Major General||Brigadier||Colonel||Lieutenant Colonel||Major||Captain||First Lieutenant||Second Lieutenant||Third Lieutenant|
Marshal officer ranks are Vice-Marshal of the Air Force and Marshal of the Air Force.
|Ranks in Korean||Wonsu
|Ranks||Marshal of the Air Force||Vice Marshal of the Air Force|
Generally as a separate service in the KPA the service wears the same KPA uniforms but with air force blue peaked caps (especially for officers) or kepi-styled caps for men and berets for women, worn with their full dress uniforms. Pilots wear helmets and flight suits when on parade and when in flight duty while air defense personnel wear the same duty dress uniforms as their ground forces counterparts but with air force blue borders on the caps.
Due to the political condition of North Korea, several North Korean pilots from the KPAF defected with their jets. These incidents include:
- On September 21, 1953, 21-year old No Kum-sok, a senior lieutenant, flew his MiG-15 across to the South and landed at Kimpo Air Base near Seoul. Considered an intelligence bonanza, since this fighter plane was then the best the Communist bloc had. No was awarded the sum of $100,000 ($733,813 in 2006 dollars) and the right to reside in the United States. He is now a U.S. citizen.
- On August 5, 1960, a Shenyang J-5 landed at Kimpo, the second time a J-5 appeared in South Korea. This aircraft was kept by South Korea and was briefly flown in South Korean markings before being scrapped.
- In February 1983, Lee Ung-Pyong used a training exercise to defect and landed his Shenyang J-6 at an airfield in Seoul. According to the then common practice, he received a commission in the South Korean Air Force eventually becoming a colonel and taught at the South Korean academy until his death in 2002. He received a reward of 1.2 billion South Korean won.
- On May 23, 1996, Captain Lee Chul-Su defected with another Shenyang J-6, number 529, to Suwon Air Base, South Korea. He reportedly left behind his wife and two children. Lee was rewarded 480 million South Korean Won (approx. 400 thousand US dollars). He is now a colonel in the ROKAF and is an academic instructor.
- Air Koryo
- Jebi Sports Group, football club of the KPAF
- Korean People's Army
- North Korean Ground Force
- North Korean Navy
- Republic of Korea Air Force
- Richard M Bennett. "Missiles and madness". Asia Times.
- North Korea Country Study, pp. 18-19
- "KPAF". GlobalSecurity.org.
- Intelligence experts analyse 'North Korean fighter jet crash', The Telegraph, 18 August 2010
- "N.Korea Steps Up Air Force Training Flights". The Chosun Ilbo (English Edition) archived at archive.org. 2012-03-29. Retrieved 2013-03-24. "North Korea has stepped up the number of training flights since last month to as many as 650 sorties a day. The North Korean air force is conducting training flights even on weekends [...]"
- North Korean Special Weapons Facilities, Federation of American Scientists, 2006.
- North Korean Air Forces, Scramble, Dutch Aviation Society, 2006. Archived 16 January 2010 at WebCite
- Preliminary Assessment of BLACK SHIELD Mission 6847 over North Korea, Central Intelligence Agency, 29 January 1968
- "MIG 29 in Sunchon". Retrieved 12 August 2011.
- Google Earth image here
- OrBat North Korea - MilAvia Press.com: Military Aviation Publications
- Bermudez, Joseph. "KPA Journal Vol.2 No.4". Journal. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
- Adam Baddeley (February 2011). "The AMR Regional Air Force Directory 2011". Asian Military Review. Archived from the original on 2012-11-01. Retrieved 19 July 2011.
- Air Forces Monthly, December 2007 issue, p.27.
- Bermudez, J. "MiG-29 in KPAF Service", The KPA Journal, vol. 2 No. 4, April 2011, p. 2
- ASIAN REGION UAV PROGRAMMES, Asian Defense Review, 17 December 2010
- "N. Korea developing unmanned attack aircraft from U.S. drones: source". Yonhap. 2012-02-05. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
- Narushige Michishita (2009-10-06). North Korea's Military-Diplomatic Campaigns, 1966-2008. Routledge. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-203-87058-7.
- North Korean Air Forces (Scramble.nl) Archived 16 January 2010 at WebCite
- Collapse of Libya's air defence, Defence Today, 2011. Unlike Syria, Libya and Iran - who largely deploy their SAMs from unhardened and often rudimentary open fixed SAM sites - the DPRK's sites are amongst the best hardened globally, with reports of engagement radars mounted on elevating platforms, to permit the radars to be hidden in underground shafts to defeat air attacks.
- History of the KPAF (in Russian), airwar.ru Archived 17 January 2010 at WebCite
- Russian stationary air defense missile systems (in Russian)
- Армия Ким Чен Ира, Анатолий Цыганок. ПОЛИТ.РУ, October 16, 2006
- Korean People's Army Air Force - North Korea
- North Korea 'develops stealth paint to camouflage fighter jets'
- NK pilot defector promoted to colonel
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Air force of North Korea.|
- The North Korean Air Force by Google Earth: a compilation of Google Earth images of North Korean fighters, bombers, ground attack aircraft, transports, and special-operations aircraft.
- Military and Security Developments Involving the Democratic People's Republic of Korea 2012