Kachin State

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Kachin State (or) Jinghpaw Mungdaw

ကချင်ပြည်နယ် · Jinghpaw Mungdan
JINGHPAW Mungdaw (or) JINGHPAW Wunpawng Mungdan
Flag of Kachin State (or) Jinghpaw Mungdaw
Flag
Official logo of Kachin State (or) Jinghpaw Mungdaw
Seal
Location of Kachin State in Myanmar
Location of Kachin State in Myanmar
Coordinates: 26°0′N 97°30′E / 26.000°N 97.500°E / 26.000; 97.500Coordinates: 26°0′N 97°30′E / 26.000°N 97.500°E / 26.000; 97.500
Country Myanmar
RegionNorthern
CapitalMyitkyina
Government
 • Chief MinisterKhet Aung (NLD)
 • CabinetKachin State Government
 • LegislatureKachin State Hluttaw
 • JudiciaryKachin State High Court
Area
 • Total89,041.2 km2 (34,379.0 sq mi)
Area rank3rd
Population
 • Total1,689,441
 • Rank10th
 • Density19/km2 (49/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Kachinian
Demographics
 • EthnicitiesKachin (includ. Zaiwa), Lisu, Han-Chinese, Shan, Naga, Bamar, Nu, Tibetan, Burmese Gurkha
 • Religions
Time zoneUTC+06:30 (MMT)
HDI (2015)0.596[2]
medium · 2nd

Kachin State (or) Jinghpaw Mung (Kachin: JINGHPAW Mungdaw (or) JINGHPAW Wunpawng Mungdan; Burmese: ကချင်ပြည်နယ်) is the northernmost state of Myanmar. It is bordered by China to the north and east (Tibet and Yunnan, specifically and respectively); Shan State to the south; and Sagaing Region and India (Arunachal Pradesh) to the west. It lies between north latitude 23° 27' and 28° 25' longitude 96° 0' and 98° 44'. The area of Kachin State is 89,041 km2 (34,379 sq mi). The capital of the state is Myitkyina. Other important towns include Bhamo, Mohnyin and Putao.

Kachin State has Myanmar's highest mountain, Hkakabo Razi (5,889 metres (19,321 ft)), forming the southern tip of the Himalayas, and a large inland lake, Indawgyi Lake.

History[edit]

Traditional Kachin society was based on shifting hill agriculture. According to "The Political Systems of Highland Burma: A Study of Kachin Social Structure", written by E. R. Leach, Kachin was not a linguistic category. Political authority was based on chieftains who depended on support from immediate kinsmen. Considerable attention has been given by anthropologists of the Kachin custom of maternal cousin marriage, wherein it is permissible for a man to marry his mother's brother's daughter, but not with the father's sister's daughter. In pre-colonial times, the Kachin were animist.

After the Qing-Konbaung war, the Chinese exercised a degree of control over the present-day northeastern Kachin State. During the British colonization of Burma, the Kachin Hills tribes autonomy was accepted by the British government. British forces carried out two expeditions against the Kachin in 1892 and 1896. In 1910, the British occupied Hpimaw (Chinese characters: 片马, pinyin: Piànmǎ) in the Pianma Incident.

The pre-independence Burmese government under Aung San reached the Panglong Agreement with the Shan, Kachin, and Chin peoples on 12 February 1947. The agreement accepted "Full autonomy in internal administration for the Frontier Areas" in principle and envisioned the creation of a Kachin State by the Constituent Assembly. Burma attained independence on 4 January 1948. Kachin State was formed in the same year out of the former British Burma civil districts of Bhamo and Myitkyina, together with the larger northern district of Puta-o. Kachin State was officially announced on 10 January 1948 and Kachin State Government held "Mungdaw Masat Masat Manau" (forming of Kacahin State Manau) for three consecutive days since 9 to 11 January as happiness since that year they held Manau on January 10 every year until Military in coup 1962.[3] The vast mountainous hinterlands are predominantly Kachin, whereas the more densely populated railway corridor and southern valleys are mostly Shan and Bamar. The northern frontier was not demarcated and until the 1960s Chinese governments had claimed the northern half of Kachin State as Chinese territory since the 18th century.[citation needed] Before the British rule, roughly 75% of all Kachin jadeite ended up in China, where it was prized much more highly than the local Chinese nephrite.[citation needed]

Kachin troops formerly formed a significant part of the Burmese army. With the unilateral abrogation of the Union of Burma constitution by the Ne Win regime in 1962, Kachin forces withdrew and formed the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) under the Kachin Independence Organization (KIO). Aside from the major towns and railway corridor, Kachin State has been virtually independent from the mid-1960s through 1994, with an economy based on agriculture and trade with China, including of jade. After a Myanmar army offensive in 1994 seized the jade mines from the KIO, a peace treaty was signed, permitting continued KIO effective control of most of the State, under aegis of the Myanmar military. This ceasefire immediately resulted in the creation of numerous splinter factions from the KIO and KIA of groups opposed to the SPDC's sham peace accord, and the political landscape remains highly unstable.

Kachin conflict[edit]

The complex political situation started when the Kachin armed group was established on October 25, 1960, after the U Nu government announced the state religion as Buddhism, as the Kachin people stopped believing in the government administration system, established after the federal union was agreed upon in the 1947 Panglong agreement. Between 1962 to 2010, the military government ruled over Myanmar. Cease fire agreements between ethnic armed groups and the government were made starting in 1989. And then in 2011 the new government led by President Thein Sein, broke the cease fire agreement which was agreed upon by the former military government and the Kachin ethnic armed group in 1994, resuming fighting against the Kachin who are living in the northern part of Myanmar, northern part of Shan, near the China border on 9th June 2011. Because of the abrupt internal conflict, thousands of internally displaced people fled to refugee camps which are located in the government controlled area as well in the Kachin Independence Army controlled area (Hlaing, 2005).

KIO made a ceasefire agreement with the military government in 1994 while leaving political issues to be discussed with the next elected government. Throughout its struggle, both in the ceasefire and non-ceasefire period, KIO also made agreements with other ethnic rebels and alliances including the Democratic Alliance of Burma (DAB), the National Democratic Front (NDF), and United Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC). The main goal was to pressure the military government and restore the federal democratic government with greater autonomy to Kachin State. During its 17 years of ceasefire from 1994 to 2011 the KIO actively participated in the military-led constitution-drafting-process, attending the National Convention, which was boycotted by the democratic icon Aung San Suu Kyi’s National League for Democracy and ethnic political parties. The KIO together with 12 other ethnic groups demanded amendments of the draft to be more in line with a federal democratic system and to give autonomy to states (Zaw Oo & Win Min 2007).

The seventeen-year ceasefire broke down and fighting between the Kachin Independence Organization and the government resumed in June 2011 after the Kachin Independent Army disallowed the government’s order to transform into a Border Guard Force and it claimed that the regime’s 2008 Constitution lacked federal democratic principles and equal political rights for ethnic minorities based on the Panglong Agreement. Renewed fighting between the Kachin Independence Army and the Burmese army began on June 9, 2011 at Ta-pein hydropower plan and continued throughout 2012. Initial reports suggested that from June to September 2011 a total of 5,580 Internally Displaced Persons from 1,397 households arrived at 38 IDP camps under Myanmar Government control.[4] In August, 2012 thousands of Kachin refugees were forced by the Chinese Government back into Myanmar despite the continued fighting there; NGOs like Human Rights Watch called to cease such action and pointed the illegality of doing so under international law.[5] As of October 9, 2012, over 100,000 IDPs are taking shelter in various camps across Kachin State. The majority of IDPs (est. 70,000) are currently sheltering in KIA controlled territory.[6] Fatality estimates were difficult to estimate but most reports suggested that between government troops, Kachin Independence Army rebels, and civilians upwards of 1,000 people had died in the conflict.

Even though many Kachins were already displaced internally, only around 150,000 people are reported as IDPs. The Kachins are currently the major target for the Burmese government,[citation needed] yet only few Kachins have resettled in the United States or in Australia, as compared to other Myanmar ethnics (such as the Karens and Chins).

Government[edit]

Executive[edit]

Legislature[edit]

Judiciary[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1973 737,939—    
1983 904,794+22.6%
2014 1,689,441+86.7%
Source: 2014 Myanmar Census[1]

Religion[edit]

Christianity is one of the main religion for Kachin people in Kachin State. Buddhism is the major religion among Bamar and Shan people in Kachin.

Religious
group
Population
% 1983
Population
% 2015[7]
Buddhism 58.5% 64.0%
Christianity 38.5% 33.8%
Hinduism 1.8% 0.4%
Islam 0.5% 1.6%
Other 0.7% 0.2

Language[edit]

The Jingpho language was the traditional language of the area, and is the state's lingua franca. The Bamar people (Burmese) were a minority in Kachin State before the independence of Burma from the British, but after 1948, groups of Bamar (Burmese) came to Kachin State to settle down so that offices could be run with the Burmese language, which has caused language shift and commenced the decline of the Kachin language. Many later Kachin generations did not have a chance to speak or learn their language properly at school.

Some Kachin tribes speak and write their own language: the Zaiwa, the Rawang, and the Lisu, who speak both the Lisu language and the Lipo language.

Ethnicity[edit]

The ethnic data from the 2014 census is available only with the Tatmadaw and not released to the public. As per the 1983 Census, the ethnic composition was Bamar: 29.3%, Shan: 24.2% and Kachin: 38.1%. In a speech delivered on 2016, Min Aung Hlaing of Tatmadaw gave the ethnic composition of the Kachin state as follows: Bamar - 29.2%, Shan - 23.6%, Jingphaw - 18.97%, Lisu - 7%, Rawam - 5%, Lawwaw - 3.33%, Lacheik - 2.89%, Zaikwa - 1.57% and Others - 8%.[8]

Economy[edit]

The economy of Kachin State is predominantly agricultural. The main products include rice, teak, sugar cane, opium. Mineral products include gold and jade.[citation needed] Hpakan is a well known place for its jade mines.[9] Over 600 tons of jade stones, which were unearthed from Lone-Khin area in Hpakan aka Pha-Khant Township in Kachine State, had been displayed in Myanmar Naypyidaw to be sold in November 2011. Most of the jade stones extracted in Myanmar, 25,795 tons in 2009–10 and 32,921 tons in 2008–09, are from Kachin State. The largest jade stone in the world, 3000 tons, 21 metres long, 4.8 metres wide and 10.5 metres high was found in Hpakan in 2000.[10] The Myanmar government pays little attention to the deterioration of environment in Kachin because of jade mining. There has been erosion, flooding and mudslides. Several houses are destroyed every year.[11]

Kachin has deep economic ties with China, which acts as the regions biggest trading partner and chief investor in development project. In 2006, the Prime Minister General Thein Sein made an agreement with the China Power Investment Cooperation in Beijing to build the Myitsone Dam and six others dam in Kachin State.[12] One controversial construction project of a huge 1,055 megawatt hydroelectric power plant dam, the Myitsone Dam, is ongoing.[13][13] It is funded by China Power Investment Cooperation. When completed, the dam will measure 152 metres high and the electricity produced will be sold to China. This project displaced about 15,000 people and is one of 7 projects planned for the Irrawady River.[14]

Bhamo is one of the border trading points between China and Myanmar.[15]

Transportation[edit]

Kachin State is served by the following airports:

There is a railroad between Myitkyina and Mandalay (through Sagaing). The train will takes 21–30 hours from Mandalay to Myitkyina.[16]

Education[edit]

Educational opportunities in Myanmar are extremely limited outside the main cities of Yangon and Mandalay. It is especially a problem in Kachin State where over 60 years of fighting between the government and insurgents has displaced thousands of people. The following is a summary of the education system in the state.[17]

AY 2002-2003 Primary Middle High
Schools 1183 86 41
Teachers 3700 1500 600
Students 168,000 80,000 24,100

Health care[edit]

The general state of health care in Myanmar is poor. The military government spends anywhere from 0.5% to 3% of the country's GDP on health care, consistently ranking among the lowest in the world.[18][19] Although health care is nominally free, in reality, patients have to pay for medicine and treatment, even in public clinics and hospitals. Public hospitals lack many of the basic facilities and equipment. In general, the health care infrastructure outside of Yangon and Mandalay is extremely poor but is especially worse in remote areas like Kachin State. The following is a summary of the public health care system in the state.[20]

2002–2003 # Hospitals # Beds
Specialist hospitals 2 125
General hospitals with specialist services 2 500
General hospitals 17 553
Health clinics 22 352
Total 43 1530

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Census Report. The 2014 Myanmar Population and Housing Census. 2. Naypyitaw: Ministry of Immigration and Population. May 2015. p. 17.
  2. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  3. ^ Wabaw, Zau Rip (1983). Jinghpaw Mung Hte Ngai. Myitkyina. p. 112.
  4. ^ "UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Kachin fighting hits IDP health", Irin, Myitkyina, 15 November 2012.
  5. ^ China 'forcing Kachin refugees back to Burma, BBC, 24 August 2012.
  6. ^ IDPs (PDF), MRTV3, p. 8 Col 4.[dead link]
  7. ^ Department of Population Ministry of Labour, Immigration and Population MYANMAR (July 2016). The 2014 Myanmar Population and Housing Census Census Report Volume 2-C. Department of Population Ministry of Labour, Immigration and Population MYANMAR. pp. 12–15.
  8. ^ https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/Ethnic-Identity-in-Myanmar.pdf
  9. ^ "Heaven and Hell: Burma's jade mines, Part 1". Ruby-sapphire. 2010-05-18. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
  10. ^ Burma jade production up, Baganland, October 2010, archived from the original on 2011-05-19
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Shane Abrahams. October 2009. Archived from the original on 2011-12-28. Retrieved 2011-03-10.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ Kachin State Natural Resources Development Policy Discussion Paper, June,2015
  13. ^ a b "Develop Kachin hydropower plant", Earth times, archived from the original on 2012-08-03
  14. ^ "KIO warns China: Myitsone Dam could spark 'civil war'". Burma Rivers Network. 2011-05-20. Archived from the original on 2012-03-24. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
  15. ^ Aye Lei Tun. "Myanmar Times & Business Reviews". The Myanmar Times. Archived from the original on 2012-02-15. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
  16. ^ "Kachin state, northern Myanmar, Burma, travel info & maps". Asterism.info. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
  17. ^ "Education statistics by level and by State and Division". Myanmar Central Statistical Organization. Archived from the original on 2008-05-24. Retrieved 2009-04-09.
  18. ^ "PPI: Almost Half of All World Health Spending is in the United States". 2007-01-17. Archived from the original on 2008-02-05.
  19. ^ Anwar, Yasmin (2007-06-28). "Burma junta faulted for rampant diseases". UC Berkeley News. Archived from the original on 2012-07-02.
  20. ^ "Hospitals and Dispensaries by State and Division". Myanmar Central Statistical Organization. Archived from the original on 2011-04-30. Retrieved 2009-04-19.

External links[edit]