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A kabaddi match during the 2018 Asian Games
|Highest governing body||International Kabaddi Federation|
|Nicknames||Kaudi, Pakaada, Ha-du-du, Bhavatik, Saadukuda, Hu-Tu-Tu, Himoshika|
|Team members||7 (per side)|
|Mixed gender||No, there are separate competitions for male and female|
|Type||Team sport, Contact sport|
|Country or region||Indian Subcontinent, Asia|
|Olympic||Demonstration sport: 1936 Olympics|
Kabaddi is a contact team sport played between two teams of seven players each. The objective of the game is for a single player on offense, referred to as a "raider", to run into the opposing team's half of a court, tag out as many of their defenders as possible, and return to their own half of the court, all without being tackled by the defenders, and in a single breath. Points are scored tagged by the raider, while the opposing team earns a point for stopping the raider. Players are taken out of the game if they are tagged or tackled, but are brought back in for each point scored by their team from a tag or tackle.
It is popular in South Asia and other surrounding Asian countries. Although accounts of kabaddi appear in the histories of ancient India, the game was popularised as a competitive sport in the 20th century. It is the national sport of Bangladesh. It is the state game of the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, and Uttar Pradesh.
There are two major disciplines of kabaddi: so-called Punjabi kabaddi, also referred to as circle style, comprises traditional forms of the sport that are played on a circular field outdoors, while the standard style, played on a rectangular court indoors, is the discipline played in major professional leagues and international competitions such as the Asian Games.
The game is known by numerous names in different parts of South Asia, such as: kabaddi or chedugudu in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana; kabaddi in Maharashtra, Karnataka and Kerala; kabadi or ha-du-du in Bangladesh; bhavatik in Maldives, kauddi or kabaddi in the Punjab region; hu-tu-tu in Western India, hu-do-do in Eastern India; chadakudu in South India; kapardi in Nepal; and kabadi or sadugudu in Tamil Nadu.
History of the game
Although unverified, theories from religious believers state that kabaddi originated from either the Vedic period of ancient India, or the Sistan region of present-day Iran. The game was said to have been popular among the Yadava people; an abhang by Tukaram stated that the god Krishna played the game in his youth, while the Mahabharata contains an account of Arjuna being able to sneak into hostile areas also take out enemies unscathed, which they are claiming that parallels the gameplay of kabaddi. There are accounts of Gautama Buddha having played the game recreationally.
Despite these conflicting claims, India has been credited with having helped to popularize kabaddi as a competitive sport, with the first organized competitions occurring in the 1920s, their introduction to the programme of the Indian Olympic Games in 1938, the establishment of the All-India Kabaddi Federation in 1950, and it being played as a demonstration sport at the inaugural 1951 Asian Games in New Delhi. These developments helped to formalize the sport, which had traditionally been played in villages, for legitimate international competition.
In the international team version of kabaddi, two teams of seven members each occupy opposite halves of a court of 10 by 13 metres (33 ft × 43 ft) in case of men and 8 by 12 metres (26 ft × 39 ft) in case of women. Each has five supplementary players held in reserve for substitution. The game is played with 20-minute halves with a 5-minute half break in which the teams exchange sides. During each play, known as a "raid", a player from the attacking side, known as the "raider", runs into the opposing team's side of the court and attempts to tag as many of the seven defending players as possible. For a raid to be eligible for points, the raider must cross the baulk line into the defending team's territory, and then return to their half of the field without being tackled. (If an attacker touches a defender and hasn't yet reached the baulk line, they don't need to reach the baulk line to score points and may return to their half of the court.) While raiding, the raider must loudly chant kabaddi, confirming to referees that their raid is done on a single breath without inhaling. A 30-second limit is also enforced on each raid.
A point is scored for each defender tagged. If the raider steps beyond the bonus line marked in the defending team's territory, they earn an additional point known as a bonus point. If the raider is successfully stopped (tackled), the opposite team earns a point instead. All players tagged are taken out of the game, but one is "revived" for each point a team scores from a subsequent tag or tackle. Bonus points do not revive players. Players who step out of the boundary are out. A raid where no points are scored by the raider is referred to as an "empty raid". By contrast, a play where the raider scores three or more points is referred to as a "super raid". If a team gets all seven players on the opposing team out at once ("All Out"), they earn two additional points and the players are placed back in the game.
Additional rules are used in the Pro Kabaddi League: if a team has two empty raids in a row, the next raider must score a point, because the next raid is a "do-or-die" raid. In this raid, the player must either get a point or be out. If the raider does not get a point then the opposite team will get a point and the raider will be declared out. Additionally when fewer than four players left on the field, tackles are worth 2 points ("super tackle").
There are four major forms of Indian kabaddi recognised by the amateur federation. In Sanjeevani kabaddi, one player is revived against one player of the opposite team who is out. The game is played over 40 minutes with a five-minute break between halves. There are seven players on each side and the team that outs all the players on the opponent's side scores four extra points. In Gaminee style, seven players play on each side and a player put out has to remain out until all his team members are out. The team that is successful in outing all the players of the opponent's side secures a point. The game continues until five or seven such points are secured and has no fixed time duration. Amar style resembles the Sanjeevani form in the time frame rule, but a player who is declared out stays inside the court while play continues. For every player of the opposition touched "out", a team earns a point. Punjabi kabaddi is a variation that is played on a circular pitch of a diameter of 22 metres (72 ft).
Kabaddi World Cup
The Kabaddi World Cup is an outdoor international standard style kabaddi competition conducted by the International Kabaddi Federation (IKF), contested by men's and women's national teams. The competition has been previously contested in 2004, 2007 and 2016. All the tournaments have been won by India. India defeated Iran by 38-29 in the final of the championship game to clinch the title of 2016.
After the establishment of a new kabaddi organization named World Kabaddi Federation, a 2019 Kabbadi World Cup was held in April 2019 at Malacca, Malaysia. It was the largest world cup in kabaddi history, consisting of 32 men teams and 24 female teams.
Kabaddi has been played at the Asian Games since 1990. The Indian national team had won every men's and women's kabaddi competition in the Asian Games from 1990 through 2014. At the 2018 Asian Games, Iran became the first country other than India to win gold medals in kabaddi, with India's men's team winning bronze, and India's women's team being beaten by Iran to win silver.
Pro Kabaddi League
The Pro Kabaddi League was established in 2014. The league modeled its business upon that of the Indian Premier League of Twenty20 cricket, with a large focus on marketing, the backing of local broadcaster Star Sports, and changes to the sport's rules and its presentation to make it more suitable for a television audience. The Pro Kabaddi League quickly became a ratings success on Indian television; the 2014 season was watched by at least 435 million viewers over the course of the season, and the inaugural championship match was seen by 98.6 million viewers.
Indo International Premier Kabaddi League
Super Kabaddi League
Asian Kabaddi Championship
The inaugural edition of the Kabaddi Masters was held in Dubai 22–30 June 2018. It was the first kabaddi tournament to be held in the UAE. It featured 6 teams. India won the tournament by defeating Iran in the final with a scoreline of 44–26, with the Indian Defense outperforming the Iran Defense.
Junior World Kabaddi championship
The inaugural Junior Kabaddi World Championship was held in Kish island, Iran, 11–14 November 2019. It featured 13 teams. Iran won the tournament by defeating Kenya in the final, 42–22. Team India did not participated in this tournament.
European Kabaddi championship
The first edition of European Kabaddi Championship was held in Scotland in 2019. The final match was between Poland and Holland, Poland won the tournament. Final score was Poland 47–27 Holland.
- Women's Kabaddi Challenge
A women's kabaddi league. The first season was played from 28 June to 31 July 2016 and was broadcast by Star Sports in India. Three teams played across seven cities in India. The final was played alongside the men's version on 31 July. The Storm Queens produced a last-second turnaround to defeat the Fire Birds 24–23.
- Iran Kabaddi Premier League
It is the professional kabaddi league held in Iran.
Kabaddi is a popular sport in the Indian subcontinent. The Kabaddi Federation of India (KFI) was founded in 1950, and it compiled a standard set of rules. The governing body for kabaddi in Pakistan is Pakistan Kabaddi Federation.
In Bangladesh, there is a variation of kabaddi called Ha-du-du, going back to ancient times. Ha-du-du has no definite rules and is played with different rules in different areas. Kabaddi is the national sport of Bangladesh, given official status in 1972. The Amateur Kabaddi Federation of Bangladesh was formed in 1973.
In Iran, the Community of Kabaddi was formed in 1996 (the same year they joined the Asian Kabaddi Federation), and in 2001 they joined the International Kabaddi Federation. The Iran Amateur Kabaddi Federation was formed in 2004.
Kabaddi is one of the national sports of Nepal. Kabaddi is played and taught in most primary schools beginning in about the third grade in most Nepali schools. Kabaddi was also played by the British Army for fun, to keep fit and as an enticement to recruit soldiers from the British Asian community. Kabaddi was brought to the United Kingdom by Indian, Bangladeshi and Pakistani immigrants. The governing body for kabaddi in the United Kingdom is the England Kabaddi Federation UK.
In popular culture
- Films depicting kabaddi
- Gunga Jumna (1961)
- Kudumba Thalaivan (1962)
- Ganga Ki Saugandh (1978)
- Naseeb (1981)
- Little Buddha (1993)
- Pardes (1997)
- Hu Tu Tu (1999)
- Kabaddi Kabaddi (2003)
- Okkadu (2003)
- Ghilli (2006 Tamil Movie)
- Ajay (2006)
- Kabaddi (2009)
- Vennila Kabadi Kuzhu (2009 Tamil Movie)
- Bheemli Kabadi Jattu (2010)
- Chal Dhar Pakad (2010)
- Kabaddi Ik Mohabbat (2010)
- Kabaddi Once Again (2012)
- Badlapur Boys (2014)
- Tevar (2015)
- Thoppil Joppan (2016)
- Georgettan's Pooram (2017)
- "bathhi kabaddi league "(2017)
- Student of the Year 2 (2019)
- Vennila Kabaddi Kuzhu 2 (2019 Tamil Movie)
- Panga (film) (2020)
- Kennedy Club (2020 Tamil Movie)
- Anime and manga depicting kabaddi
- Full Metal Panic? Fumoffu (2003)
- Gintama (2006)
- Teekyu (2013)
- Durarara!!×2 Shō (2015)
- Chio's School Road (2016, manga; 2018, anime)
- Uwagaki (2009)
- Dramas depicting kabaddi
- Bitter Sweet (2015)
- Azhagiya Tamil Magal (2017 Tamil Movie)
- "Varanasi kabbadi league "(2017)
- Super Kabaddi League Pakistan (2017)
- Aditya Bhosle (2020)
- Devesh Singh (2020)
- "A tale of kabaddi, Bangladesh's national sport". Dhaka Tribune. Retrieved 31 July 2017.
- Faroqi, Gofran. "Kabadi". Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
- siddharth (31 December 2016). "Kabaddi Introduction, Rules, Information, History & Competitions". Sportycious. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
- "The kabaddi question - whose game is it anyway?". ESPN.com. Retrieved 20 August 2018.
- Sen, Ronojoy (27 October 2015). Nation at Play: A History of Sport in India. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-53993-7.
- Pioneer. "Kabaddi goes international". Retrieved 23 August 2018.
- "Pro Kabaddi Rules". prokabaddi.com.
- "Rules of Kabaddi". International Kabaddi Federation (IKF). Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- "Kabaddi World Cup 2016: A handy guide to the format, rules and how the sport works". Firstpost. 5 October 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- "Kabaddi 101: Raid, defend, revive, repeat". ESPN.com. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- "Everything you need to know about Kabaddi". The Indian Express. 30 January 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- "Kabaddi In India: Origins, success and current pitiable state". Sportskeeda.com. 7 March 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
- Kissa 2 Kabaddi da. Sarwan Singh Sangam Publications. ISBN 93-83654-65-1.
- Sain, Vijay (19 November 2018). "Exciting news for Kabaddi fans! World Cup Kabaddi 2019 set to kick off from April 2019". Sportskeeda. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
- "Kabaddi gets the IPL treatment". BBC News. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
- "Pro Kabaddi league viewership second only to IPL". The Hindu. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
- "Simple, visceral, fun: why the ancient sport of kabaddi is enjoying a resurgence". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
- "Indo International Premier Kabaddi League Grand Opening". IIPKL. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
- "Bangalore Rhinos become Champions in the Indo International Premier Kabaddi League". Kabaddi Adda. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
- "The importance of professional leagues". The News on Sunday. 25 November 2018. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
- "Beleaguered no more: Kabaddi gains popularity in Pakistan". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
- "Kabaddi league: Pakistanis axed from roster". The Express Tribune. 21 July 2015. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
- "Asian Kabaddi Championship 2017: Ajay Thakur-inspired India thump Pakistan in final to win men's title". Firstpost. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
- "Kabaddi Masters Dubai 2018 - Match 15 - INDIA vs IRAN". Kabaddi Adda. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
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