Kader Bahini

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Kader Bahini (Force of Kader) was a guerrilla independence militia during the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971. It was named after its leader, Kader Siddique.

The militia operated against the Pakistan Army in Tangail zone.[1] It comprise an estimated 50,000 civilians. Siddique was wounded at the Makrar battle near Balla village. Kader Bahini is notable for the capture of a Pakistani ship with large quantities of arms and ammunition at Bhuapur. They also captured several armored cars along with bulletproof carriers.

Background[edit]

A planned military pacification carried out by the Pakistan Army – codenamed Operation Searchlight – started on 25 March to curb the Bengali nationalist movement[2] by taking control of the major cities on 26 March, and then eliminating all opposition, political or military,[3] within one month. Before the beginning of the operation, all foreign journalists were systematically deported from East Pakistan.[4]

During the war there were widespread killings and other atrocities – including the displacement of civilians in Bangladesh (East Pakistan at the time) and widespread violations of human rights began with the start of Operation Searchlight on 25 March 1971. Members of the Pakistani military and supporting militias killed estimated between 300,000[5] to 3,000,000 people and raped 200,000–400,000 Bangladeshi women in a systematic campaign of genocidal rape.[6][7][8]

Formation[edit]

On 1 March 1971 the Tangail district unit of Swadhin Bangla Gono Mukti Parishad was formed. They organised the local youths and provided them with military training. After the launch of operation searchlight, local Mukti Bahinis in Tangail set up blockades on the road to Tangail at Goran-Satiachara in Mirzapur. The Pakistan army entered Tangail on April 3 breaking through the blockade. Abdul Kader Siddique who was then a leader of Chhatra League from the Kader Bahini composed Mukti Bahini from Tangail soon after.[9]

Area of operations[edit]

The kader Bahini operated inside Tangail area. Throughout the Bangladesh Liberation war the force stayed inside Bangladeshi territory and did not move to India like many other units of the Mukti Bahini. Kader Siddiqui the founder and leader of Kader Bahini was himself a native of Tangail.[10]

Jahazmara battle[edit]

On August 10, 1971, Kader Bahini in Tangail attacked two ships of the Pakistan army containing arms, ammunition and fuel. The two ships were named ST Razan and SU Engineers LC-3. They were attacked on the convergence point of Jamuna and Dhaleswari rivers at Sirajkandi. After a brief battle, Kader Bahini emerged as the winning side. They destroyed the supplies harming the logistics of Pakistan army in the region. The Battle came to be known as Jahazmare(Ship Killing) The Public Works Department built a monument near the site of the battle.[11]

Liberation of Tangail[edit]

On 10 December 1971, 2 thousand Indian paratroops landed in Tangail. They joined up with Kader Bahini. Together they liberated Tangail from Pakistan army. Captain Peter, a Bengali Indian army officer had arrived on 3 December to plan the landing of the Indian troops. New Tangail town was the last stronghold of Pakistan to fall in Tangail. Tangail was freed on 11 December 1971.[12][13]

Dissolution[edit]

After the surrender of Pakistan army on 16 December 1971, Sheikh Mujib was still in Pakistan. He was sentenced to death by a military tribunal. Kader Siddique declared that he and his 50 thousand men would not surrender until Mujib returned. In 1972 after Mujib had returned from Pakistan Kader and his men surrendered his arms to Mujib on Bindubasini Boys High School in Tangail town.[14][15]

Former members[edit]

  • Kader Siddique was the founder of Kader Bahini, which was named after him. He surrendered his weapons to Sheikh Mujib after Bangladesh Liberation war ended. He went underground after Sheikh Mujib was assassinated and carried out attacks against the Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad Government. In the late 1990s, he formed his own party Krishak Sramik Janata League. He has been its president since its founding.[16]
  • Dr. Nuran Nabi worked as a messenger bring ammunition and arms from India in 1971 for the Kader Bahini.He helped plan the landing of Indian paratroopers in Tangail on December 11, 1971. After the war, he pursued a career in Biochemistry and became a lecturer at Dhaka University. He completed his PhD in Japan and joined Colgate toothpaste as a researcher. He wrote a book on the liberation war called “Jonmechi Ei Banglae,” or “Born in Bengal”.[17]
  • Abdul Latif Siddiqui is the elder brother of Kader Siddique. He is former minister in the Awami League government from 2009-2015. He was telecommunications and information technology minister and jute and textiles minister. As jute minister, he saw the privatization of state owned jute mills. President Hamid terminated him from his post as telecommunication minister after he made comments on the Muslim Hajj that was seen as derogatory.[18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nabi, Nuran. "The Tangail Landings: A signal for victory". thedailystar.net. The Daily Star. Retrieved 10 July 2015. 
  2. ^ Bose, Sarmila (October 8, 2005). "Anatomy of Violence: Analysis of Civil War in East Pakistan in 1971". Economic and Political Weekly. Archived from the original on 1 March 2007. 
  3. ^ Salik, Siddiq, Witness To Surrender, pp 63, 228–9, ISBN 984-05-1373-7
  4. ^ Siddiqui, Asif (December 1997). "From Deterrence and Coercive Diplomacy to War: The 1971 Crisis in South Asia". Journal of International and Area Studies. 4 (1): 73–92. JSTOR 43106996. 
  5. ^ "Bangladesh war: The article that changed history – Asia". BBC. 25 March 2010. 
  6. ^ Sharlach 2000, pp. 92–93.
  7. ^ Sajjad 2012, p. 225.
  8. ^ White, Matthew, Death Tolls for the Major Wars and Atrocities of the Twentieth Century
  9. ^ Correspondent. "Tangail was freed on this day in 1971". archive.thedailystar.net. The Daily Star. Retrieved 11 July 2015. 
  10. ^ Ahsan, Syed Badrul. "Old images from a long-ago war". archive.thedailystar.net. The Daily Star. Retrieved 11 July 2015. 
  11. ^ Shakil, Mirza. "Indifference dims glory of a war memorial". thedailystar.net. The Daily Star. Retrieved 11 July 2015. 
  12. ^ Correspondent. "Tangail was freed on this day in 1971". archive.thedailystar.net. The Daily Star. Retrieved 11 July 2015. 
  13. ^ Nabi, Nuran. "The Tangail Landings: A signal for victory". thedailystar.net. The Daily Star. Retrieved 10 July 2015. 
  14. ^ "Akhaura has its war memorial after 38 yrs". archive.thedailystar.net. The Daily Star. Retrieved 11 July 2015. 
  15. ^ Chandan, Md Shahnawaz Khan. "Our Cruel Birth". archive.thedailystar.net. The Daily Star. Retrieved 11 July 2015. 
  16. ^ Star Online Report. "Arrest warrant for Kader Siddique". thedailystar.net. The Daily Star. Retrieved 11 July 2015. 
  17. ^ Chowdhury, Arun. "A CONVERSATION WITH DR. NURAN NABI". thedailystar.net. The Daily Star. Retrieved 10 July 2015. 
  18. ^ Shaikh, Emran Hossain. "A controversial career to say the least". dhakatribune.com. Dhaka Tribune. Retrieved 11 July 2015.