Kereta Commuter Indonesia

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Kereta Commuter Indonesia
Logo kcj baru.png
205-142F Mangga Dua.jpg
A 205 series commuter train owned by Kereta Commuter Indonesia in service on Red Line
Overview
OwnerPT Kereta Api Indonesia (KAI)
LocaleJakarta Metropolitan Area
Transit typeCommuter rail
Number of lines6
Number of stations80 (4 inactive)
Daily ridership0.95 million (2017)[1]
(Highest 1.014 million, May 2017)[2]
Annual ridership315.8 million (2017)[3][4]
Websitehttp://www.krl.co.id/
Operation
Began operationApr 6, 1925 (as Dutch Colonial Railways or Staats Spoorwegen);
2000 (under PT Kereta Api, as "Jabotabek Division");
Sep 15, 2008 under PT KAI Commuter Jabodetabek (KCJ);
since Sep 19, 2017 under PT Kereta Commuter Indonesia (KCI)
Operator(s)PT Kereta Commuter Indonesia (KCI)
Train length4, 8, 10 or 12 cars per trainset
Headway5 - 10 minute(s)
Technical
System length418 km (260 mi)[5]
Track gauge1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)
Electrification1,500 V DC overhead catenary
Top speed90 km/h (55 mph)
System map

KRL Jabotabek Lines.svg

KA Commuter line is a commuter rail system for Jakarta Metropolitan Area in Indonesia. Commonly known as Commuter line or KRL synonym (Indonesian: Kereta Rel Listrik) for Electric multiple unit (EMU). It was known as KRL Jabodetabek before as Jabodetabek refers to Jakarta metropolitan area, which is formed by combining the first syllables of Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, (Greater) Tangerang and Bekasi, which also represent Commuter line's operational area. At present the service is extended beyond Jabodetabek to Rangkasbitung in Banten and Cikarang in Bekasi Regency.

It is operated by PT Kereta Commuter Indonesia (KCI), a subsidiary of the Indonesian national railway company PT Kereta Api Indonesia (KAI). The name of the operator changed to PT Kereta Commuter Indonesia (KCI) from previous PT KAI Commuter Jabodetabek (KCJ) since 19 September 2017.[6] The current rolling stock consists of used Japanese trains from Tokyo Metro, Toyo Rapid, JR East, Tokyu, and local-produced trains from Industri Kereta Api (INKA).

The rail system uses metro/rapid transit rolling stock standard and operates at high frequency with a minimum headway of five minutes. As of June 2018, the average number of KRL users per day reaches 1,001,438 users on weekdays, with a record of the highest number of users served in one day is 1,154,080.[7]

History[edit]

Colonial era[edit]

In 1917, a plan to introduce electrified railway in Batavia was made by Staatspoorwegen (SS), Dutch colonial railways company. The railway between Tanjung Priok to Meester Cornelis (Jatinegara) was the first line to be electrified. The construction began in 1923 and completed on 24 December 1924. The line was opened on 6 April 1925—in time for the SS 50th anniversary—with 3000-series locomotives from SLM–BBC (Swiss Locomotive and Machine Works - Brown Boveri & Cie), 3100-series electric locomotives from AEG Germany, 3200-series locomotives from Werkspoor Netherlands and passenger coaches from Westinghouse and General Electric.[8]

The electrification project continued and on 1 May 1927, all rail lines that surround Batavia has been fully electrified. Batavia Zuid station (now Jakarta Kota), closed temporarily in 1926, was reopened on 8 October 1929. The last part of the electrification project, Batavia Zuid - Buitenzorg, was completed in 1930.[9] After independence in 1945, the railway operation was taken over by DKA (Djawatan Kereta Api Repoeblik Indonesia/ Indonesian Railways Bureau, now PT Kereta Api).

Decline and revival[edit]

Transportation in Jakarta was at its lowest point during the 1960s. Tramways in Jakarta were closed in 1960 and in November 1966, railway traffic on Manggarai – Jakarta Kota was restricted. The electric train services were closed in late 1965.[10]

Electric service was revived in 1972. On 16 May 1972, PNKA (Perusahaan Nasional Kereta Api, successor of DKA) ordered 10 new sets of electric multiple units from Japan. The new trains, built by Nippon Sharyo, arrived in 1976 and replaced the old locomotives and coaches. Sets consisted of four cars each, with capacity of 134 passengers per car. Those new trains (commonly known as KRL Rheostatik) will continue serving the passengers in Jakarta for the next 37 years.[10] PNKA (later PJKA and Perumka) continued importing trains from Japan, South Korea and Netherlands until the late 1990s.

In May 2000 the government of Japan via JICA and Tokyo Metropolitan Government donated 72 units of used Toei 6000 trains, formerly operating on Toei Mita Line. These were the first air-conditioned electric train in Indonesia. The new trains were operated on 25 August 2000 for express services.[11]

Commuter Line era[edit]

Interior of a train coach

The current form of electric train service in Jakarta was begun in 2008. Jabodetabek Division, a sub-unit of Kereta Api Indonesia that handles commuter service around Jabodetabek, spun-off to form KAI Commuterline Jabodetabek (KCJ). Ticket revenues, rolling stock maintenance, and station management was transferred to the newly formed subsidiary, but all operational matters (e.g. scheduling and dispatching), rolling stock, stations and infrastructures remained under KAI's responsibility.

05 series and 6000 series owned by Kereta Commuter Indonesia, with typical red and yellow livery. They were the main fleets of KCI before the 2013-2016 exodus of 205 series.

The modernization of the commuter railway system, however, did not begin until 2011. In 2011, the number of lines were greatly reduced from 37 point-to-point routes to six integrated lines (known as Loop line system'), express services were removed, and the service were simplified into two service classes: economy class (cheaper service without air conditioning, subsidized by Ministry of Transportation) and Commuter class (more expensive service with air conditioning), both stops at every station. On 17 April 2013, the commuter line extension to Maja in the Green Line commenced operation.[12] On July 25, 2013, the economy class was discontinued, leaving the Commuter class as the sole service class throughout the network.[13]

Due to extreme crowding, unruly passengers (colloquially called Atappers) had been riding on top of the trains en masse, but that has since been brought under control with physical barriers. In July 2013, the operator introduced the Commet (Commuter Electronic Ticketing) system replacing the old paper ticket system and changing the old fare system into 'progressive fare' system, as well as modernization of all 80 serving stations.

Starting on April 1, 2015, the number of trips per day increased to 872, dominated by Bogor/Depok route and Bekasi route with 391 trips and 153 trips per day, respectively. Headway of Bogor route is five minutes, while Bekasi route is still 12 minutes.[14] The Nambo line extension operation is also commenced on the same date.[15]

In July 2015, KA Commuter Jabodetabek served more than 850,000 passengers per day, which is almost triple the 2011 figures, but still less than 3.5% of all Jabodetabek commutes.[16] The number is targeted to reach 1.2 million passengers per day by 2019.[17]

Three line extensions have been opened between 2015 and 2017: the extension of Pink Line to Tanjung Priok station which commenced operation on December 22, 2015,[18] the extension of Green Line to Rangkasbitung station which commenced operation on April 1, 2017,[12] and the extension of Blue Line to Cikarang station which commenced operation on October 8, 2017.[19]

A 10-car 205 series trainset owned by Kereta Commuter Indonesia takes a curve between Universitas Indonesia station and Pondok Cina station on a southbound Commuter Line service in 2016. The 205 series are the current main roster of Kereta Commuter Indonesia, mainly on Red Line, Yellow Line, Blue Line, and Green Line with Bukit Duri and Bogor (both located in Red/Yellow Line) serves as their main depots.

Until March 5, 2014, KA Commuter Jabodetabek only operates 8-car trainsets on all lines. The first operation of 10-car trainsets using 205 series electric-multiple unit formerly owned by East Japan Railway Company and operated in Saikyo Line commenced on Red Line on the same day.[20] In 2016, the operation of 12-car trainsets commenced.[21]

Service routes[edit]

The modernization project in 2011 introduced 6 integrated commuter lines and 8 services which serve Greater Jakarta. The number of services has increased to 11 by 2017.

The network route map is recognized by color code and destination of final station.

Lines Services No. of stations Length Opened Operated as

KCI Line

 KRL  Jakarta - Bogor Jakarta Kota to Depok 20 33.3 km (20.7 mi) 1930 5 December 2011[22]
Jakarta Kota to Bogor 24 54.8 km (34.1 mi) 1930
 KRL  Jatinegara-Bogor (Jakarta Loopline) Jatinegara to Depok 26 47.2 km (29.3 mi) 1987
Jatinegara to Bogor 30 69.4 km (43.1 mi) 1987
Duri to Nambo 20 50.8 km (31.6 mi) 1997 1 April 2015[23]
 KRL  Tanah Abang - Rangkasbitung Tanah Abang to Serpong 8 55.6 km (34.5 mi) 1899 5 December 2011[22]
Tanah Abang to Parung Panjang 11 24.3 km (15.1 mi) 1899
Tanah Abang to Maja 17 55.6 km (34.5 mi) 1899 17 April 2013[12]
Tanah Abang to Rangkasbitung 19 72.8 km (45.2 mi) 1899 1 April 2017[24]
 KRL  Jakarta - Bekasi Jakarta Kota to Bekasi via Manggarai 18 27.4 km (17.0 mi) 1930 5 December 2011[22]
Jakarta Kota to Bekasi via Pasar Senen 15 26.5 km (16.5 mi) 2017 1 April 2017[25]
Jakarta Kota to Cikarang 21 44 km (27 mi) 2017 8 October 2017[19]
 KRL  Duri - Tangerang Duri to Tangerang 11 19.2 km (11.9 mi) 1899 5 December 2011[22]
 KRL  Tanjung Priok Line Jakarta Kota to Tanjung Priok 4 15.4 km (9.6 mi) 1885 5 December 2011 partial, feeder only[22]

22 December 2015 fully operational[26]

† excluding Gambir station, not serving Commuterline trains

Stations[edit]

Sudirman station upper ground entrance/exit

List of stations[edit]

Bold: Terminus or transit stations

Italic: Closed for Commuterline, open for intercity trains

Strikethrough: Closed for all services

KRL Icon Red.svg Jakarta Kota - Bogor Line KRL Icon Blue.svg Jakarta Kota - Bekasi -Cikarang Line KRL Icon Green.svg Tanah Abang - Rangkasbitung Line KRL Icon Brown.svg Duri - Tangerang Line KRL Icon Pink.svg Jakarta Kota - Tanjung Priok Line

† Some trains starts and terminates here

† Some trains start and terminate there

^ One early morning train terminates there instead of Tanah Abang and one morning train starts there instead of Serpong, Parungpanjang or Maja[27]

Sudirman station is one of the busiest commuter line stations in Jakarta, located nearby Sudirman street
KRL Icon Yellow.svg Jatinegara - Bogor/ Nambo Line

† Some trains starts and terminates here

^ For northbound (to Depok/ Bogor) trains only; southbound (to Jatinegara) trains does not stop there.

List of major stations[edit]

Below are the list of main and terminus stations, some of them also servicing intercity train lines.

Station Lines Establishment Intercity/Local station Type
Jakarta Kota 1926 Yes Commuter Terminus and Transit, and Local Terminus.
Gambir 1884 Yes Intercity Terminusa
Manggarai 1918 Yes Commuter main transit
Jatinegara 1910 Yes Commuter terminus, transit and East Westbound Intercity stopb
Tanah Abang 1910 Yes Commuter terminus and transit, West Intercity Terminus
Duri Yes Commuter terminus and transit, Local stopc
Kampung Bandan No Commuter transit
Pasar Senen 1925 Yes Intercity terminus, Westbound Local stop and Northbound Commuter stop d
Depok 1881 No Commuter
Bogor 1881 Yes Commuter and South Local terminus (Bogor Paledang station)b
Bekasi - Yes Commuter terminus, East Suburban transit and East Intercity transit (night-time only)
^a Currently, Gambir Station doesn't serve as commuter stop, because of busy intercity train services in Gambir. Passengers who travel to areas near Merdeka Square, can depart in neighboring Gondangdia or Juanda station.
^b South Local trains (operated by PTKA, serving trips from Bogor to Sukabumi/Cianjur.) starts and ends from Bogor Paledang, within walking distance from Bogor station.
^c Duri Station is planned to be the transit for Airport Commuter Train, which will be under construction in 2014.
^d Pasar Senen station only serve the Jatinegara - Depok/Bogor commuter service, while the Bogor/Depok - Jatinegara service doesn't stop here.

Ticketing and fares[edit]

Multi trip (black) and single-trip (white) ticket of KA Commuter Jabodetabek

Passengers may purchase ticket for single or multiple journeys. Single-journey cards (Tiket Harian Berjaminan/THB) may be purchased at any ticket counters or C-VIM vending machines, available in some stations. A Rp 10,000 deposit will be levied on top of the fare to be paid in order to prevent losses for KCI, as many passengers do not return the single-journey cards. Passengers may recharge the card for the next trip, or refund the deposit at the ticket counter or vending machines in any Commuterline stations.[28] However, if the card is not used or recharged for seven days, the card will expire and cannot be refunded.

Passengers may also purchase a ticket for multiple journeys (Kartu Multi-trip/KMT). KMT is priced at Rp 50,000 (including Rp 30,000 credit).[29] The card has no expiry date and can be used with a minimum credit of Rp 5,000 after KCI introduced fare adjustment machines. Passengers who don't have enough credit in their KMT can top-up at fare adjustment machines or two-way ticket counters. Previously the minimum credit was Rp 13,000, based on the highest available fare in the system.[30][31] The card may be topped up at the ticket counters or vending machines.[28]

In addition to KCJ-issued cards, passengers may also purchase bank-issued cards. Unlike KCJ-issued cards which may only be used for train fares and station's park-and-ride facilities, these cards may also be used for goods and services payments at selected merchants, gas stations, TransJakarta BRT, selected parking facilities, and toll road payments. Currently Commuterline accepts Mandiri e-Money,[32] BRIZZI,[32] BNI TapCash,[32] and flazz BCA.[33]

Fares[edit]

Fare is charged by distance traveled ('progressive fare'), Rp 3,000 for the first 25 kilometers and Rp 1,000 for every next 10 kilometers.[34] The fare is subsidized by the Ministry of Transportation. For 2016, the government allocated Rp 1.1 trillion public service obligation to Commuterline[35]

Prior to the introduction of distance-based fare, the fare is determined by number of stations passed. The first five stations passed is charged at Rp 3000 and every next three stations charged at Rp 1000. Between July and November 2013, the charges were lowered to Rp 2000 and Rp 500 respectively, after the government subsidized the fare.[36] Number of passengers increased by 30% after one week of introduction of the new fares.[37]

Rolling stock[edit]

Set 6115 operated by KRL Commuterline Indonesia in Jakarta, Indonesia, November 2011

KRL Jabodetabek rolling stocks are composed of domestically made air-conditioned cars produced by Industri Kereta Api (INKA) air-conditioned along with second-hand rail cars imported from Japan. Trains are generally formed of 6 or 8 cars, with a capacity of 80–110 passengers per car. With the arrival of the ex-Japanese JR 205 series, PT. Kereta Api Indonesia will begin operation of 10 or 12 cars trainset.

Train without air conditioning (mainly economy class) are no longer operated as KCJ (the operator) begins the single-service operation of air-conditioned trainsets. One set of ex-economy class (Holec) has been retrofitted with air conditioning by INKA. Moreover, KAI (parent company of KCJ) stated that the economy class train are not feasible to use and the maintenance cost is high due to old age of train (some were made in 1976).

Toei 6000 series, which began service in 2000, was the first air-conditioned train type to be scrapped in December 2015. They are replaced by a huge influx of newer secondhand 205 series trains.[38]

Since 1 January 2016, the ex-JR East 103 series were also retired from service.

Non-air-conditioned rolling stock (all retired since 2013)[edit]

  • KRL Ekonomi BN-Holec (retired, some modified to become diesel commuter trains)
  • KRL Ekonomi Rheostat (scrapped or stored)
  • KRL Hitachi (scrapped or stored)
  • KRL ABB Hyundai (retired, some modified to become diesel commuter trains)

Air-conditioned rolling stock[edit]

Incidents and accidents[edit]

  • 23 September 2015 – Two electric trains (KRL 1154 and KRL 1156 which are the former 205 series rolling stock units) collided at Juanda Station. No one was killed, but 42 passengers were hurt, with some required intensive treatment.[39]
  • 9 December 2013 – A train serving KRL Serpong-Jakarta line (former Tokyo Metro 7000 series rolling stock) collided with Pertamina tanker truck at Bintaro Permai railway intersection, Jakarta. Seven people (including the three train drivers) were killed in the crash.[40][41]
  • 20 May 1999 – An Universitas Indonesia student was killed by a passing train in Pondok Cina.[42]

Gallery[edit]

Rolling stock[edit]

Stations[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Commuter line passengers hits 1 million".
  2. ^ "Wow, Penumpang KRL Tembus 1 Juta Per Hari".
  3. ^ "'Government subsidy unequal to commuter train passenger target'".
  4. ^ "Jakarta's Commuter Line Train Gets Ready for More Passengers in 2018".
  5. ^ "Tentang Kami".
  6. ^ "State-run commuter line operator PT KCJ transforms into PT KCI". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
  7. ^ "Info Perusahaan".
  8. ^ "Hikayat Jalur Kereta Api Listrik di Indonesia". CNN Indonesia. Retrieved 22 January 2017.
  9. ^ "Sejarah Pembangunan Kereta Rel Listrik di Jakarta". Jakarta by Train. 2014-03-07. Retrieved 22 January 2017.
  10. ^ a b Media, Kompas Cyber (3 October 2016). "Putaran Roda KRL, Bonbon, hingga KfW". KOMPAS.com. Retrieved 22 January 2017.
  11. ^ Faris (17 January 2016). "Perjalanan KRL Seri 6000 Hibah eks-Toei, Setelah 15 Tahun - KAORI Nusantara". KAORI Nusantara. Retrieved 22 January 2017.
  12. ^ a b c "KRL Lintas Tanah Abang Diperpanjang Hingga Maja | Suara Pembaruan". sp.beritasatu.com. Retrieved 2017-10-14.
  13. ^ Syailendra. "KRL Ekonomi Non-AC Dihapus Sejak Hari Ini". Tempo.co. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
  14. ^ "Penambahan Jadwal Commuter Line dan Ancaman Kemacetan". March 27, 2015.
  15. ^ Ronald. "Jalur Nambo resmi beroperasi, penumpang masih sepi | merdeka.com". merdeka.com. Retrieved 2017-10-14.
  16. ^ "PT KCJ: Keterlambatan KRL Sudah di Bawah 10 Menit". July 6, 2015.
  17. ^ Agustin Setyo Wardani (February 3, 2015). "2014, Sebanyak 200 Juta Orang Naik Kereta Jabodetabek".
  18. ^ Sulistyo, Bayu Tri (2015-12-23). "Yuk Kita Lihat Serunya Hari Pertama Pink Line!". Railway Enthusiast Digest (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2017-12-19.
  19. ^ a b Idris, Muhammad. "Pengumuman! KRL Cikarang Mulai Beroperasi 8 Oktober". detikfinance. Retrieved 2017-10-14.
  20. ^ Aliansyah, Muhammad Agil (2014-03-05). "KCJ mulai operasikan kereta terpanjang seri 205". Merdeka.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2017-12-19.
  21. ^ PT Kereta Commuter Indonesia (2016). "Tahun 2016, PT KCJ Tambah 200 Gate dan Operasikan 18 Rangkaian KRL Formasi 12 Kereta" (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2017-12-19.
  22. ^ a b c d e Media, Kompas Cyber. "5 Desember, Pola Jalur Melingkar KRL Beroperasi - Kompas.com". KOMPAS.com. Retrieved 2017-10-14.
  23. ^ Ronald. "Jalur Nambo resmi beroperasi, penumpang masih sepi | merdeka.com". merdeka.com. Retrieved 2017-10-14.
  24. ^ "KRL Rangkasbitung - TanahAbang Beroperasi Penuh Mulai 1 April 2017". KRL. Retrieved 2017-10-14.
  25. ^ Liputan6.com. "8 KRL Bekasi-Jakarta Kota Pindah Lewat Pasar Senen, Ini Jadwalnya". liputan6.com. Retrieved 2017-10-14.
  26. ^ Fadhli, Faris (2015-12-22). "Lintas Jakarta Kota - Tanjung Priok Dibuka, KRL Mulai Beroperasi". KAORI Nusantara. Retrieved 2017-10-14.
  27. ^ Jadwal Terbaru KRL – Update 21 November 2017
  28. ^ a b Rudi, Alsadad (9 January 2016). "Ini Cara Membeli Tiket di "Vending Machine" KRL - Kompas.com". KOMPAS.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  29. ^ Post, The Jakarta. "Commuters welcome KCJ's cheaper train fares". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
  30. ^ Jum'at, Yan Yusuf (5 January 2018). "Denda THB Commuter Line Dihapus, Saldo Minimal KMT Turun Jadi Rp5 Ribu". SINDOnews (in Indonesian). Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  31. ^ Widyanuratikah, Inas (8 January 2018). "Saldo Minimum KMT untuk KRL Kini Hanya Rp 5.000". Republika (in Indonesian). Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  32. ^ a b c "Naik KRL Sekarang Bisa Pakai Tiga Kartu Prabayar Bank BUMN". June 16, 2014.
  33. ^ Administrator. "Kartu Flazz BCA Kini Dapat Digunakan Untuk Transaksi Perjalanan KRL | BERITA TERKINI". www.krl.co.id. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
  34. ^ "Mulai 1 Oktober, Tarif KRL Jabodetabek Naik". Retrieved 13 October 2016.
  35. ^ "Pemerintah Beri Subsidi Kereta Rp 1,8 T di 2016, Rp 1,1 T Untuk KRL". detikfinance. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
  36. ^ Post, The Jakarta. "Cheaper train fares and e-tickets at KCJ". TheJakartaPost.com. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
  37. ^ "Train commuters up by 30 percent". July 8, 2013.
  38. ^ "都営6000、Depok電車区にてオフレール作業開始!!(11月23日~) - JABODETABEK COMMUTERS NEWS". Cocolog-nifty.com. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
  39. ^ Post, The Jakarta. "KRL collision in Jakarta caused by 'human error' says KAI". TheJakartaPost.com. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
  40. ^ "Seven people killed in accident collision of a tanker truck vs KRL - Republika Online". Republika.co.id. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
  41. ^ "KRL collision fatalities and increased tanker truck". Blogspot.my. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
  42. ^ "Mahasiswa UI tewas tertabrak KRL di Pondok Cina". WN.com. Retrieved 4 April 2017.

External links[edit]

Media related to Kereta Commuter Indonesia at Wikimedia Commons