|- left||Panjshir River, Alingar River, Kunar River, Swat River|
|- right||Logar River, Bara River|
|Source||Hindu Kush Mountains|
|- elevation||2,400 m (7,874 ft)|
|Length||700 km (435 mi)|
|Basin||66,000 km2 (25,483 sq mi)|
The Kabul River (Dari: دریای کابل, Pashto: کابل سیند), the classical Cophes //, is a 700-kilometre (430 mi) long river that emerges in the Sanglakh Range of the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and empties into the Indus River near Attock, Pakistan. It is the main river in eastern Afghanistan and is separated from the watershed of the Helmand by the Unai Pass. It is one of the most important right tributaries of Indus river.
The Kabul River passes through the cities of Kabul, Surobi, and Jalalabad in Afghanistan before flowing into Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan some 25 kilometres (16 mi) north of the Durand Line border crossing at Torkham. In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the river passes through the cities of Peshawar and Nowshera. The major tributaries of the Kabul River are the Logar, Panjshir, Alingar, Kunar, Bara , Kalpani and Swat rivers.
The Kabul River is little more than a trickle for most of the year, but swells in summer due to melting snows in the Hindu Kush Range. Its largest tributary is the Kunar River, which starts out as the Mastuj River, flowing from the Chiantar glacie in Brughil valley in Chitral, Pakistan and after flowing south into Afghanistan it is met by the Bashgal river flowing from Nurestan. The Kunar meets the Kabul near Jalalabad. In spite of the Kunar carrying more water than the Kabul, the river continues as the Kabul River after this confluence, mainly for the political and historical significance of the name.
The Kabul River is impounded by several dams. The Naghlu, Surobi, and Darunta dams are located in the Kabul and Nangarhar provinces of Afghanistan. The Warsak Dam is in the Valley of Peshawar in Pakistan, approximately 20 km northwest of the city of Peshawar.
Expedition of Alexander the Great into Asia
|“||-Apr 329 - Cophen River (Kabul River, Afghanistan) ―Gandara-||”|
In Avesta and Sanskrit
Buddhist caves, which have been carved into a set of cliffs on the north side of the Kabul river
- Arrian, John Rooke; Arrian's History of the expedition of Alexander the Great: and conquest of Persia. J. Davis, 1813. Retrieved 2009-10-06.
- Nigel Cawthorne; Alexander the Great. Haus Publishing, 2004, ISBN 1-904341-56-X. Retrieved 2009-10-06.
- Waldemar Heckel; The wars of Alexander the Great, 336-323 B.C. Taylor & Francis, 2003, ISBN 0-415-96855-0. Retrieved 2009-10-06.
- Arrian, James S. Romm, Pamela Mensch; Alexander the Great: selections from Arrian, Diodorus, Plutarch, and Quintus Curtius. Hackett Publishing, 2005, ISBN 0-87220-727-7. Retrieved 2009-10-06.
- The History and Culture of the Indian People : The Vedic age. By Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, Achut Dattatrya Pusalker, A. K. Majumdar, Dilip Kumar Ghose, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Vishvanath Govind Dighe Published by Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1962 Page 247|quote=The Kubha is the modern Kabul river which flows into the Indus a little above Attock and receives at Prang the joint flow of its tributaries the Swat (Swastu) and Gauri
- Original Sanskrit Texts on the Origin and History of the People of India By John Muir page 352|quote='In the older parts of the Rigved the Indian people appear to be settled on the north western border of India, in the Punjab and even beyond the Punjab on the borders of the Kubha river the Kowpher in Kabul. The gradual diffusion of these people from this point towards the east, beyond the Saraswati and Hindustan as far as the Ganges, can be traced almost step by step in the later portions of the Vedic writings
- Bosworth, C.E. (1999). "Kabul". Encyclopaedia of Islam (CD-ROM Edition v. 1.0 ed.). Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV.
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