Kadu languages

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Kadu
Tumtum
Kadugli–Krongo
Geographic
distribution
Nuba Mountains, Sudan
Linguistic classificationNilo-Saharan?
Subdivisions
  • Western
  • Central
  • Eastern
Glottologkadu1256[1]
KaduMap.png

The Kadu languages, also known as Kadugli–Krongo or Tumtum, are a small language family of the Kordofanian geographic grouping, once included in Niger–Congo. However, since Thilo Schadeberg (1981), Kadu is widely seen as Nilo-Saharan. Evidence for a Niger-Congo affiliation is rejected, and a Nilo-Saharan relationship is controversial. A conservative classification would treat the Kadu languages as an independent family.[2]

Classification[edit]

Blench (2006) notes that Kadu languages share similarities with multiple African language phyla, including Niger-Congo and Nilo-Saharan, suggesting a complex history of linguistic convergence and contact.[3] However, more recently, Blench states that Kadu is almost certainly Nilo-Saharan, with its closest relationship being with Eastern Sudanic.[4][5]

Like the Nilotic, Surmic, and Kuliak, Kadu languages have verb-initial word order. However, most other languages of the Nuba Mountains, Darfur, and the Sudan-Ethiopia border region have verb-final word order.[6]

Branches[edit]

There are three branches:

Classification[edit]

Hall & Hall (2004),[7] based on Schadeberg (1987),[8] classify the languages as follows.

Kadu

Keiga

Kamda, Tulishi

Damba, Kadugli

Miri

Katcha, Tuna

Kanga, Kufa, Kursi, Lima, Shororo

Krongo-Abdullah, Tumma

Krongo-Tabanya

Kurondi, Talasa, Tumtum

Dafalla (2000) compares 179 cognates in Kadugli, Kamda, Kanga, Katcha, Keiga, Kufa, Miri, Shororo-Kursi, and Tulishi. Dafalla's (2000) results are similarly to those of Schadeberg (1989).

Reconstructions[edit]

Some Kadu quasi-reconstructions by Blench (2006):[9]

Gloss Proto-Kadu
bone **-kub-
to cut, split **deŋ-
to dance, sing, play **bila
give **-ɲa
head **-tu
rat, mouse **-fɛ
five **turu

Comparative vocabulary[edit]

Sample basic vocabulary for Kadu languages:[10]

Language name of language name of people name of locality eye eyes ear ears nose tooth teeth tongue tongues mouth mouths blood bone bones tree trees water eat (imperative) name names
Mudo t̪u-muɗo ka-muɗo áyye ɲéne (e ~ ɪ) neesɔ kisínɛ ɔ́ŋgɔ́rɔk/n- t̪íŋíni ííni ëëdɔ niŋgɔ́ɔ́dɔ níínɔ niináádi (t̪iŋ-)/aríída gúba gubúúni nde-aadí k-aadí ɓííd̪í urí ɛrɛ nɛ́ŋgɛ́rɛ
Yegang sani ma-yɛgaŋ; d̪-ayga ka-yɛgaŋ ɗi ma-yɛgaŋ; k-ɛɛgaŋ ayyɛ nigɛ́ɛ́nɛ́ nɔɔsɔ ~ nɔssɔ anɔ́ɔ́sɔ́ ɓ-/arwɔk (nostril) t̪ɪŋɪnɪ kɪɪnɪ t̪aŋʊɗɔ anɗɔ́ɔ́nɛ́ niinʊ namnáád̪í arid̪ʊ t̪úŋʊ́ɓa kooɓá t̪aŋaɗí kaaɗí ɓiid̪i kurɪ́ ɛrɛ kɛrɛ́ɛ́nɛ́
Kufo t̪iŋ-guufɔ kud̪u maa-guufɔ kuufɔ ɛɛ iyyɛ nɛɛsɔ́ íʃinɛ mɔɔrɔ/níŋgɔrɔ nd̪iŋiní ŋiini ŋɔɗɔ ní-ŋáɗɔ niinɔ nitti r̀ɗʊ kuɓa kuɓɔɔni ffa fáád̪ánɛ ɓeeʃi ʊʊri ɛɛrɛ nigirɛɛnɛ
Miri ti-miri, t̪umma maa-miri kad̪u maa-miri, kad̪u maa-faɗɔ ɲɲa maa-miri ɔɔyɛ iiyɛ nɛɛsɔ isinɛ́ úmb-/nugúŋg-ɔrɔk (nostril) t̪í-ŋíni ŋíni (ŋ)ŋáɗɔ nagáŋgáɗɔ niinɔ niginíínɔ ariid̪u t̪uŋuɓa kuɓʊʊní ffa nááfa ɓiid̪i ágúrri ɛɛrɛ nigirɛɛnɛ
Talla t̪in-d̪alla kaa-d̪alla t̪alla ayyɛ iyyɛ naasɔ isinɛ́ ámb-/nigáŋg-árɔk t̪-iŋŋini iŋŋini áŋdáɗuk ni-ŋ́gɔɗɔ niinɔ niginíínɔ ariid̪ʊ t̪iŋguba kuba ffa nááfa ɓiid̪i oori ɛɛrɛ nigirɛɛnɛ
Tolibi t̪ʊn-d̪uunu, t̪umma maa-d̪uunu; t̪olibi[11] ku-d̪uunu ku-d̪uunu ɔɔe iyye nɛɛsɔ iisɛ́nɛ́ ḿbarɔ/nʊgʊ́mbárɔ t̪íŋ-gini ii-gini ŋ́gɔɗɔ nugúŋgɔ́ɗɔ niinɔ náá-, nɛ́ɛ́-níínɔ (ǹd̪ɛ́!ríídó)/á!ríídó kʊɓa kʊɓooní affá nnááfa ɓiid̪i aguri ɛɛrɛ nɪgɛrɛɛnɛ́
Sangali t̪umma ka-saŋaali ka-saŋaali ka-saŋaali aaya iiyɛ naasɔ easana ɓ-/nag-ɔŋgɔ́rɔ cíɲ(g)ini ágini a-ŋgɔ́ɗɔ nɔ-, (n)agʊ-niinʊ niinʊ naginíínʊ ariid̪ʊ t̪ʊ́gʊ́ɓííní kúɓííní fa afáád̪ana ɓííjí (j ~ d̪) agúrí (ɛ)áárá nɛgɛ́ráána
Krongo niinʊ mɔ-ɗi kad̪u mɔ-ɗi ɓalí-m-ɔyʊ (kalí-m-)iiyʊ nɛaasʊ nísinɛ amʊ́ʊ́ni/nɪgámʊʊni t̪ɪn-jɪnɪ ɪ-jɪnɪ cɔɔɗɔ níjɔɔɗɔ niinɔ munɔ́ɔ́d̪i ʌ́ríd̪ɔ kúɓʊ́ʊ́í nugúɓʊ́ʊ́ní ffa náfat̪ani ɓiid̪i ágʊ́rɪ yaari nigíɲaari
Talasa t̪alasa kaa-d̪alasa ayyɛ kilyá-m-íyyɛ nɛɛsɔ nɛ́sínɛ a-mʊ́ʊ́nɛ/nɛ́ga- t̪i-giní níd̪í-giní t̪ɔŋɔɗɔ́ nid̪ɔ́ŋɔɗɔ́ niina nim̀naad̪i ard̪a kʊ́ɓʊ́ʊ́ní nʊ́gʊ́ɓʊ́ʊ́ní ffa nááfa ɓiigi aguri ɛɛrɛ

Numerals[edit]

Comparison of numerals in individual languages:[11]

Language 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Katcha (1) ŋkɔ́tɔ́ ɛɛɾa íd̪ɔːna iɡiiso it id̪úmú it id̪úmú úfúń ŋkɔ́tɔ́ it id̪úmú úfúń ɛɛɾa it id̪úmú úfúń íd̪ɔːna it id̪úmú úfúń iɡiiso ad̪aɓaaɡa
Kadugli (Talla dialect) (2) ŋ́ɡɔ̀ʈɔ̀k / 'ŋ́ɡàʈɔ̀k ɛ́ːrà ɔ̀'dɔ́ːnà í'ɡízò ù'dúmːù ǹ̩dɪ̀nà'nɔ́ːɡɔ̀ ʈìˈmízò ùdúmːúˈdɪ̀stà ìˈzántà ɔ̀ˈlɔ́ːnà
Keiga t̪ɔ́l arʲáŋ t̪ɔ̀na kisːo t̪ʊ́mʊ t̪ʊmaɲúŋɡʊ aŋɗʊ́rkà abːa t̪aɲuŋɡaʲ amdí
Krongo t-yuŋwa t-yáaryà t-yóotòonò t-yóocìisò àrwá-tì-nìisò (litː 'hit/beat-SGT-hand') àttì kí-tì nyúŋwá àttì kí-tì nyáaryà àttì kí-tì nyóotòonò àttì kí-tì nyóocìisò àttì kí-tì n-árwá-tì-nìiso
Tulishi (Kamda dialect) kɔ̀ʈːɔ̀k kɑ̀ːrɑ́ʔ tɔ́ːnɑ̀ʔ tíːsòʔ tʊ̀mːʊ̀ʔ rɔ̀sːɑ̀ʔ kɔ́rɖɑ́ʈːɑ̀ʔ ɑ̀ʈːɑ́ʔ kɔ́rómɑ́dɔ̀ɓːɑ́ tɔ̀ɓːɑ́ʔ

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Blench, Roger. 2006. The Kadu Languages and Their Affiliation: between Nilo-Saharan, Niger-Congo and Afro-Asiatic. Insights into Nilo-Saharan Language, History, and Culture. Al-Amin Abu-Manga, L. Gilley & A. Storch eds. 101-127. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe.
  • Blench, Roger (2019). "Shabo and Kadu: Two Orphan Branches of Nilo-Saharan". 14th Nilo-Saharan Linguistics Colloquium, Department of African Studies, University of Vienna.
  • Stevenson, Roland; Roger Blench (ed). Comparative Kadu Datasheets.
  • Reh, Mechthild. 1983. Die Krongo-Sprache (nììnò mó-dì): Beschreibung, Texte, Wörterverzeichnis. (Kölner Beiträge zur Afrikanistik, 12.) Berlin: Dietrich Reimer.
  • Schadeberg, Thilo. 1994. Comparative Kadu Wordlists. Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere 40:11-48. University of Cologne.

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kadugli–Krongo". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Gerrit Dimmendaal, 2008. "Language Ecology and Linguistic Diversity on the African Continent", Language and Linguistics Compass 2/5:843ff.
  3. ^ Blench, Roger. 2006. The Kadu languages and their affiliation: between Nilo-Saharan, Niger-Congo and Afro-Asiatic. Insights into Nilo-Saharan Language, History and Culture. Al-Amin Abu-Manga, L. Gilley & A. Storch eds. 101-127. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe.
  4. ^ Blench, Roger. 2109. Chabu and Kadu: two orphan branches of Nilo-Saharan. Proceedings of the 14th Nilo-Saharan Linguistics Colloquium, Department of African Studies, University of Vienna.
  5. ^ Blench, Roger. 2019. Shabo and Kadu: Two Orphan Branches of Nilo-Saharan. 14th Nilo-Saharan Linguistics Colloquium, Department of African Studies, University of Vienna.
  6. ^ Güldemann, Tom (2018). "Historical linguistics and genealogical language classification in Africa". In Güldemann, Tom (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of Africa. The World of Linguistics series. 11. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 58–444. doi:10.1515/9783110421668-002. ISBN 978-3-11-042606-9.
  7. ^ Hall, Marian and Hall, Edward. 2004. Kadugli-Krongo. Occasional Papers in the Study of Sudanese Languages 9. 57-68. Entebbe: Summer Institute of Linguistics Sudan.
  8. ^ Schadeberg, Thilo C. 1987. Kordofanian. In The Niger-Congo languages, ed. by John Bendor-Samuel, pp. 66-80. Lanham: University Press of America.
  9. ^ Blench, Roger. 2006. The Kadu Languages and Their Affiliation: between Nilo-Saharan, Niger-Congo and Afro-Asiatic. Insights into Nilo-Saharan Language, History, and Culture. Al-Amin Abu-Manga, L. Gilley & A. Storch eds. 101-127. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe.
  10. ^ Schadeberg, Thilo. 1994. Comparative Kadu Wordlists. Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere 40:11-48. University of Cologne.
  11. ^ Chan, Eugene (2019). "The Nilo-Saharan Language Phylum". Numeral Systems of the World's Languages.
  • Dafalla, Rihab Yahia. 2000. A Phonological Comparison of the Katcha Kadugli Language Groups in the Nuba Mountains. M.A. Dissertation, University of Khartoum.
  • Schadeberg, Thilo C. 1981. "The Classification of the Kadugli Language Group". Nilo-Saharan, ed. by T. C. Schadeberg and M. Lionel Bender, pp. 291–305. Dordrecht: Foris Publications.